## Neutrons, X-rays and Light: Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed MatterScattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data. |

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Page 8

(10) j = \ k=\ For structural information we require the ensemble

indicated by (...), of this intensity (equivalent to a time

medium is ergodic): (Is(q)) = -^iTJ^bj(g)b*k(q)cxp[-iq . (Rj - Rk)]\. (11) V=l A=l ' By

writing the ...

(10) j = \ k=\ For structural information we require the ensemble

**average**,indicated by (...), of this intensity (equivalent to a time

**average**if the scatteringmedium is ergodic): (Is(q)) = -^iTJ^bj(g)b*k(q)cxp[-iq . (Rj - Rk)]\. (11) V=l A=l ' By

writing the ...

Page 57

When the particles are diffusing in time (brownian dynamics), the intensity is

changing for each configuration and the

. For an ergodic system, it is equal to the statistical

i(|/ ...

When the particles are diffusing in time (brownian dynamics), the intensity is

changing for each configuration and the

**average**in time is the measured quantity. For an ergodic system, it is equal to the statistical

**average**done below: ;(,)=(ra)=i(|/ ...

Page 332

Value of

since

Gaussian curvature is the product of the two principal curvatures. Fitting intensity

or ...

Value of

**average**curvature and Gaussian curvature are then easily calculatedsince

**average**curvature is the**average**of the principal curvatures and theGaussian curvature is the product of the two principal curvatures. Fitting intensity

or ...

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### Contents

Introduction to Scattering Experiments | 3 |

Experimental Aspects Initial Data Reduction | 23 |

General Theorems in SmallAngle Scattering | 49 |

Copyright | |

18 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

amplitude Appl approximation average beam bilayers calculated cell Chem coefficient colloidal concentration constant contrast variation correlation function Cryst crystals curvature cylinders dependence detector determined deuterated dilute distance distribution function droplets dynamic dynamic light scattering effects excluded volume expression film fluctuations form factor Fourier transform Gaussian given Glatter incoherent scattering instrument interactions lamellar length scales light scattering Lindner measured method micelles microemulsion microstructure molar mass molecular molecules monodisperse monomers multiple scattering neutron scattering obtained parameter particles PDDF peak Pedersen phase photons Phys plot polydisperse polymer polymer chain polystyrene Porod radiation radius of gyration random walk range refractive index regime sample SAXS scattered intensity scattering angle scattering curve scattering data scattering experiments scattering function scattering length scattering length density scattering vector Schurtenberger shear shown in Fig simulations single scattering small-angle scattering solution solvent spherical structure factor surfactant suspension technique temperature values volume fraction wavelength Zemb