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ences; yet only the few were permitted to share that wisdom and cultivation, which has since vanished at the approach of ignorance and superstition, even as the fertile soil has disappeared beneath the encroaching sand. At present, there are schools attached to every mosque, where children may be taught at trifling expense. Their lessons are generally written upon tablets painted white, being mostly passages from the Koran, and certain prayers, which are rubbed out when learned. Both Teacher and scholars are seated upon the ground; the latter of whom study aloud, with a swinging motion of the body, which is thought to assist the memory. Teachers sometimes cannot read, but having committed the Koran, succeed in maintaining their position.
We are told of an ancient King of Madagascar, who sent some of his subjects to England and France for their education, and then prepared schools for the benefit of Teachers, both male and female. Thus the isles of the sea have felt the progressive impulse of our common humanity, yet Greece alone was left to furnish models of taste and scholarship for all succeeding ages. No Roman prowess or physical might could conquer or avail its intellectual supremacy; and no Roman youth was considered educated until he had listened to the sages and orators of Greece. In their excellent and comprehensive system of schools, children were taught reading, writing, grammar, and music; and in later times, philosophy and oratory in addition to thorough physical training, which latter the Spartans deemed sufficient. Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato, yet live uneclipsed in the vast influence of their lives and teachings.
The Romans first taught their children to swim and dive; then to read ; adding the accomplishments of wrestling, leaping and running. They were further taught the fine arts, grammar, geography, ethics, arms and dancing; their instruction being suited to their condition in life. Learned Greeks were their Teachers, propagating their peculiar tenets, which were scrupulously supported by their pupils. At eighteen they were capable of military duty, at twenty they were men. Alas, that amid the wreck of empire Italy is but a crushed atom! A bounding in aids to learning, it still fosters a degraded and illiterate people. With such magnificent ruins and palaces of art, it calls pilgrims from every land and clime, and yet nourisbes a thriftless and indolent population.
During the fifteenth century, in Constantinople, boys were sent to public schools at four years of age, and continued there until their fifteenth year; the course of study comprising reading, writing, grammar, arithmetic and geometry. At colleges the chief mode of teaching was by lecture; upon logic, rhetoric, Latin, ethics, medicine and law. The best law-school in the Roman empire was at Constantinople, except one at Berytus. The Spanish Moors, in the tenth century, during the night of barbarism, established public libraries and academies in all the great towns; but their descendants have failed to heed the beacon light which the darkness of religious despotism must ever obscure. Portugal lagged not far behind, and under Charlemagne the empire and cultivation of the Cæsars slowly receded to northern Europe. He established schools for the young, compelled their attendance, and founded the University of Paris ; leaving Francis I to organize a college for learning Latin and Greek, and to advance the art of printing. In later times Richelieu founded the French Academy, which has been succeeded by schools that rival with any upon the Continent. Anon, Albion's cliffs arose amid the mist and fog, and in the unexampled stride of Alfred's reign could boast of schools for the common people; yet the spasmodic effort of one great man's care could not save a nation from the blight and mildew of the feudal ages; and not until the Elizabethan age was the veil lifted from eyes that saw not and ears that heard not the teachings of nature and revelation. Oxford had then cast but a single ray of its modern effulgence upon the darkened land; and Roger Bacon, only, had gazed centuries beyond the legitimate vision of his age and time. Scotland accompanied her sister-province, and now exoels her, in affording parochial schools where the poor may be educated at trifling expense. The University of Glasgow can boast of age and celebrity, and back to Elizabeth's time do we look for the seal of antiquity upon the university at Dublin. The first German university was established at Prague about the middle of the fourteenth century, and soon had 7000 students. One at Vienna, another at Heidelberg soon followed; but despite the occasional revisions of the system of public instruction, the Austrian tendencies to pleasure hold continual warfare with the attempt to promote science and literature. A century and a half since, Frederick William of Prussia, catehing the bearing of our free institutions, organized schools which should benefit every grade of society; and although a model for the world, they are still crippled by adherence to the arbitrary authority of a crumbling throne.
Baden, Jena and Weimar are as household words in the German States, and the latter has come to be the Athens of the civilized world. Goodrich informs us, that “in biblical literature German scholars are in advance of all other nations, and also in linguistic lore, and that in
the department of history they are scarcely less renowned, especially in the philosophy of history." But not in all Europe are just school regulations so resolutely enforced as in the little mountain-districts of Switzerland, where in every hamlet geography, history and singing are taught in the primary schools ; in the secondary, instruction is given in ancient and modern languages, geometry and the fine arts. Rich and poor are educated together; the latter gratuitiously. The sacrament is administered only to those who have received a certain degree of instruction. The basis of their political system is education, and among them freedom breathes the pure atmosphere of Alpine summits. Holland was once famous for its men of learning; but Belgium fails to provide opportunities of instruction for the masses. In Norway schools are stationary in the villages, but circulatory in the provinces. There are High Schools and Drawing Schools, which latter all who are to engage in mechanical pursuits must attend. In Iceland the family schools leave none who are not able to read.
As we speed across the ocean to the New World we are aghast at our necessities, yet proud of our progress.
While the shadow of war rested upon our land, and during its visible presence among us, only the present need was considered; but the martyr-element of New England scorned difficulties and dangers in securing the benefit of schools. Fresh from the triumphs of a righteous victory, and manfully released from the despair of oppression, it is no marvel that our forefathers generously based all public institutions upon the firm ground-work of liberty; and to secure this foundation gave every child ample opportunity to learn its uses and abuses. New England has ever been in the van, and that portion of our country where the pall of slavery lies heaviest, ever in the rear. Throughout the north and west, hundreds and millions of dollars are expended in endowing schools whose results are incalculable even without the prestige of age, or the dew of ancient
But the question arises, “Whither do we tend ?” Why has the tread of empire steadily marched westward to us ?”
A barren plain entombs the Chaldean glory and splendor; Memphis and Alexandria are but legends of past prosperity; Athens is but a beautiful ruin, despite its late spasmodic modernizing ; the balmy air of Byzantium is redolent only of the enervating pipe, and of the red wine; and Rome, alas, is but a dark stain upon a rich antique.
Westward with the power of empire has the light of intelligence gone, and we only need to mention Goethe, Humboldt, La Place, Lamartine, Milton and Locke to prove the ripeness of German, French and Eng
lish intellect. In our nation of kings we should create and foster many such mature monarchs of mind and heart, and with all the grand masters for exemplars, we may truly hope that lofty spirits will be begotten.
Glancing forward through the coming eventful years, we perceive schools of a high grade in each country town, furnished at public expense, where children must attend; the youthful city vagrants and rural idlers all sharing in the salvation of the cheerful primary school. We shall find the Teachers something more than mere school-room automatons ; something beyond the mere negative existence which discloses no evil; they are positive, living men and women, whose louk is an inspiration, whose words are echoes from the “bards sublime," and the spirit and letter of wbose teachings are, “Live a holy spirit-life for God and eternity." Overgrown children, self-abused adults, and moral delinquents no longer presume to tamper with the tender youthful mind, and parents have discarded that idea of expediency which desires just as little education as will do, and in just as superficial a manner as will answer the demands of successful business. Men will then cease to juggle and cheat for sacred things, and will bave learned to bask in the warm sunshine of noble impulses and purer thoughts. A stricter morality, a more rigid Christianity will then be taught, with the Bible for a text and class book.
Teaching will be held a profession, with its legitimate moral and spiritual preparation ; and our nation shall find a bulwark and strong out-post in the public schools.
Each freeman who is to have a voice in the government will be educated therefor, even as princes are trained in view of the responsibilities and dignities of a crown. Searching the annals of the world, we find a republic even yet an experiment, and we can have no reasonable hope that it can ever be a successful one except founded upon the rock of an enlightened Christianity; and wo may yet betide us, for shifting from such a foundation, and permitting the bane and light of that des. potism which renders our vaunted liberty a defiant falsehood. But yet, ever onward sball we be impelled, through the long summer afternoon of our prosperity, and perchance through the darkness and storm of the succeeding night, until at the dawn of the millennial ages, freed souls may shout a majestic Te Deum for life and victory.
North FAIRFIELD, Ohio.
L. A. T.
W. H. YOUNG, ATHENS, EDITOR.
SOLUTIONS OF QUESTIONS PUBLISHED IN JOURNAL.
No. 7. I pay thirty-five dollars for two notes—one for $15, due in 4 mo., at 6 per cent. ; the other for $30, due in 6 mo., at 8 Required the discount on each.
SOLUTION BY A. A. K.
The debt on the first note will be, at the end of 4 mo., $15%; on the second, at the end of 6 mo., $31}. What is really required is the rate of discount; for, with this obtained, all difficulties vanish.
Let x = the rate per ct., per annum, of discount. Then zoo and zöo will be the rates, respectively, for 4 and 6 mo., and 153 315 +
35; whence x = = 745. 1 + 30 Substituting this value for x in the first term of the equation, for the present worth of the first note, and in the second term for the present worth of the second note, and we find, respectively,
$12.2596 and $22.7405. Therefore,
No. 8. What is the time of vibration of a rod of uniform thickness, 78 in. long, suspended by one end as a pendulum being the recognized length of a pendulum, beating seconds ?
SOLUTION BY THE EDITOR.
By the length of a pendulum, we are to understand the distance from the center of motion to that of oscillation. The center of oscillation in a rod, bar, cylinder or any prism (demonstration too extended for the Journal), is two-thirds of its length from the extremity by which it is suspended. Hence the pendulum length of the rod in question is of 78 = 52.
= 52. And by mechanics, V39 : 152 ::1: 1.154 sec. Ans.
No. 9. On each side of any triangle construct an equilateral triangle, and connect the centers of the equilateral triangles. Prove that the connecting lines form an equilateral triangle.