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farmer, mechanic, manufacturer, merchant, school master, preachers and their associate laborers in the duties of making more apt and useful the energies of
Longworth of Cincinnati, having large tracts of land in Mill Creek bottom lying unimproved, soon finds that the “hive" of Cincinnati is becoming too small for the industrious bees, and that a portion must swarm, submits willingly to take as his share, both wax left and honey taken, as alternate lot after lot, in wonderful increase of value, is deeded to the industrious, enterprising mechanic, who is induced to remain in the corporation with a large family of children, eating quite as much as the tenant of the square between Third and Fifth Sts., east of Pike St., because of the very superior schools that have been kept up in the city by liberal taxation. Thousands of trained, practiced mechanics have stack to the high-priced premises of the Queen City, economized to pay heavy prices for marketing, we know, to continue at the noble Common, Intermediate and High Schools of Cincinnati their cherished children, the pride of their eyes and the God-gifted inheritors of their talents.
We have named Mr. Longworth—he is a rich man, not so much merely in his rent rolls and millions of money, but in his rare endowment of mind, which fits him to do, in his way, more for the improvement of the age than thousands of wealthy men. He is not cited as one of the grumblers. He pays more taxes for schools than any man in the State, but he don't see the school tax at the narrow focus many other rich men see it. He has the practical sagacity to see, if it is money to him to improve a grape vine or a strawberry plant, it pays him well to have school houses and Teachers-houses that are good and Teachers that are the best.
The infatuating fear of over taxes for well managed schools is unaccountable, only on the ground of a confident reliance of having the best that can be secured, or on the ack nowledgment that we have lost faith in the sentiment, that the dol. lar spent for a true education, saves five in preventing the mischiefs of ignorance and consequent crime. Grumble not at necessary expenditures of the tax paid for schools.
DISCIPLINE-REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS.
Dr. Drake, the eminent medical educator of Cincinnati, who had a great heart and hope in the welfare of children, reduced his views on discipline to a few heads, having reference to Rewards and Punishments.
First - Children, like grown persons, act from motives; and when thcy tranggress they have an object in view, which at the moment is dear to them. They should then be carefully instructed in their duties, and have the reason for the laws by which you govern them, as fully explained as possible.
Second — As there is among them a great variety in bodily and mental temperament, the character of each should be studied, and the appropriate means of rewarding and punishing, selected accordingly.
Third - Children as well as adults, have their period of undefinable indisposition, and consequent irritability of the nervous system and feelings, when of course they are froward, feverish and disobedient. Those who govern them should look into this matter; and in meting out their punishments, have respect
to its influence, or, while the disease, not known perhaps by the child, shall continue, omit them altogether.
Fourth - The excitation of fear is a legitimate means of correction, for all correction operates indeed by exciting it, but children should not be frightened by threatenings of goblins or supernatural appearances, for an association of ideas may make them superstitious and timid throughout life.
Fifth - Both rewards and punishments should be proportioned to offenscs. Those which are promised and deferred should never be forgotton, and those which are inflicted as soon as the offense is committed, should not be greater than if the parent or Teacher had no excitement of feeling.
It is best to punish and reward on the spot, that both may become associated with the occasion in the memory of the child; but he who can not apportion them in the right degree while his passions are up, should wait for them to become tranquil.
His manifestation of anger is not objectionable, for children have the laws which are to govern them so much identified with the will of the governor, as to think it a matter of course that he should feel indignant or angry; and if punished, when he is in that state of feeling, they are less likely to be resentful or regard him as cruel, than if it be done in cooler moments.
Sixth — It has been said of rewards and punishments, that they do not change or purify our motives, but leave the desire to do wrong uncorrected, while they deter us from the act. The Bible says, however, “Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it;” if we habitually make our actions right, our motives will gradually improve.
It is, then, of great importance to compel children into regular conduct; for if their bad desires are not gratified, they are starved out and at length cease to grow, while the good motives from being exercised on their proper objects are established in power; in which respect the mind and body are under the same laws of habit.
PIONEER SCHOOLS IN WASHINGTON CO., OHIO.
No people ever paid more attention to the education of their children, than the descendants of the Puritans. Dr. Hildreth of Marietta, who has done so much to put on record the valuable history of the first settlement of Ohio, at the mouth of the Muskingum river and vicinity, gives it as his opinion that the first female who kept a school within the present limits of Ohio, was BATHSHEBA Rouse, daughter of John Rouse of New Bedford, Mass., who taught the young children, of perhaps the most prominent and influential families ever collected in one settlement, in the summer of 1789 at Belpre, and in 1791 and 2 in Farmers' Castle, the noted spot on the Ohio River, below Marietta and near Blannerhas. set's Island, afterwards rendered so famous. During the winter months, a male Teacher was employed, for the large boys and young women. Daniel Mayo was the first Teacher in Farmers' Castle. He came from Boston, a young man in the family of Col. Ebenezer Battelle, in the fall of 1788, and was a graduate of Cam. bridge University.
The school was kept in a large room of the block-house. Mr. Mayo was a Teacher for several winters, and during the summer worked at clearing and cultivating his land. He married a daughter of Col. Israel Putnam, and after the war settled in Newport, Kentucky, where his descendants now live.
He was Postmaster at Cincinnati at an early day, when that now great city was a village. The Post Office was kept in a log house on East Front St., on the bank at the foot of Lawrence St.
Jonathan Baldwin, an educated man from New England, who afterwards settled at Waterford, taught school in block-house No. 3, part of the time of the confinement of the settlers in Farmer's Castle, in 1791-2.
These schools had no public funds as at this day aid them, but were sapported from the hard earnings of the honest pioneer.
In the winter of 1789, at Marietta, Major Anselm Tupper kept school in “Campas Martius,” in the north-west block-house, where also taught Dr. Jabez True and Benjamin Slocum, a well educated man of Quaker parentage.
Here also taught a Mr. Baldwin, while a Mr. Curtis, when fear of Indians bad subsided, taught the rudiments to his class in a cooper shop. The 7th of April 1788, when the first settlement was made at Marietta, will be celebrated for generations in the State of Ohio, as an anniversary of the tirst settlement of this Buckeye State. The Cincinnati Pioneer Association, composed of those resident in Hamilton Co. and State of Ohio, previous to the 4th of July, 18!2, design celebrating this day, 118:57,) by public ceremonies. Hon. E. D. Manfield delivers an address, and the old-time citizens, male and female, unite in a festival.
TARDINESS AND ABSENTEEISM.
The Superintendent of the Cincinnati Common Schools, communicates to the School Board of that city, the following statistics of the schools for the month ending, January 2, 1857. The number belonging at that date
.10,412 Average number belonging during the month.
10,593 Average daily attendance.....
8.512 Average daily absence.....
2,053 The Board thereupon referred this important subject of absenteeism to a spe. cial committee, of which the President, Mr. King, was constituted chairman, who reported the following stringent rules :
“At the closc of the school, morning and afternoon, erery day, it shall be the duty of cach Teacher to notify the parent or guardian of every pupil, without exception, who wils absent or tardy in attendance. The first and second notice may be by the printed form, to be supplied by the Superintendent, and may be sent by a pupil, but the third shall be served by the Teacher personally. Each notice shall be noted opposite the pupil's name in the register by the letter N, in the proper column of the day.
“Upon the return of a pupil after any absence, the parent or guardian shall give in person or in writing, an excuse, stating the cause. If it shall have been the sickness of the pupil or necessary attendance upon a sick member of the family or death in the family of the pupil, in either of such cases, the absence shall be excuse, and so noted by the letter E, after the sign of notification, made as above.
“In every case of absence of a pupil for more than three half days in any four consecutive weeks, for any other cause than those above permitted, the absentee shall, without exception or favor, be suspended from the school, and the facts immediately reported to the Trustees of the District or their chairman, and shall not be reädmitted until the beginning of the next quarter, unless by the written order of a majority of such Trustees filed with the Principal of the school.”
The committee regret that under existing laws nothing more thorough or efficient can be offered as a remedy of evils which demanded all the energy and skill of the Board to provide against them.
The recommendation has not yet been acted upon by the Board.
EDUCATIONAL MATTERS IN CANADA.
We have had an opportunity to glance at the voluminous Report made by Dr. Ryerson, May, 1857, Secretary of the Department of Public Instruction for Upper Canada
- a document of 350 pages, containing a mine of wealth in relation to all the ramifications of the educational system of that Province-its Normal, Model, Grammar and Common Schools.
As an evidence of the increased interest in education in that Province, it may be stated that one hundred thousand dollars was expended for salaries of Teachers in 1855 more than in the preceding year.
This little fact is noteworthy—The desks and chairs which have been in constant use during four years, by children from 5 to 16 years of age, are without blot or marks, showing the practicability under a government, strict, mild and parental, to inculcate upon children order, neatness and care as to the objects of their daily use.
An eminent school superintendent of Ohio, at our elbow, bears witness from personal inspection to this creditable report of Young Canada. Young America of the West, profit by the example!
School Teachers grow old in the service in Canada, but when they do, and become helpless or infirm, they do not turn them out to die without some protection, but give them a pension, devote to their support a portion of a superannuated Teachers Fund. Whether that feature would be congenial to our soil, we can not say. We find some interesting items in the abstract of the personal history of the superannuated.
The Library fund afforded by legislative grant to a School District in Canada, is equal to that amount of not less than $5, raised from local sources by that district. An application must be made under the seal of the municipal authorities, with a pledge that this will not be diverted from public use. This encouragement has no limit.
- We have received a catalogue of the New Lexington Public Schools for '56-7,-James Cherry Supt. and Principal of High School. There are 201 pupils reported in the various schools, but no memorandum published by which stran. gers may know whether New Lexington is in Perry Co., Ohio, or in Texas.
The fourth month of the year has arrived. In this month, as has been said, the business of creation seems resumed. The vital spark rekindles in dormant existences; and all things "live, and move, and have their being.”
The earth puts on her livery to await the call of her Lord; the air breathes gently on his cheek, and conducts to his ear the warblings of the birds, and the odors of new-born herbs and flowers; the great eye of the world sees and shines" with bright and gladdening glances; the water teems with life, man bimself feels the revivifying and all-pervading influence; and his
pirit holds communion sweet
With the brighter spirits of the sky.
The vigorous-winged swallow, the messenger of spring; twitters again on school-house roof and cottage eaves.
How appropriate that the instructors of youth should, at this season of the year, hold a special interview with their pupils on the loveliness of natural scenery-at this jubilee of life, love and liberty, the lovely spring season, to indulge, with their promising charges, in the sweet thoughts and solacing interchanges of kindly feeling begotten by the soothing sights and sounds of this vernal period. “Nothing tends so powerfully to extinguish all bad passions and plants more of that herb called hearts-ease in our bosom, than the.contemplation of the still majesty of nature." Let us make the occurrence of spring the occasion of a practical lesson on the subjects matter of the season.
Spring commenced on the 20th of March, when the sun entered Aries, the first of the spring signs of the Zodiac, and will continue 92 days, 20 hours, and 41 seconds, while the sun is passing, north of Equator, through the signs of Aries, Taurus, and Gemini; the summer season commencing June 21st, 7h., 18m., when the sun enters the sign Cancer.
Spring, as the commencement of the natural year, must have been hailed by all nations with satisfaction; and was, undoubtedly, commemorated, in most, by public rejoicings and popular sports. In spring the ancient Romans celebrated the Ludi Florules. The Greeks had their peculiar ceremonies. The Hebrews at the occurrence of the vernal equinox sacrificed a lamb, to commemorate their deliverance from Egypt. "Aries,” or the ram, was the ensign of God. The Zo. diacal sign of that name may be thus derived, or from the golden fleece of the Greeks.
Resulting from the ancient practice of celebrating with festival rites the period of the vernal equinox, is that relic of its pristine pleasantry, the general practice of making April-Fools on the first day of the month of April. The movable festivals of the church for this month are deserving of notice by Teachers, as, in our opinion, each day should have its practical notice of what is peculiar to the time and the season; that kind of observance of home subjects is valuable, and can be now imparted with the most effect.
Easter-Day is always the first Sunday after the full moon which happens upon, or next after, the twenty-first day of March, and if the full moon happen upon a Sunday, Easter-Day is the Sunday after. The first full moon in 1857, next after the 21st of March, occurs on Thursday, the 9th of April-consequently, Sunday, April 12th, is Easter-Sunday.