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Ohio Journal of Education.



Ar a Convention, composed of uel :")! of Ohio, assembled at Columbus, Deca! Resolutions, designed to promote tisti, progress, and the exemplary conluet

*** Unanim adopted; and a Committee. consists

i Hrane ! President of Antioch College, the P. Denison University, and the Rer


1 Ohio University, were appointed to pu - of Colleges in the State of Ohio, settist ,; uit and argumentatively the subject matter of the resoi ben Band the same "he printud and distributed : - WHEREA, a sentiment very generally nemci olan and Schools and

students ought, as far as possible, to win!!...! ** lat'an, respectine hc misconduct of their fellow students, from a port Team;

And, whereas this sentiment is often cadets ; ! hvad "Titief Honor," by whose unwritten, and, tiilit in!, 73 *"pior, sludinare ofter tempted or constraine', under to, cilinders merit* m1'İ V131., to connive' at the oif nses of their fent-stile' t*t* nfschand, or to stiren then from punishment afterwardia;

Azil, whereas a bounty is thus over for : *31.0*** a of wong : le iapi'ey which is secured to the wrongdoci Icie Hexrivat", That a College of Stol ix avuillity, whick as in seatislava

rasperity, must, lisip any other cuma 'ity, be governel by wise I whole-oute laws, faithfuliy administeredi.

mund tierramentad, That, as he is a good citizen, and, in the highests! *7*** by my fix gratitude of the com vidriy where he dwells, who,

1,9 bir it to be ommit promptly it rposes to!!!!.«?ti!; "por other ****** ritings and worthy the co:dennati Ci ali goud men, who *** Po ze wt"I sisuse has been committed, with stilla testimori ve SUWA!

bo :he culprit from the consequeners ni his crime com ***, Rimi Esige

se he is a good student and a true piersi ofattarells, motor, fis 1.--NO. 3.

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Ohio Journal of Education.



At a Convention, composed of delegates from Colleges in the State of Ohio, assembled at Columbus, December 29th, 1856, the following Resolutions, designed to promote the internal tranquillity, the literary progress, and the exemplary conduct of Students, were unanimously adopted ; and a Committee, consisting of the Hon. Horace Mann, President of Antioch College, the Rev. Jeremiah Hall, President of Denison University, and the Rev. Dr. Solomon Howard, President of Ohio University, were appointed to prepare an Address to the Faculties of Colleges in the State of Ohio, setting forth more fully and argumentatively the subject matter of the resolutions, and to cause the same to be printed and distributed :

WHEREAS, a sentiment very generally prevails in Colleges and Schools, that

students ought, as far as possible, to withhold all information, respecting the misconduct of their fellow-students, from Faculty and Teachers;

And, whereas this sentiment is often embodied in what is called a "Code of Honor," by whose unwritten, and, therefore, uncertain provisions, students are often tempted or constrained, under fear of ridicule, or contempt, or violence, to connive at the offenses of their fellow-students beforehand, or to screen them from punishment afterwards ;

And, wh eas a bounty is thus offered for the commission of wrong, in the impunity which is secured to the wrongdoer; therefore,

Resolved, That a College or School is a community, which, as an essential con. dition of its prosperity, must, like any other community, be governed by wise and wholesome laws, faithfully administered.

And further resolved, That, as he is a good citizen, and, in the highest degree worthy of the gratitude of the community where he dwells, who, knowing that an offense is about to be committed, promptly interposes to prevent it; and, as he is a bad citizen, and worthy the condemnation of all good men, who, knowing that an offense has been committed, with holds testimony, or suborns witnesses to shield the culprit from the consequences of his crime;—so, in a College or in a School, he is a good student and a true friend of all other students, who, VOL. VI.-No. 3.


by any personal influence which he can exert, or by any information which he can impart, prevents the commission of offenses that are meditated, or helps to redress the wrongs already committed ; and that he is a bad student, who, by withholding evidence, or by false and evasive testimony, protects offenders and thereby encourages the repetition of offenses; and further, that, as civil society can not attain those ends of peace and prosperity, for which it was constituted, if it should suffer accomplices in crime, or accessories, either before or after the fact, to remain or go at large among its members; so, no College or School can ever reach the noble purposes of its institution, should it permit confederates, or accessories in vice or crime, to remain enrolled among its members.

And, whereas one great object of penal discipline is the reformation of the offender; therefore,

Resolved, That, just in proportion as the students of any Institution will cooperate with its government in maintaining order and good morals, just in the same proportion should the government of such Institution become more lenient and parental, substituting private expostulation for public censure, and healing counsel for wounding punishments.

The Committee appointed at the Convention above named, to prepare an Address to the Faculties of the Colleges above referred to, have attended to the duty assigned them, and submit the following

R E P O R T.

Unhappily, no person needs to be informed that a feeling of antagonism towards Teachers often exists among Students. The hostile relation of distrust and disobedience supplants the filial one of trust and obedience. Such a relation necessitates more or less of coercive discipline; and discipline, unless when administered in the highest spirit of wisdom and love, alienates rather than attaches. Though it may subdue opposition, it fails to conciliate the affections.

A moment's consideration must convince the most simple-minded, that the idea of a natural hostility between teachers and pupils is not merely wrong, but ruinous. Without sympathy, without mutual affection, between instructors and instructed, many of the noblest

purposes of education are wholly baffled and lost. No student can ever learn even the most abstract science from a teacher whom he dislikes as well as from one whom he loves. Affection is an element in which all the faculties of the mind, as well as all the virtues of the heart, flourish.

Springing from this deplorable sentiment of a natural antagonism between teachers and students, an actual belligerent condition ensues between them. One party promulgates laws; the other disobeys them when it dares; or, what is an evil only one degree less in magnitude than actual disobedience, it renders but a formal or compulsory compliance; - there being, in strictness, no obedience but that of the heart. One party enjoins duties; the other evades, or grudgingly performs them. Prohibitions are clandestinely violated. A rivalry grows up :.tween the skill and vigilance that would detect, and the skill and vigilance that would evade detection. Authority on the one side and fear on the other, usurp the place of love. Aggression and counteraggression, not friendship and cooperation, become the motives of conduct, and the college or the school is a house divided against itself.

We gladly acknowledge that there are practical limits, both on the side of Faculties and of Students, to these deplorable results. Still, students do bear about a vast amount of suppressed and latent opposition against Faculties and Teachers, which, though never developing itself in overt acts of mutiny or indignity, yet mars the harmony and subtracts from the usefulness of all our educational institutions.

Though all students do not partake of this feeling of hostility towards teachers, or in the practice of disobedience to their requirements, yet, as a matter of fact, the wrongdoers have inspired the rightdoers with something of their sentiments, and coerced them, as auxiliaries, into their service. A feeling almost universally prevails throughout the Colleges and Schools of our country, that the students, in each Institution, constitute of themselves a kind of corporation; and that this corporation is bound to protect and defend, with the united force of the whole body, any individual member who may be in peril of discipline, although that peril may have been incurred by his own misconduct. If, then, there is a corporation bound together by supposed collective interests, it is certain that this body will have its laws; and, as laws will be inefficacious without penalties, it will have its penalties also. These laws, by those who are proud to uphold and prompt to vindicate them, are called the Code of Honor,”- a name which at once arouses the attention and attracts the sympathies of ardent and ingenuous youth. Being unwritten laws, with undefined penalties, both law and penalty will, at all times, be just what their framers and executors choose to make them. But unwritten laws and undefined penalties are of the very essence of despotism, and hence the sanctions for violating this Code of Honor, so called, are often terrible, --so unrelenting and inexorable that few, even of the most talented and virtuous members of our literary institutions, dare to confront and brave them. Often they

very reverse of the old Roman decree of banishment; for that only deprived a citizen of fire and water, whereas these burn or drown him. They often render it impossible for any supposed offender to remain among the students whose vengeance he has incurred.

The requisitions of this code are different in different places, and at

are the

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