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AN ELEMENTARY SOLUBLE SYSTEM
THE FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTION
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absolute zero approximation average number Boltzmann Boltzmann factor bosons calculated Carnot cycle chemical potential classical regime combined system concentration constant entropy Debye defined definition denote derivative diffusive contact distribution function electron energy levels ensemble equal equation equilibrium ergs example expansion experimental Fermi energy Fermi gas Fermi-Dirac fermions Figure fluctuations flux fractional free energy free particle frequency gases Gibbs factor given grand sum ground orbital harmonic oscillator heat capacity ideal gas law ideal monatomic gas increase integral interactions isothermal lattice liquid He4 low temperatures magnetic field Maxwell relation mole molecule negative temperature number of atoms number of orbitals number of particles obtain occupied orbital partition function perature photons Planck potential energy pressure probable configuration Problem properties quantity quantum number relation reservoir result Sackur-Tetrode equation Show solid spin excess superfluid system in thermal term thermal average thermal contact total number unit velocity versus wavefunction white dwarf