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latin accidence which he published for the use of children; and he now, in 1672, supplied the young, but more advanced student with a scheme of logic, digested on the plan of Ramus, or, in its latin title, “ Artis logicæ plenior institutio ad Petri Rami methodum concinnata."
In this book, it has been suggested as doubtful whether he did not intend an act of hostility against the Universities : for Ramus was one of the first oppugners of the old philosophy, who disturbed with innovations the quiet of the schools.” It is probable, indeed, that, as he advanced in life, Milton did not contract more fondness, than he had formerly entertained for the modes of education adopted by these venerable guardians of literature: but the eye which can assume to trace this hostility in the work now before us must be, at least, as presumptuous, as it is malignant.
Without any reference to the rebellion of his philosophy, there was much in the history of Ramus to conciliate the affection of Milton. De la Ramee, or Ramus, had emerged from a low station of life, for his father was a peasant, by the force of intellectual industry and the powerful efficiency
memorable mas eve of St. Barth for its learned 1 situde of its forth therefore, in the
ran be suppose
to select him i of literature, th perseverance, man may fairly
of the partialit lute, or, as som position to sys boariness of tin
The ardour not extinguishi 1673 by publis
Johnson's Life of Milton.
of character. By the publication of some attacks on the inviolable supremacy of Aristotle, he threw the university of Paris into disorder, and exposed himself, as a kind of confessor in the cause of philosophic freedom, to the persecuting enmity of the old zealots of the school. The consequences of their intolerance compelled him to take refuge among the Huguenots; and he closed, in the memorable massacre at Paris on the fatal eve of St. Bartholomew, a life as remarkable for its learned labour as it was for the vicissitude of its fortunes. If any circumstances, therefore, in the personal history of Ramus can be supposed to have influenced Milton to select him for a guide in any province of literature, the probity, the fortitude, the perseverance, and the misfortunes of the man may fairly be admitted as the causes of the partiality, in preference to his resolute, or, as some may style it, his factious
opposition to systems made venerable by the hoariness of time.
The ardour of composition in Milton was not extinguished by the damp of age. In 1673 by publishing a short treatise entitled, "Oftrue Religion, Heresy, Schism, Toleration,
Institutiones dialecticæ, - Aristotelicæ animadversiones.
, and perve
snsideration of all ble to provide fol : safety. As fol
&c.” he showed that the great interests of s patrimony, to man were uniformly the leading objects of any of his court his regard. In this piece he strongly incul- ice
, through the i cates the duty of mutual forbearance and of God, we have s union among
those Christians, of every deno-ke, hath not ceas mination, who appeal to the holy scriptures us and emissari for the rule of their faith; and he would ex-ing and parliamei clude from his scheme of ample toleration the church of Rome alone, whose idolatry people
. Whe was an offence to the Christian name, and sonable to tolera whose tenets were as incompatible with the igion toward th safety of any government as they were with the existence of any body of dissentient Christians. “ Let us now enquire,” he says,
o whether popery be tolerable or no. Popery is a double thing to deal with, and claims a twofold power, ecclesiastical and political, both usurped, and the one supporting the other.
But ecclesiastical is ever pretended to political. The pope by this mixt faculty pretends right to kingdoms and states, and especially to this of England, thrones and unthrones kings, and absolves the people from their obedience to them; sometimes interdicts to whole nations the public worship of God, shutting up their churches; and was wont to drein away greatest part of the wealth of this then miserable land, as part of
teir religion, sup
it to be dangero - ither public o på their religion, can be tolerated pithout grievous ziren to all conso ately, without bared against al secret?
But even to
exercise any pers
punish them hi ments, or fines i
STUSE given to all conscientious beholders; not pristates 23" Vately, without great offence to God, deches: apunish them,” he asks,“ by corporal punish
les his patrimony, to maintain the pride and we kabineta luxury of his court and prelates; and now ise besig since, through the infinite mercy and favour Luteces of God, we have shaken off his Babylonish
hance yoke, hath not ceased by his spies and agents, kui te kalo bulls and emissaries, once to destroy both h, anker
. king and parliament; perpetually to seduce, p of ampie corrupt, and pervert as many as they can of Longe that the people. Whether therefore it be fit or (tralian ser reasonable to tolerate men, thus principled in
petki religion toward the state, I submit it to the as there consideration of all magistrates, who are best Iver of dis able to provide for their own and the pub
lic safety. As for tolerating the exercise of "te series their religion, supposing their state-activities a. Putetit not to be dangerous, I answer, that toleration and city is either public or private; and the exercise and policy
of their religion, as far as it is idolatrous, can be tolerated neither way: not publicly, without grievous and unsufferable scandal clared against all kind of idolatry, though secret."
But even towards Papists he would not exercise any personal severity. “ Are we to ments, or fines in their estates on account of their religion? I suppose it stands not with
than one spec
principally to are possessed
and included in it some small pieces, not Sobieski, to th
comprehended in the edition of 1645. On profess myself
former with i the clemency of the Gospel, more than what appertains to the security of the state.”
miliarium Lill The author's chief purpose in this public that of “ Prd cation was to check the growth of popery
, Collegio Chri at this juncture particularly and alarmingly which we haut rapid in consequence of the avowed patronage of the Duke of York and the secret countenance of the king. The danger, which, at this instant, awakened the fears of Milton,tain, as Morh became, not long afterwards, so palpable and striking as to excite the nation, united in one great effort for its safety, to depose the catholic bigot who occupied and abused the throne.
In the same year our author published a second edition of his youthful poems; in one volume with his “ Tractate on Education," this occasion, however, the sonnets to Fairfax, to Vane, and to Cromwell, with the second to Cyriac Skinner, were for some unex
racters of and and domestic be read and V cises are valua
of early powe
Thenextex was to translat the Poles, on
16 more certain year,
which was p
plained reason omitted, and were first given tight years pa
to the world, as we have before mentioned, by Philips in his life of his uncle.
In 1674, in which year he was destined to complete his laborious and honourable course, Milton published his familiar letters and some of his university exercises; the
i The latin dach short time before M resemblance to his stances induce me preceding biograp!