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He calls meetings of the Teachers, and gives them instruction in regard to teaching and discipline. He examines classes, and promotes pupils from grade to grade, according to their proficiency. He takes oversight of the buildings and other school property. In the smaller towns, he acts not only as a general Superintendent of the schools, but also as Teacher in some one of the deparıments; devoting, perhaps, one half his time to each of these branches of labor. In any case, his duties are just what the Board, his employers, may please to make them. No State law creates his office, or defines his duties. In all things, he is subject to the will of the power that gives him his position.
It needs no argument to prove that he is, virtually, the Principal of the schools; that is, the head Teacher, or the foreman of the Teachers, and as such Teacher, it is manifestly proper that he should receive from the proper source a certificate of qualifications. He receives his salary from the same fund, and in the same manner that other Teachers do. And as the law positively forbids the disbursement of this fund to any excepting Teachers holding the proper certifi. cate of qualifications, it is plain that the question should receive an affirmative
NATIONAL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION.
As noted by us, a circular was issued to the “Teachers of the United States' - a very large family - calling upon them to meet at the city of Philadelphia on the 26th of August last.
At the appointed time, a large number of the friends of education were present, and organized a “National Teachers' Association.” Pres't Lorin Andrews, of Kenyon College, was in attendance from Ohio.
The following Preamble and Constitution were adopted :
To elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching, and to promote the cause of popular education in the United States, we, whose names are subjoined, agree to adopt the following
ARTICLE I. Name.-This association shall be styled the “National Teachers' Association."
ART. II. Members.-Any gentleman who is regularly occupied in teaching in a public or private Elementary School, Common School, High School, Academy or Scientific School, Col. lege or University, or who is regularly employed as a private tutor, as the Editor of an Educational Jorirnal, or as a Superintendent of Schools shall be eligible to membership.
Applications for admission to membership shall be made, or referred to the Board of Directors, or such committee of their own number as they shall appoint; and all who may be recommended by them, and accepted by a majority vote of the members present, shall be entitled to the privileges of the association, upon paying two dollars and signing this constitution.
Upon the recommendation of the Board of Directors, gentlemen may be elected as honorary members by a two-thirils vote of the members present, and as such, shall have all the rights of regular members, except those of voting and holding office.
Ladies engaged in teaching, may, on the recommendation of the Board of Directors, become honorary members, and shall thereby possess the right of presenting, in the form of written essays (to be read by the Secretary or any other member whom they may select) their views upon the subject assigned for discussion.
Whenever a member of this association shall abandon the profession of teaching, or the business of editing an Educational Journal, or of superintending schools, he shall cease to be a member.
If one member shall be charged by another with immoral or dishonorable conduct, the charge shall be referred to the Board of Directors, or such a committee as they shall appoint, and if the charge shall be sustained by thein, and afterwards by two-thirds of the members present at a regular meeting of the association, the person so charged shall forfeit his mem
There shall be an annual fee of one dollar. If any one shall omit paying his fee for four years, his connection with the association shall cease. A person eligible to membership, may become a life member by paying, at once, ten dollars.
ART. III. Officers.—The officers of this association shall be a President, twelve Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and one Counselor for each State, District or Territory represented in the association These officers, all of whom shall be elected by ballot, a majority of the votes cast being necessary for a choice, shall constitute the Board of Directors, and shall have power to appoint such committees from their own number as they shall deem expedient.
The President shall preside at all meetings of the association, and of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties, and enjoy such privileges as by custom devolve upon and are enjoyed by a presiding officer. In his absence, the first Vice President in order who is present, shall preside ; and in the absence of all the Vice Presidents, a pro tempore chairman shall be appointed on nomination, the Secretary putting the question.
The Secretary shall keep a full and just record of the proceedings of the association and of the Board of Directors ; shall notify each member of the association or Board ; shall conduct such correspondence as the Directors may assign ; and shall have his records present at all meetings of the association and of the Board of Directors. In his absence, a Secretary pro tempore may be appointed.
The Treasurer shall receive and hold in safe keeping all moneys paid to the association; shall expend the same in accordance with the votes of the Directors or of the association; and shall keep an exact account of his receipts and expenditures, with vouchers for the latter, which account he shall render to the Board of Directors prior to each regular meeting of the association ; he shall also present an abstract thereof to the association. The Treasurer shall give such bonds for the faithful discharge of his duties as may be required by the Board of Directors.
The Counselors shall have equal power with the other directors in performing the duties belonging to the Board.
The Board of Directors shall have power to fill all vacancies in their own body; shall have in charge the general interests of the association ; sball make all necessary arrangements for its meetings; and shall do all in their power to render it a useful and honorable institution.
ART. IV. Meetings.-A meeting shall he held in August, 1858, after which the regular meetings shall be held biennially. The place and the precise time of meeting shall be determined by the Board of Directors.
The Board of Directors shall hold their regular meetings at the place and two hours before the time of the assembling of the association, and immediately after the adjournment of the same. Special meetings may be held at such other times and places as the Board or the President shall determine.
ART. V. By-Laws.-By-Laws, not inconsistent with this Constitution, may be adopted by & two-thirds vote of the association.
ART. VI. Amendments. This Constitution may be altered or amended at a regular meeting, by the unanimous vote of the members present ; or by a two-thirds vote of the members present, providing that the alteration or amendment have been substantially proposed at a previous regular meeting.
The officers chosen are as follows:
These officers constitute a Board of Directors, who held a meeting immediately aft the adjournment of the Nati nal Teachers' Association, and Resolved. That the Association hold its next meeting in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the second Wednesday of August, 1858, at 10 o'clock, A. M.
They arranged to have six lecturers appointed for the next meeting-two from the Southern, two from the Western, one from the Middle, and one from the Eastern States. Messrs. Cann, of Georgia, Valentine, of New York, and Shel. don, of Massachusetts, were appointed a committee to secure lecturers from their respective districts.
The following gentlemen were appointed a committee to collect Educational Statistics of the country, and report at the next meeting of the Association, viz:
Messrs. D. B. Hagar, Jamaica Plains, Mass.; M. Woolson, Portland, Me.; D. H. Sanborn, Hopkinton, N. H.; C. Pease, Burlington, Vt.; J. Kingsbury, Provi. dence, R. I. ; C. Northend, New Britain, Ct.; A. Wilder, New York City; I. Peckham, Newark, N. J.; J. P. Wickersham, Millers ville, Pa.; T. M. Cann, Wilmington, Del.; J. N. McJilton, Baltimore, Md. ; Z. Richards, District of Colum. bia; J. Binford, Richmond, Va.; C. H. Wiley, Raleigh, N. C.; C. G. Messinger, Charleston, S. C.; B. Mallon, Savanah, Ga.; S. I. C. Swezey, Marion, Ala.; D. McConnell, Florida; Mr. -, Miss.; D. B. Slosson, Baton Rouge, La.; T. Fan. ning, Nashville, Tenn.; J, B. Dodd, Lexington, Ky.; W. T. Lucky, Fayette, Mo.; I. Maybew, Lansing, Mich.; L. Andrews, Gambier, Ohio; G. B. Stone, Indianap. olis, Ind.; D. Wilkins, Bloomington, IN.; J. G. McMynn, Racine, Wis.; J. L. Enos, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; J. Denman, San Francisco, Cal.; W. Baker, Austin, Texas; E. D. Neil, St. Paul, Minn.; M. Oliphant, Kansas.
Mr. A. J. Rickoff, of Cincinnati, in connection with the several Counselors, was deputed to arrange as to railroad fares to the next meeting, and was appointed chairman of the Local Committee, to make the necessary arrangements for the meeting at Cincinnati, with power to select his own associates on the com. mittee.
Welcome, Eastern brethren, to the West,
- Mr. Smyth, the School Commissioner, is busily engaged in securing full and prompt returns from the counties, to be embodied in his first Annual Report. He is seeking information in regard to numerous educational facts which hither. to have not been reported. Among these are the transactions of School Examiners, of Teachers’ Institutes, the statistics in regard to the Colleges, Female Seminaries, and Academies of Ohio, and a distinct report from the Graded Schools of the State. Already have several circulars been sent out on this errand, and others will soon follow.
Reports from School Examiners are daily received, abounding in interesting and important facts in regard to candidates for the Teachers' profession. For example, in Licking county, of the 642 who have been examined during the past year, 16 have received certificates for two years, 69 for eighteen months, 180 for one year, 231 for six monts, 12 for less than six months, and 134 were rejected.
In Shelby county, of 188 candidates, but one received a certificate for two years In Sandusky county, of 317 examined, 12 were licensed for two years, and 64 were rejected.
These items indicate a degree of thoroughness on the part of Examiners which promises the happiest results to our schools. We hope that the day is not distant when incompetent Teachers will be obliged either to seek higher attainments, or devote themselves to some less responsible calling.
We bespeak for the Commissioner the cordial coöperation of all school authorities to whom he shall appeal for aid in securing the requisite data for a full report of the educational condition of the State.
The people of Marion have just completed a noble school edifice, at an expense of $25,000. It is to be dedicated on the 9th inst., when an address will be given by Commissioner Smyth.
SUPERINTENDENTS' MEETING.–This organization did not meet in Columbus on the 4th of Sept., as designed. A correspondent thus speaks of one of the topics assigned to him:
NEWARK, Aug. 31, 1857. J. D. CALDWELL — I do not forget that the semi-annual meeting of our Superintendents' Association occurs this week. It will be impossible for me to attend, and I regret it. It is indeed strange that a Teacher, especially one that has served in the ministry so long as I hive, should be affected by bank explosions! But so it is. The little cash I had is shut up in Franklin's Bank, which closed its doors last Thursday, and therefore it is out of my power to furnish means to pay my expenses to Columbus. Plea-e make my excuse to the Association in such manner as you think best.
I was made chairman of a committee to report on Diplomas. I have wondered what the Association could expect from a committee on this subject. There can be no doubt in the minds of any, about the propriety of furnishing to those who complete the course of study, a certificate of that fact; and what is a diploma but such a certificate? Surely it cannot require the wisdom of so distinguished a committee, far less the combined wisdom of the Superintendents' Association, to say what shape it shall take, or how the simple fact it states shall be expressed! It might be a question whether that certificate shall be printed or written-whether it shall be parchment or paper-whether it shall be plain, or gilt, or beautifully embossed-whether, when the auspicious time comes, it shall be presented publicly or privately, by the President or Secretary of the Board of Education, or by the Superintendent. But these nice questions it could not have been the intention of the Association to commit ; therefore, the chairman of the committee (his associates concurring) would offer, through J. D. Caldwell, Editor of the Journal of Education, (to whom doubtless this delicate and important duty may be safely committed,) the following resolutions :
1. Resolved, That Diplomas are expedient.
2. Resolved, That they should be written or printed-on parchment or paper-gilt or plain -or embossed and signed, and delivered by whomsoever, and at such time and place, and in such manner, as each Board of Education shall in its wisdom designate.
- Do what you can, thoroughly; sham nothing.
- He who has never formed in his mind the idea of something superior to wh he is used to, will never arrive at any great degree of excellence.
ERRATA.-In line 7, page 304, read $1.000 instead of $1.500. - Important items and editorial articles have been crowded out of this number IT E MS.
The Teacher's Institute of Columbiana Co. will be held at New Lisbon during the first week in November.
The Steubenville High School is now opened for the admission of pay pupils, outside of the corporation.
- Commencement of Muskingum College took place at Concord, on the 24th ult. Anniversary Address by Hon. Wm. Laurence, Washington 0.
Our next number will contain an interesting historical article on the Ohio Uuiversity, Athens, accompanied with an engraving.
- A situation as Teacher in Primary School wanted for two young ladies, who are desirous of engaging permanently in the profession of teaching. Address T. S. Sedwgick, Chillicothe, 0.
W. B. Smith & Co., Publishers of School Books, Cincinnati, have removed into their elegant and commodious new edifice on Walnut St., near Fourth St.
- Michigan Teachers' Institutes for this month, are held as follows-holding ten days each : Ionia, Ionia Co., commencing Oct. 5th. Lansing, Ingham Co., commencing Oct. 19th.
- Hon. S. S. Randall, Supt. of N. Y. Public Schools, having become possessed of important materials, is about issuing a Life of Jefferson.
The Hon Robert Allyn has resigned the office of School Commissioner of Rhode Island, and has entered upon his duties as Professor of Ancient Languages and Literature in the Ohio University, to which he was recently elected. Prof. Allyn is a fine scholar and an efficient and successful educator. The Teachers of Ohio, as well as the Ohio University, may congrat. ulate themselves on his accession to their ranks.
– The Athens Co. Teachers’ Institute will open its session on the first Monday in October, and continue one wees. Mr. Ogden, Mr. Royce and Prof. Allyn have engaged to be present. The Atheneans will regard Teachers as guests, and accommodate all with board and lodging gratis.
- Mr. Edward E. Spalding of Chelmsford, Mass., has been chosen Principal of Pomeroy Academy, Pomeroy, Ohio, in place of A. A. Keen, appointed Professor of Greek and Latin in Tuft's College, Medford, Mass.
Cincinnati Guide and Business Director. F. W. Hurrt, Publisher, a well known school Teacher, has changed the direction of his energies, and has devoted himself to the publishing business.
- Introduction to Monteiths' Manual of Geography, for junior classes. A. S. Barnes & Co., N. Y., 1857.
Alabama Educational Journal, a monthly, quarto form, $1.00 per year, commenced in January last. Wm. F. Perry, Editor and Proprietor, Montgomery, Ala. - American Educator, No. 1, Vol. 1. Sept. 15, 1857. Wm. H. Boyd, New York.
· Educational Herald, Vol. 1, No.5. July, 1857. Smith & Boyd, New York. - The Rose Bud, Vol. 1, No. 1. July, 1857. Pupils of Union School, Mendon, Ill.
- The Polylingual Journal, a magazine in five languages-French, Spanish, Italian, German, and English, Vol. 1, No. 1. August, 1857 ; quarterly. Hiram C. Sparks, Editor, New York. $2.00 per annum.
- The American Journal of Education for Sept. Henry Barnard, Hartford, Conn.
McGUFFEY's New ECLECTIC READERS are having great and justly merited popularity among intelligent Teachers. Published by W. B. Smith & Co., Cincinnati.