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loudly, and no doubt are talking still, or waiting until December, when they will idly resolve and re-resolve to support the Journal (?). Many forgot their their promises, and probably are surprised to learn the Journal is not doing well. Well, the result? The

year of 1857 is drawing to a close. The expenses of the Journal promise to reach $4500. The subscription is less than 2500, the advertising less than $1500-a deficiency of $500! How does it look! How do you feel, who have never taken the Journal, or contributed a cent to second the efforts of such men as Andrews, Lord, Cowdery, Freese, etc., while they have been doing so much for you and your profession?—you who have taken the Journal a year and then stopped ?—you who have been content to read it yourself, but have never sought to extend its circulation ? Fellow-Teachers of the great State of Ohio! this is not right; you know it is not right. But we will not comment. You ask what is to be done with the $500 deficiency. It is to be paid, somehow. And what then? Aye, What then ?

This is the question for you to answer, and that right speedily. The responsibility of determining this matter cannot be shifted on to the Association, to be convened in December. The Association, after paying hundreds of dollars year after year to sustain the Journal, cannot be expected now, when it ought to be self-supporting, to commence paying by the thousand. This thought cannot be entertained. The Association next winter can only confirm the decision of the Teachers now. If the latter, by their free and intelligent action, decide that the Association has anticipated the demands of the day and State, the Association must abide by that decision. It were folly, madness, to continue a publication involving an annual expense of $1000 to $5000, unless the effort be generally and generously sustained. If such a support is guaranteed and strong, hopeful voices from all over the State say, go on — Go on it is.

But how is this guarantee to be given ? what will be deemed a satisfactory assurance that the next year will not prove more disastrous, more disheartening, more humiliating than the last ? Fair promises and hopeful anticipations have been abundant before, and have ever ended in debt and mortification. We don't speak by authority, but from facts, figures and experience, and we do not hesitate to say that nothing less than 2000 subscribers to begin with will do. We repeat it-2000 to begin with, or nothing. Any thing much less tban this will be unsafe. And then the proposition is a reasonable one. For,

first : The next volume begins with January. There are, then, three months to work in. All who will subscribe at all, would rather begin with the volume than afterwards. Hence, any who would be likely to subscribe in January, February, March or April, will be still more likely to do so in November or December. Secondly: Between now and the first of January, there will be more teachers examined and thus thrown together, than in any six other months of the year, thus affording peculiar facilities to any zealous teacher, who will frequent the Exaniining Rooms and solicit subscriptions. Thirdly: In a few days every school district will be aroused ; every parent, school officer, teacher, pupil, will be interested in preparing for winter schools, repairing school-houses, purchasing books, employing teachers, securing situations, etc., etc. In fact, in October, November and December, there is a greater interest felt and more business done in educational affairs than in all the rest of the year. Fourthly: Teacher's Institutes are now being held all over the State, affording still rarer opportunities for successful effort. Finally: In a few days Boards of Education will be in session in every town and township. Now, then, is the time to apply to the school officers, each of whom should have his Journal. Now here is no exaggeration, but a plain statement of what all teachers know to be true. If, then, under such a combination of favorable influences, a competent support cannot be secured to our Journal of Education, I ask, seriously, can it be secured at all? Teachers, just stop reading and think, earnestly, five minutes.

Will not, then, every one take hold and do something by the last of December, that, when the Association meets, an open way may be before it to go on and accomplish the important ends of its organization ?

Having already assumed the Dictator, we may now presume to go on and tell you how to work successfully. First put down your own name for the Journal, and, taking two or three specimen copies, go to any man or woman over whom you have any influence, whether he profess an interest in educational affairs or not-your neighbors, your connexions, your friends ; urge them for the common good, for the encouragement of others, for their own edification, for your sake, for the honor of the cause-urge them to try the Journal one year. Go to the school officers of your neighborhood, and urge them for their personal advantage, their official illumination, in view of the necessities of the case, -by such considerations as these, urge them to help the Journal, just as they would contribute a pittance to the furtherance of any other praiseworthy undertaking. Go to the examinations of teachers--ask of the examiners the privilege of presenting the claims of the Journál. Make known its terms, its objects, its nature, its history, its early difficulties, continued struggles, present embarrassments; the noble generosity, self-sacrifices, and unwavering fidelity of its projectors; the influence it has already exerted, and may still exert, for the teacher's good ; its vast importance to teachers as a medium for the exchange of thought, experience and information ; its value as a representative abroad and at home; its practical aid in the school room; its interesting pages of educational news items; its advertisements, and reviews of school books. But this general appeal to a class of teachers will amount to nothing without a special appeal to each individual. Watch your opportunity and address each one separately. Appeal to his honor, his generosity, his manliness, his professional pride, his professional obligation. Require the examiners to indorse what you say. They will never refuse. Require former subscribers to give their opinions of it. They will never be against you.

Our article is already too long. We have written what we think ought to be done, may be done, and how to do it. We can only add, just try once, and let that once be now. Would that every reader, from the College President to the Primary Teacher, would do even a little for the only Educational Periodical in the greatest educational State of the 31.

Ohio University.

W. H. Y.

TEACHERS' LICENSES.

At the meeting of School Superintendents in Cincinnati, last April, the author of this article was appointed to make a report on the above subject at the next meeting. Circumstances will prevent my attendance at said meeting, if indeed it is held, of which, at present, there seems to be doubt. I therefore send for publication in the Journal the following thoughts, which would form the substance of the report:

From time immemorial the law has aimed to guard the school room from immoral, ignorant and incompetent Teachers. The purpose seems to bave been the same that has guided legislation upon other subjects, in which life, health and property bave demanded protection, yet the manner in which this protection has been afforded, has been widely different in the case of the school room from the others. Special schools for instruction in Theology, Medicine and Law have been chartered, the requisite term of study has been appointed, and not until this requirement has been fully met, and the candidate has received the approbation of a Board of Censors on a full and critical examination, has he been duly authorized to practice in the several professions. Here two things are worthy of naming as we pass along: 1. In cvery instance the candidate is examined by men of eminence and skill in the profession to which he aspires, and 2. When licensed he is never exposed to a reëxamination, but goes out into the world depending not upon his Diploma, but the actual merit of his practice for success, amenable to the law in general, and to the special rules of the fraternity which licensed him.

With the candidate for teaching, however, the legal course has been very different. He has been compelled to pick up his knowledge wherever he could find it. No special schools, until recently, have been authorized for his training, and none of those which do exist have been empowered to confer upon him the authority to teach. It has been thought best to select a trio or quintette of men in each township or county-the Minister, Esquire, Doctor, Colonel and Lawyer, without any reference to their knowledge of the business of teaching, to test the qualifications of candidates for so important a trust. It is no marvel that under such a system, so developed even in the oldest and most literary States, incompetent Teachers have continued to find employment, and are still found year after year, attempting to conduct the complicated duties of the school room ; failing in one place, renewing the trial in another, and succeeded in each by one equally incompetent.

We are not disposed to deny that there has been any improvement in the character and qualifications of Teachers, on the contrary, we are glad to admit that it has been commendable, but our position is this :

I. That any existing improvement has been chiefly due to the extraordinary personal of Teachers, and not to any improvement in the method of testing their abilities and granting them licenses.

II. That there is radical error in the system of granting licenses, and until it is effectually cured teaching will never take a high rank as one of the professions, but will continue to be cursed with ignorant and incompetent practitioners. Whether it be necessary to prove these positions or not, we propose to do so by a cursory examination of the present system in our own and other States, and then inquire for a remedy.

By our law three examiners are appointed by the Probate Judge in each county, as supreme and final arbiters in the question of granting licenses, bolding their meetings when and where they please, granting certificates for not more than two years, and by a very general construction of the law, for any period of time less than that according to their pleasure, and then resubjecting the Teacher to another examination. Who are these Judges of Probate? I reply in almost all cases, political partizans, selected as are other officers in these days, as a reward for their partizan fidelity. This, the most important trust confided to them, is never thought of during the canvass, and if it were, the very few who give it any attention could hardly be induced to desert their party nomination, even if by so doing they could elect a better man, (which is quite doubtful in these times). Whom do these Judges select as Examiners? Upon this subject we would speak with due respect, but as we have been the recipient of this high honor, we may be permitted to speak plainly-as plainly as our views of truth and duty demand. We reply, in general, political favorites. A majority of the Board, often the whole, is found of the same political complexion as the Judge—one or two young lawyers, with perhaps a Doctor-possibly a Clergyman-here and there, but very rarely a worthy practical Teacher. From three to four fifths of these Examiners under our present law, bave no present connection with schools, either as Teachers or patrons, and never did have except perhaps for a few months, with no higher motive than to earn money to help them into a more desirable profession. The schools are scattered throughout the county, most of them far away from these Examiners. The law does not confer upon them authority to visit and examine schools as well as Teachers—two powers which should never be separated. All they can know of these schools is by mere rumors, and upon this alone they must often act in the equally important authority of revoking certificates. In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred they hear nothing of tbe Teacher, and know nothing of him, until he again appears for another certificate. Why should they? The law gives them no authority to inquire, unless the question of revocation is raised. The ultimatum of their examination must consist in ascertaining in a very limited degree, the amount of knowledge which a candidate possesses upon certain subjects. The greater question of ability to teach never comes under their cognizance, except perbaps inferentially.

If school Teachers must submit to local and frequent examinations, their schools should be examined by the same authority. The two

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