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licenses to pedlers, and repealing former laws.” Clerks of Common Pleas to grant licenses, at stipulated rates, and amount to be paid to County Treasurer.
Fines collected by Justices of the Peace. Swan's Statutes, (page 197.) “An Act to provide for the creation and regulation
of incorporated companies in the State of Ohio.” This requires all passenger trains on Railroads to stop at all stations
à certain time, under a penalty of from $20 to $100. (page 302.) “An Act for the prevention of certain immoral
practices. Sabbath breaking, selling liquor on Sunday, disturbing religious meetings. profane swearing; exciting disturbance at public meetings, and of citizens, playing billiards, running horses, shooting in a town, etc., permitting ten-pin alley, exhibiting puppet show, wire dancing, juggling, defacing advertisements, bull or bear baiting, cock.fighting, etc. All fines recovered, to be paid to Township Treasurer for
Schools, within twenty days. (page 301 ) "An Act to amend an Act entitled an Act for the
punishment of certain offenses therein named.” Selling liq. uor to Indians, harboring intoxicated Indians; penalty from
$5 to $100, to be paid to Township Treasurer. (page 305 ) “An Act to prevent the introduction and spreading
of the Canada thistle.” Suffering thistle to grow, vending
seed, etc. (page 305.) "An Act to prevent the firing of cannon upon the
public streets or highways.” (page 306.) “An Act to amend the Act entitled an Act for the
prevention of certain immoral practices.” Selling liquor
within two miles of religious meetings. (page 429.) An Act to regulate inclosures, and to provide
against trespassing animals." (page 436.) “An Act to protect the fur trade.” (page 495.) “An Act to regulate the election, contest of election,
and the resignation of Justices of the Peace.” Any officer neglecting or refusing to perform any duty required by this
act is liable to a fine of from $5 to $50. (page 598.) “An Act regulating the hours of manual labor."
Labor not to exceed ten hours per day, etc. (page 598.) “An Act to amend an Act entitled an Act granting
licenses to pedlers, and repealing former laws. Penalty for
peddling without license, and for refusing to show license, $50. All fines collected by Justices of the Peace to be paid into the Township Treas. ury, for the use of the Common Schools, and the receipt for the same to be filed with the County Auditor, at the same time their annual report is submitted, of fines that have been assessed by them.- See page 542 Swan's Statutes.
THE STATE SCHOOL TAX.
There is a reasonable sum to be levied on the property of the State, and there is an unreasonable sum. Education is a matter of the grcatest public moment, but it would not be desirable, it is not just, unduly to tax any person. There are persons in the State who complain most unreasonably at any tax on the grand duplicate for school purposes. Some are fretful and churlish, and are satisfied with complaining; they pay the tax unwillingly, and say so ; but other some-men perhaps with no children in the schools, and possess. ed of large tracts of landed property or numerous city lots and dwellings, are untiring in direct opposition to the fundamental principle on which the Ohio system of Common Schools is based, the modern educational doctrine, that the property of the State ought to educate the youth of the State." A few such enterprising citizens in that direction, are constantly active, by petition or otherwise, to undo what has been done, unloose what has united Ohio in a bond of union for educational purposes-they are aiming blows at weak points of the law as points to make an entrance by which wider breaches may be made in this wall of our popular defense.
Now, if, as a business expenditure, our school money is not economically applied, if untrustworthy agents squander or foolishly invest these sacred funds, the usual condemnation, or a greater punishment, should be visited upon them. But the people of Ohio are in earnest to provide competent schoolhouses and the best of Teachers to educate, as near as may be, all the children within its borders.
This must, approximately, be done. To come short of educating as ncar as may be properly, is to entail on the tax payer a heavier burden in the way of expenditures for the ten thousand items of courls, fees, jails, penitenciaries, hospitals, etc., the expenditures of which are reduced in no surer or more specdy way than by the spread of education. Education of the intellect does not alone prevent crime, but an educated person is better fitted to be operated on by moral or religious influence than an ignorant person.
As a matter of economy, on the score of expense, tax payers would be minus less of money directly at the tax treasurer's office, if education was universal; but indirectly their possessions become of more value: property is enhanced where labor is educated, and the possessor is more secure of his property, when virtuous principles operate upon all classes of the society where the land holder has his title deeds recorded.
But before the tax payer becomes a public grumbler, it should be a source of reflection with him, rather as a soothing balm to his over-charged bosom and apparently over-charged pocket, whether he really pays the tax.
He stands on record at the auditor's office as the one person paying these taxes, but, if be has his property well invested, the tenants of his land, working on his farm, and the mechanic at his shop, tenant of the dwelling owned by him, really pay the tax.
It is evident that it is not wealth to own land, except so far as it can be cultivated. The site of Cincinnati was obtained for a sum not exceeding fitty cents an acre, but Jolin Cleves Symmes, the original proprietor of all the lands between the two Miamis, could only become rich from the partial possession of his acres. Its untold riches have been created by the combined exertions of the farmer, mechanic, manufacturer, merchant, school master, preachers and their associate laborers in the duties of making more apt and useful the energies of
Longworth of Cincinnati, having large tracts of land in Mill Creek bottom lying unimproved, soon finds that the “hive" of Cincinnati is becoming too small for the industrious bees, and that a portion must swarm, submits willingly to take as his share, both wax left and honey taken, as alternate lot after lot, in wonderful increase of value, is deeded to the industrious, enterprising mechanic, who is induced to remain in the corporation with a large family of children, eating quite as much as the tenant of the square between Third and Fifth Sts., east of Pike St., because of the very superior schools that have been kept up in the city by liberal taxation. Thousands of trained, practiced mechanics have stack to the high-priced premises of the Queen City, economized to pay heavy prices for marketing, we know, to continue at the noble Common, Intermediate and High Schools of Cincinnati their cherished children, the pride of their eyes and the God-gifted inheritors of their talents.
We have named Mr. Longworth-he is a rich man, not so much merely in his rent rolls and millions of money, but in his rare endowment of mind, which fits him to do, in his way, more for the improvement of the age than thousands of wealthy men. He is not cited as one of the grumblers. He pays more taxes for schools than any man in the State, but he don't see the school tax at the narrow focus many other rich men see it. He has the practical sagacity to see, if it is money to him to improve a grape vine or a strawberry plant, it pays him well to have school houses and Teachers-houses that are good and Teachers that are the best.
The infatuating fear of over taxes for well managed schools is unaccountable, only on the ground of a confident reliance of having the best that can be secured, or on the acknowledgment that we have lost faith in the sentiment, that the dol. lar spent for a true education, saves five in preventing the mischiefs of ignorance and consequent crime. Grumble not at necessary expenditures of the tax paid for schools.
DISCIPLINE - REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS.
Dr. Drake, the eminent medical educator of Cincinnati, who had a great heart and hope in the welfare of children, reduced his views on discipline to a few heads, having reference to Rewards and Punishments.
First - Children, like grown persons, act from motives; and when they transgress they have an object in view, which at the moment is dear to them. They should then be carefully instructed in their duties, and have the reason for the laws by which you govern them, as fully explained as possible.
Second — As there is among them a great variety in bodily and mental temperament, the character of cach should be studied, and the appropriate means of rewarding and punishing, selected accordingly.
Third - Children as well as adults, have their period of undefinable indisposition, and consequent irritability of the nervous system and feelings, when of course they are froward, feverish and disobedient. Those who govern them should look into this matter; and in meting out their punishments, have respect
to its influence, or, while the disease, not known perhaps by the child, sball continue, omit them altogether.
Fourth - The excitation of fear is a legitimate means of correction, for all correction operates indeed by exciting it, but children should not be frightened by threatenings of goblins or supernatural appearances, for an association of ideas may make them superstitious and timid throughout life.
Fifth - Both rewards and punishments should be proportioned to offenscs. Those which are promised and deferred should never be forgotton, and those which are inflicted as soon as the offense is committed, should not be greater than if the parent or Teacher had no excitement of feeling.
It is best to punish and reward on the spot, that both may become associated with the occasion in the memory of the child; but he who can not apportion them in the right degree while his passions are up, should wait for them to become tranquil.
His manifestation of anger is not objectionable, for children have the laws which are to govern them so much identified with the will of the governor, as to think it a matter of course that he should feel indignant or angry; and if punished, when he is in that state of feeling, they are less likely to be resentful or regard him as cruel, than if it be done in cooler moments.
Sixth — It has been said of rewards and punishments, that they do not change or purify our motives, but leave the desire to do wrong uncorrected, wbile they deter us from the act. The Bible says, however, “Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it;” if we habitually make our actions right, our motives will gradually improve.
It is, then, of great importance to compel children into regular conduct; for if their bad desires are not gratified, they are starved out and at length cease to grow, while the good motives from being exercised on their proper objects are established in power; in which respect the mind and body are under the same laws of habit.
PIONEER SCHOOLS IN WASHINGTON CO., OHIO.
No people ever paid more attention to the education of their children, than the descendants of the Puritans. Dr. Hildreth of Marictta, who has donc so much to put on record the valuable history of the first settlement of Ohio, at the mouth of the Muskingum river and vicinity, gives it as his opinion that the first female who kept a school within the present limits of Ohio, was BATHSHEBA Rouse, daughter of John Rouse of New Bedford, Mass., who taught the young children, of perhaps the most prominent and influential families ever collected in one settlement, in the summer of 1789 at Belpre, and in 1791 and 2 in Farmers' Castle, the noted spot on the Ohio River, below Marietta and near Blannerhas. set's Island, afterwards rendered so famous. During the winter months, a male Teacher was employed, for the large boys and young women. Daniel Mayo was the first Teacher in Farmers' Castle. He came from Boston: a young man in the family of Col. Ebenezer Battelle, in the fall of 1788, and was a graduate of Cam. bridge University.
The school was kept in a large room of the block-house. Mr. Mayo was a Teacher for several winters, and during the summer worked at clearing and cultivating his land. He married a daughter of Col. Israel Putnam, and after the war settled in Newport, Kentucky, where his descendants now live.
He was Postmaster at Cincinnati at an early day, when that now great city was a village. The Post Office was kept in a log house on East Front St., on the bank at the foot of Lawrence St.
Jonathan Baldwin, an educated man from New England, who afterwards settled at Waterford, taught school in block-house No. 3, part of the time of the confinement of the settlers in Farmer's Castle, in 1791-2.
These schools had no public funds as at this day to aid them, but were sapported from tlie hard earnings of the honest pioneer.
In the winter of 1789, at Marietta, Major Anselm Tupper kept school in" Cam. pus Martius,” in the north-west block-house, where also taught Dr. Jabez True and Benjamin Slocum, a well educated man of Quaker parentage.
Here also taught a Mr. Baldwin, while a Mr. Curtis, when fear of Indians bad subsided, taught the rudiments to his class in a cooper shop. The 7th of April 1788, when the first settlement was made at Marietta, will be celebrated for generations in the State of Ohio, as an anniversary of the tirst settlement of this Buckeye State. The Cincinnati Pioneer Association, composed of those resident in Hamilton Co. and State of Ohio, previous to the 4th of July, 18:2, design cele. brating this day, 118.57,) by public ceremonies. Hon. E. D. Mantield delivers an address, and the old-time citizens, male and female, unite in a festival.
TARDINESS AND ABSENTEEISM.
The Superintendent of the Cincinnati Common Schools, communicates to the School Board of that city, the following statistics of the schools for the month ending, January 2, 1857. The number belonging at that date
.10,412 Average number belonging during the month.
.10,593 Average daily attendance....
8.512 Average daily absence.....
2,053 The Board thereupon referred this important suliject of absentceism to a spe. cial committee, of which the President, Mr. King, was constituted chairman, who reported the following stringent rules :
“At the close of the school, morning and afternoon, erery day, it shall be the duty of cach Teacher to notify the parent or guardian of every pupil, without crception, who wils absent or tardy in attendance. The first and second notice may be by the printed form, to be supplied by tlıc Superintendent, and may be sent by a pupil, but the third shall be served by the Teacher personally. Each notice shall be noted opposite the pupil's name in the register by the letter N, in the proper column of the day.
“Upon the return of a pupil after any absence, the parent or guardian shall give in person or in writing, an excuse, stating the cause. If it shall have been the sickness of the pupil or necessary attendance upon a sick member of the family or death in the family of the pupil, in either of such cases, the absence shall be excused, and so noted by the letter E, after the sign of notification, made as above.