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1. Thorough and searching reviews of the common branches, and those usually taught in our High Schools and Academies; with diagrams, illustrations and criticisms, embracing subjects rather than textbooks.
2. Reading and study of standard works on Theory and Practice of Teaching, and discussions upon their merits and demerits.
3. Daily lectures upon Theory and Practice, based upon the principles of mental science, in which the laws of intellectual and moral growth will be discussed. The best methods of teaching and school government, as founded upon these laws, will be made special topics of investigation.
4. Experiment and practice in the Model School, in which each pupil will be expected to spend a limited portion of his time, each day, for the purpose not only of witnessing the exercises, but of testing the various theories, and of acquiring that actual experince and skill which render the “ teaching art” a peculiar profession.
Such, in brief, is the teacher's course. The Academic does not differ materially from that pursued in most other institutions of similar grade, save that it is more thorough — having strict reference to the profession of Teaching. Such, indeed, experience has demonstrated to be the true theory of Normal Schools. If they have failed hitherto, in some degree, to meet the wants of the profession, we must look for the cause of such failure, not in the mistaken notion that the profession necds no such schools, but in the manner in which they have been conducted.
But the time has come when this question needs no argument. The proposition is almost self-evident to any one who will reflect for a moment. The great interests of the profession in the State of Obio, as in other States, have demanded Normal Schools. An enlightened public sentiment has decided this question ; and the teachers, in their zeal and enterprise, have said, “We shall have Normal Schools."
The next session (of 12 weeks) of the McNeely Normal School of Ohio will commence April 13th, and close June 26th, 1857.
The price of tuition, as fixed by the Board of Trustees at their annual meeting, is $26 per annum, both in the Normal and Academic Departments.
Thc 2011 Annual Report of Board of Education, for Massachusetts has been issued. The number of children in Massachusetts between 5 and 15 years of ago is 292,833 ; mcan average attendance, 157,000; ratio of attendance to the whole number, 70 per cent.
INTEMPERANCE, PROFANITY, TOBACCO.
At a meeting of the Ohio State Teachers' Association, held at Columbas, Deo. 27th, 1856, a Committee, consisting of the Hon. llorace Mann, II. H. Barney, Esq., Prof. Marsh, Prof. Young and G. E. Howe, E:q, was appointed to recom. mend some action respecting the use of intoxicating liquors, profane swearing and tobacco, in thc Schools and Colleges of the State. The Committee afterwards submitted the following
R E PORT AND RESOLUTIONS: Within the crowded hours of the Association, it is impossible for your committee to make an extended Report. Nor is it necessary for them to do so. On the first point, particularly,—that of using intoxicating liquors,—what occasion bave thev to dwell? It is not any far-off calamity, -removed to the other side of the globe or hidden in the recesses of antiquity,-escaping assault and overtasking description ; but it is among us and of us, a present, embodied, demo. niac reality, smiting as no pestilence ever smote and torturing as fire cannot torture, destroying alike both body and soul. It invades all ranks and conditions of men, and its retinue consists of every form of human misery. In all the land, there is scarcely a family, there is not one social circle, from which it has not snatched a victim; alas, from many, how many! No other vice marshals and heralds such bosts to perdition. It besieges and makes captive the representatives of the people in legislative halls, and there gets its plans organized into law, where, first and chiefest, they should be annihilated; it usurps the bench, and there, under the guise of the sacred ermine, it suborns the judiciary to deny the eternal maxims and verities of jurisprudence and ethics, and to hold those prohibitions to be unconstitutional and invasive of natural rights, which only conflict with their own artificial constitution and acquired daily habits; and it ascends the sacred altar, and when the ambassador of God should speak like one of the prophets of old or like an inspired apostlé, against drunkenness and drunkards, it lays the finger of one hand upon his lips, with the other it points to some wealthy, somnolent inebriate below, and the ambassador forgeis his embassy and is silent. No other vice known upon earth has such potency to turn heavenly blessings into hellish ruins. It is no extravagance to say that the sum-total of prudence, of wisdom, of comfort, of exemplary conduct and of virtue, would have been, to day, seven fold what they are, throughout the world, but for the existence of intoxicating beverages among men; and that the sumtotal of poverty, of wretchedness, of crime and of sorrow, would not be one tenth part, to-day, what they now are, but for the same prolific, ever flowing, overflowing fountain of evil. Youth, health, strength, beauty, talent, genius and all the susceptibilities of virtue in the human heart, alike perish before it. Its history is a vast record, which, like the roll seen in the vision of the prophet, is written within and without, full of lamentation and mourning and woe.
No one can deny that Intemperance carries ruin every where. It reduces the fertile farm to barrenness. It suspends industry in the shop of the mechanic. It banishes skill from the cunning hand of the artisan and artist. It dashes to pieces the locomotive of the engineer. It sinks the ship of the mariner. It spreads sudden night over the solar splendors of genius, at its full-orbed, meridian glory. But nowhere is it so ruinous, so direful, so eliminating and expulsive of all good, so expletive and redundant of all evil, as in the school and the college, as upon the person and character of the student himself. Creator of Evil, Destroyer of Good! Among youth, it invests its votaries with the fulness of both prerogatives, and sends them out on the career of life, to suffer where they should have rejoiced; to curse where they should have blessed.
Nor do the Committee feel called upon to make any extended remarks upon the vice of using profane language. It is an offence emphatically without temp. tation and without reward. It helps not to feed a man, nor to clothe him, nor to shelter him. It is not wit, it is not music, it is not eloquence, it is not poetry ; but of each of these, it is the opposite. Let a man swear ever so laboriously all his life; will it add a feather to the softness of his dying bed; will it give one solace to the recollections of his dying hour? No! but even the most reckless man will acknowledge, that it will add bitterness and anguish unspeakable. Were profanity as poisonous to the tongue as it is to the soul, did it blacken and deform the lips as it does the character, what a ghastly spectacle would a profane man exbibit! Yet to the eye of purity and innocence, to the moral vision of every sensible and right-minded man, lips, tongue and heart of every profane swearer do look ghastly and deformed as disease and impiety can make them. How must they look to the Infinite Purity of God!
What an ungrateful, unmanly and ignoble requital do we make to God, who gave us these marvellous powers of speech wherewith to honor and adore, when we pervert the self-same powers to dishonor and blaspheme the name of the Giver! Perhaps the most beautiful and effective compliment any where to be found in the whole circle of ancient or modern literature, is that which was paid by Cicero to the poet Archias, in the exordium of the celebrated defence which he made on the trial of that client. In brief paraphrase, as cited from recollee tion, it was something like this: If, says he, there is in me any talent; if I have any faculty or power of eloquence; if I have made aught of proficiency in those liberal and scholarly studies which at all times of my life have been so grateful to me, this Archias, my client, has a right to the command of them all; for he it was who taught them to me; he first inspired me with the ambition of being an advocate, and he imbued me with whatever gifts of oratory I may possess. It is his right, then, to command the tribute of my services.
If the great Cicero, standing in the presence of all the dignitaries of Rome, felt bound to acknowledge his obligations to the man who had instructed his youth and helped to adorn the riper periods of his life, only in a single department, how much more imperative the obligation upon every ingenuous and noble soul to praise and honor that Great Being who has endowed us with all we possess, and made possible whatever we can rightfully hope for.
There are certain situations where none but the lowest and most scandalous of men ever suffer themselves to swear. Amongst all people claiming any sem. blance to decent behavior, the presence of ladies or the presence of clergymen bans profanity. How distorted and abnormal is that state of mind, in which the presence of man can suppress a criminal oath, but not the omnipresence of God! A Christian should be afraid to swear; a gentleman should be ashamed to. Every pupil, as he approaches the captivating confines of manhood, should pro. pose to himself as a distinct object to be a gentleman, as much as to be a learned man; otherwise he is unworthy the sacred prerogatives of learning.
Your Committee have but brief space and time for the consideration of the remaining topic.
Among the reasons against the use of tobacco, they submit the following:
1. Tobacco is highly injurious to health, being pronounced by all physiologista and toxicologists to be among the most active and virulent of vegetable poisons. That consumers of tobacco sometimes live many years does not disprove the strength of its poison, but only proves the strength of the constitution that resists it; and that strength, instead of being wasted in resisting the poison, might be expended in making the life of its possessor longer and more useful.
2. It is very expensive. The average cost of supplying a tobacco user for life would be sufficient to purchase a good farm, or to build a beautiful and commodious house, or to buy a fine library of books. Which course of life best comports with the digpity of a rational being; to puff and spit this value away, or to change it into garden and cultivated fields; into a nice dwelling, or into the embalmed and glorified forms of genius? What a difference it would make to the United States and to the world, if the Four Hundred Thousand acres, now planted with tobacco within their limits, were planted to corn or wheat.
3. Tobacco users bequeath weakened brains, irritable nerves and other forms of physical degeneracy to their children. The factitious pleasures of the parent inflict real pains upon his offspring. The indulgences of the one must be atoned for by the sufferings of the other; the innocent expiating the offences of the guilty. Nor, in regard to these personal and hereditary injuries to the mind, would the Committee stand merely upon the principle laid down by the Physician, who, when asked if tobacco injured the brain, replied promptly in the negative; for, said he, people who have brains never touch it.
4. Tobacco users are always filthy, and we read of an infinitely desirable kingdom into which no unclean thing can ever enter.
5. Tobacco users are always unjust towards others. They pollute the atmosphere which other men desire to breathe and have a right to breathe in its purity. A smoker or chewer may have a right to a limited circle of the atmosphere around his own person, but he has no right to stench the air for a rod around him and half a mile behind him. He has no right to attempt a geographical reproduction of river and lake by the artificial pools and streams he makes in steamboat and car.
6. A tobacco user is the common enemy of decency and good taste. His mouth and teeth which should be the cleanest, he makes the foulest part of him. When one sees a plug of nasty, coarse, liver-colored tobacco, he pities the mouth it is destined to enter; but when one sees the mouth he pities the tobacco.
7. The old monks used to prove the pollutions of tobacco from Scripture; for, said they, it is that which cometh out of the mouth that defileth a man.
8. It has been argued that the adaptation of means to ends which character, izes all the works of creation, intimates that snuff should never be taken; for had such been the design of nature, the nose would have been turned the other
9. It may be fairly claimed that if nature had ever designed that man should chew or smoke or snuff, she would have provided some place where the disgusting process could be performed systematically, and with appropriate accompan. iments; but no such place or accompaniments have ever yet been discovered. Tobacco is unfit for the parlor; for that is the resort of ladies, and should therefore be free from inspissated saliva and putrified odors. It is not befitting the dining-room, where its effluvia may be absorbed or its excretions be mingled with viand and beverage. Still less does it befit the kitchen, where those culinary processes are performed which give savor and flavor to all the preparations that grace the generous board. It should not be carried into the stable, for that is the residence of neat cattle. And the occupants of the sty itself would indignantly quit their premises, should one more lost to decency than themselves, come to befume or bespatter or besnuff them. There is no spot or place among
animals or men which the common uses of tobacco would not sink to a lower defædation.
10. Swiftly tending to destruction as is the use of intoxicating beverages ; valgar, ungentlemanly and sinful as are all the varieties of profanity; unjust and unclean as are the effusions and exhalations of tobacco, yet their separate and distinctive evils are aggravated ten fold when combined and coöperating. How abliorrent to the senses and the heart of a pure and upright man, is the wretch who abandons himself to them all. Physiology teaches us that as soon as alcohol is taken into the stomach, nature plies all her enginery to expel the invader of her peace. She does not wait to digest it and pass it away, as is done with the other contents of the stomach; but she opens all her doors and summons all her forces to banish it from the realm. She expels it through the lungs, through the mouth and nose, through the eyes even, and through the seven million pores of the skin. So let tobacco be taken into the mouth or drawn up, water-spout fashion, into the nose, and firemen never worked more vehemently at a fire, nor soldiers fought more desperately in a battle, than every muscle and membrane, every gland and emunctory, now struggles to wash away the impurity. Every organ, maxillary, lingual, labial, nasal, even the lachrymal, pour out their detergent fluids to sweep the nuisance away. Not a fibre or cellule, not a pore or sluiceway, but battles as for life to extrude the foul and fetid intruder. Hence expectoration, salivation, the anile tears of the drunkard and the idiot drool of the tobacco user,-all attest the desperation of the efforts which nature is making to defecate herself of the impurity. When people first begin to drink or chew or smoke, outraged nature, as we all know, often goes into spasms and convulsions through the vehemence of her conflict for escape. Finally, she succumbs, and all that constitutes the life of a man dies before death.
The Apostle enjoins his disciples to keep their bodies pure as a Temple of the Holy Ghost. But in such a body, what spot is there, what spaco so large as a mathematical point, which the Holy Ghost, descending from the purity and sanctity of heaven, could abide in for a moment! Surely, when a man reaches the natural consummation to which these habits legitimately tend, when his whole commerce with the world consists in his pouring alcohol in and pouring the impieties of profanity and the vilenesses of tobacco out,-gurgitation and regurgitation, the systole and diastole of his being, -he presents a spectacle not to be paralleled in the Brute's kingdom or in thc Devil's kingdom ; on the earth or elsewhere."
Your committee submit the following Resolutions :
Resolved, That school examiners ought never, under any circumstances, to give a certificate of qualification to teach school to any person who habitually uscs any kind of intoxicating liquors; and that school officers, when other things are equal, should systematically give the preference to the total abstinent candidate.
Resolved, That all school teachers should use their utmost influence to sappress the kindred ungentlemanly and foul-mouthed vices of uttering profano language and using tobacco.
On behalf of the Committee,