## Neutrons, X-rays and Light: Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed MatterScattering experiments, using X-ray, light and neutron sources (in historical order) are key techniques for studying structure and dynamics in systems containing colliods, polymers, surfactants and biological macromolecules, summarized here as soft condensed matter. The education in this field in Europe is very heterogeneous and frequently inadequate, which severely limits an efficient use of these methods, especially at large-scale facilities. The series of "Bombannes" schools and the completely revised and updated second edition of the lecture notes are devoted to a practical approach to current methodology of static and dynamic techiques. Basic information on data interpretation, on the complementarity of the different types of radiation, as well as information on recent applications and developments is presented. The aim is to avoid over - as well as under-exploitation of data. |

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Results 1-3 of 74

Page 288

(Schwahn, 1991). For polymer solutions one generally distinguishes between

three characteristic concentration regimes:

solutions/melts. The transition from

-called overlap concentration c*. At this concentration the individual polymer coils

start to overlap. This is schematically shown in Fig. 22. In the remaining sections

we shall now see how we can treat these concentration regimes theoretically, Fig

.

(Schwahn, 1991). For polymer solutions one generally distinguishes between

three characteristic concentration regimes:

**Dilute**, semi-**dilute**and concentratedsolutions/melts. The transition from

**dilute**to semi-**dilute**solutions occurs at the so-called overlap concentration c*. At this concentration the individual polymer coils

start to overlap. This is schematically shown in Fig. 22. In the remaining sections

we shall now see how we can treat these concentration regimes theoretically, Fig

.

Page 427

4. Examples The investigation of polymer solutions and of lyotropic lamellar

phases in laminar (steady state) shear flow has been chosen here as two

examples for illustrating the various possibilities which are offered by the SANS

technique under non-equilibrium conditions and which are complementary to

macroscopic rheological measurements. 4.1. Sheared polymer solutions The

behaviour of

been extensively ...

4. Examples The investigation of polymer solutions and of lyotropic lamellar

phases in laminar (steady state) shear flow has been chosen here as two

examples for illustrating the various possibilities which are offered by the SANS

technique under non-equilibrium conditions and which are complementary to

macroscopic rheological measurements. 4.1. Sheared polymer solutions The

behaviour of

**dilute**and semi-**dilute**polymer solutions in the quiescent state hasbeen extensively ...

Page 432

Sheared semi-

experimental interest is scattering studies of polymers in sheared semi-

solution (Larson, 1992). It is intuitively clear that the situation is more complex

than for the case of

with increasing concentration the deformation of the polymer coils in flowing

solution is increasingly influenced by topological constraints, due to molecular

entanglements.

Sheared semi-

**dilute**polymer solutions A recent subject of theoretical andexperimental interest is scattering studies of polymers in sheared semi-

**dilute**solution (Larson, 1992). It is intuitively clear that the situation is more complex

than for the case of

**dilute**solutions, where single chain behaviour is observed:with increasing concentration the deformation of the polymer coils in flowing

solution is increasingly influenced by topological constraints, due to molecular

entanglements.

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### Contents

Introduction to Scattering Experiments | 3 |

Experimental Aspects Initial Data Reduction | 23 |

General Theorems in SmallAngle Scattering | 49 |

Copyright | |

18 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

amplitude Appl approximation average beam bilayers calculated cell Chem coefficient colloidal concentration constant contrast variation correlation function Cryst crystals curvature cylinders dependence detector determined deuterated dilute distance distribution function droplets dynamic dynamic light scattering effects excluded volume expression film fluctuations form factor Fourier transform Gaussian given Glatter incoherent scattering instrument interactions lamellar length scales light scattering Lindner measured method micelles microemulsion microstructure molar mass molecular molecules monodisperse monomers multiple scattering neutron scattering obtained parameter particles PDDF peak Pedersen phase photons Phys plot polydisperse polymer polymer chain polystyrene Porod radiation radius of gyration random walk range refractive index regime sample SAXS scattered intensity scattering angle scattering curve scattering data scattering experiments scattering function scattering length scattering length density scattering vector Schurtenberger shear shown in Fig simulations single scattering small-angle scattering solution solvent spherical structure factor surfactant suspension technique temperature values volume fraction wavelength Zemb