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to have so gracious consideration!” Where- of whose doings ourselves have had these mazy withal Master Pope taking his leave of him, years no small experience, we would rather have could not refrain from weeping. Which Sir lost the best city of our dominions, than have Thomas More perceiving, comforted him in lost such a worthy Counsellor.” Which matter this wise, “Quiet yourself, good Master Pope, 5 was by the same Sir Thomas Eliott to myself, and be not discomforted, for I trust that we to my wife, to Mr. Clement and his wife, to shall once in heaven see each other full merrily, Mr. John Heywood and his wife, and unto where we shall be sure to live and love together, divers others his friends accordingly reported. in joyful bliss eternally." Upon whose departure Sir Thomas More, as one that has been 10 invited to some solemn feast, changed himself

Hugh Latimer into his best apparel. Which Master Lieutenant espying, advised him to put it off, saying,

c. 1491-1555 that he who should have it was but a javill.3 “What, Master Lieutenant?" quoth he, "shall 15

THE PLOWERS I account him a javill, that shall do me this

(From a Sermon preached at St. Paul's, 18th day so singular a benefit? Nay, I assure you,

January, 1548) were it cloth of gold, I should think it well bestowed on him, as St. Cyprian did, who gave I told you in my first sermon, honourable his executioner thirty pieces of gold.” And 20 audience, that I purposed to declare unto you albeit at length, through Master Lieutenant's two things. The one, what seed should be importunate persuasion, he altered his apparel, sown in God's field, in God's plough land. yet, after the example of the holy martyr St. And the other, who should be the sowers. Cyprian, did he, of that little money that was That is to say, what doctrine is to be taught in left him, send an angels of gold to his execu- 25 Christ's church and congregation, and what tioner. And so was he brought by Master men should be the teachers and preachers of Lieutenant out of the Tower, and from thence it. The first part I have told you in the three led towards the place of execution. Where, sermons past, in which I have assayed to set going up the scaffold, which was so weak that forth my plough, to prove what I could do. it was ready to fall, he said merrily to the 30 And now I shall tell you who be the ploughers: Lieutenant, “I pray you, Master Lieutenant, for God's word is a seed to be sown in God's see me safe up, and for my coming down let field, that is, the faithful congregation, and the me shift for myself.” And then desired he all preacher is the sower. And it is in the gospel: the people thereabout to pray for him, and to Erivit qui seminat seminare semen suum: He bear witness with him, that he should now 35 that soweth, the husbandman, the ploughman, there suffer death in and for the faith of the went forth to sow his seed.” So that a preacher holy Catholic Church. Which done, he kneeled is resembled to a ploughman, as it is in another down, and, after his prayers said, turned to the place: Nemo admota arato manu, et a tergo executioner with a cheerful countenance, and respiciens, aptus est regno Dei. “No man that said unto him, “Pluck up thy spirits, man, and 40 putteth his hand to the plough, and looketh be not afraid to do thine office: my neck is very back, is apt for the kingdom of God." That is short, take heed, therefore, thou strike not to say, let no preacher be negligent in doing his awry for saving of thine honesty.” So passed office. . . . For preaching of the gospel is one Sir Thomas More out of this world to God, of God's ploughworks, and the preacher is upon the very same day which he most desired. 45 one of God's ploughmen. Ye may not be Soon after his death came intelligence thereof ofiended with my similitude, in that I compare to the Emperor Charles, 5 Whereupon he preaching to the labour and work of ploughing, sent for Sir Thomas Eliott, our English am- and the preacher to a ploughman. Ye may not bassador, and said to him, "My Lord ambas- be offended with this my similitude; for I have sador, we understand that the King, your 50 been slandered of some persons for such master, hath put his faithful servant and grave things. . . . A prelate is that man whatsoever wise counsellor, Sir Thomas More, to death." he be, that hath a flock to be taught of him; Whereupon Sir Thomas Eliott answered that whosoever hath any spiritual charge in the he understood nothing thereof. “Well," said faithful congregation, and whosoever he be that the Emperor, “it is too true: and this will we 55 hath cure of souls. . . . And how few of them say, that had we been master of such a servant, there be throughout this realm that give meat 3 A low worthless fellow, a scoundrel.

to their flock as they should do, the visitors can * A gold coin first struck in the reign of Edward IV. best tell. Too few, too few; the more is the

• Charles I., King of Spain, who became Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V. in 1519.

pity, and never so few as now.

By this, then, it appeareth that a prelate, or butterfly glorieth not in her own deeds, nor any that hath cure of souls, must diligently and preferreth the traditions of men before God's substantially work and labour. Therefore word; it committeth not idolatry, nor worsaith Paul to Timothy, Qui episcopatum shippeth false gods. But London cannot abide desiderat, hic bonum opus desiderat: “He that 5 to be rebuked; such is the nature of man. If desireth to have the office of a bishop, or a they be pricked, they will kick; if they be prelate, that man desireth a good work." Then rubbed on the gall, they will wince; but yet they if it be a good work, it is work: ye can make but will not amend their faults, they will not be ill a work of it. It is God's work, God's plough, spoken of. But how shall I speak well of them? and that plough God would have still going. 10 If you could be content to receive and follow Such then as loiter and live idly, are not good the word of God, and favour good preachers, if prelates, or ministers. . . . How many such you could bear to be told of your faults, if you prelates, how many such bishops, Lord, for could amend when you hear of them, if you thy mercy, are there now in England? And would be glad to reform that is amiss; if I what shall we in this case do? shall we company 15 might see any such inclination in you, that with them? O Lord, for thy mercy! shall we leave to be merciless, and begin to be charitable, not company with them? O Lord, whither I would then hope well of you. But London shall we flee from them? But “cursed be he was never so ill as it is now.

In times past that doth the work of God negligently or men were full of pity and compassion, but now guilefully.” A sore word for them that are 20 there is no pity; for in London their brother negligent in discharging their office, or have shall die in the streets for cold, he shall lie sick done it fraudulently; for that is the thing that at the door between stock and stock,? I cannot maketh the people ill.

tell what to call it, and perish there for hunger; But true it must be that Christ saith, Multi was there any more unmercifulness in Nebo? sunt vocati, pauci vero electi: “Many are called, 25 I think not. In times past, when any rich man but few are chosen." ... Now what shall we died in London, they were wont to help the say of these rich citizens of London? What poor scholars of the university with exhibition. shall I say of them? Shall I call them proud When any man died, they would bequeath men of London, malicious men of London, great sums of money toward the relief of the merciless men of London? No, no, I may not 30 poor. When I was a scholar in Cambridge say so; they will be offended with me then.

myself, I heard very good report of London, and Yet must I speak. For is there not reigning in knew many that had relief of the rich men of London as much pride, as much covetousness, London, but now I can hear no such good as much cruelty, as much oppression, as much report, and yet I enquire of it, and hearken for superstition, as was in Nebo?! Yes, I think, 35 it; but now charity is waxen cold, none helpeth and much more too. Therefore I say, repent, the scholar, nor yet the poor. And in those O London; repent, repent. Thou hearest thy days, what did they when they helped the faults told thee, amend them, amend them. scholars? Marry, they maintained and gave I think if Nebo had had the preaching that them livings that were very papists, and prothou hast, they would have converted. And, 40 fessed the pope's doctrine; and now that the you rulers and officers, be wise and circumspect, knowledge of God's word is brought to light, look to your charge, and see you do your duties; and many earnestly study and labour to set it and rather be glad to amend your ill living than forth, now almost no man helpeth to maintain to be angry when you are warned or told of them. your fault. What ado was there made in 45 Oh London, London! repent, repent; for I London at a certain man, because he said (and think God is more displeased with London than indeed at that time on a just cause), “Bur- ever He was with the city of Nebo. Repent gesses!” quoth he, “nay, Butterflies.”! Lord,

Lord, therefore, repent, London, and remember that what ado there was for that word! And yet the same God liveth now that punished Nebo, would God they were no worse than butter- 50 even the same God, and none other; and He will Alies! Butterflies do but their nature: the punish sin as well now as He did then: and He butterfly is not covetous, is not greedy of other will punish the iniquity of London, as well as He men's goods; is not full of envy and hatred, is did then of Nebo. Amend therefore. And ye not malicious, is not cruel, is not merciless. The that be prelates, look well to your office: for

"A city on the east side of the Jordan, which was 55 right prelating, is busy labouring, and not taken from the Israelites by the Moabites.

lording. Therefore preach and teach, and says in a foregoing passage: "Among (the cities of Moab) there was one called Nebo, which was much reproved for let your plough be doing. Ye lords, I say, that idolatry, superstition, pride, avarice, cruelty, tyranny, and for hardness of heart; and for these sins was plagued

live like loiterers, look well to your office: of God and destroyed."

Post and post.

Latimer

the plough is your office and charge. If you live body, so must we also have the other for the idle and loiter, you do not your duty, you satisfaction of the soul, or else we cannot live follow not your vocation: let your plough there long ghostly. For as the body wasteth and fore be going, and not cease, that the ground consumeth away for lack of bodily meat, so may bring forth fruit.

5 doth the soul pine away for default of ghostly But now methinketh I hear one say unto me: meat. But there be two kinds of inclosing, Wot ye what you say? Is it a work? Is it a to let or hinder both these kinds of ploughing; labour? How then hath it happened that we the one is an inclosing to let or hinder the have had so many hundred years so many bodily ploughing, and the other to let or hinder unpreaching prelates, lording loiterers, and idle 10 the holiday-ploughing, the church ploughministers? Ye would have me here to make ing. . . . And as diligently as the husbandman answer, and to shew the cause thereof. Nay, plougheth for the sustentation of the body, so this land is not for me to plough; it is too diligently must the prelates and ministers stony, too thorny, too hard for me to plough. labour for the feeding of the soul: both the They have so many things that make for them, 15 ploughs must still be going, as most necessary many things to lay for themselves, that it is for man. And wherefore are magistrates ornot for my weak team to plough them. They dained, but that the tranquility of the comhave to lay for themselves long customs, monweal may be confirmed, limiting both ceremonies and authority, placing in parlia- ploughs. ment, and many things more. And I fear me 20 But now for the default of unpreaching this land is not yet ripe to be ploughed: for, prelates, methinks I could guess what might be as the saying is, it lacketh weathering:3 this said for excusing of them. They are so troubled gear lacketh weathering; at least way it is not with lordly living, they be so placed in palaces, for me to plough. For what shall I look for couched in courts, ruffiing in their rents, among thorns, but pricking and scratching? 25 dancing in their dominions, burdened with What among stones, but stumbling? What embassages, pampering of their paunches, like a (I had almost said) among serpents, but sting- monk that maketh his jubilee; munching in ing? But this much I dare say, that since their mangers, and moiling in their gay manors lording and loitering hath come up, preaching and mansions, and so troubled with loitering hath come down, contrary to the apostles' 30 in their lordships, that they cannot attend it. times: for they preached and lorded not, and They are otherwise occupied, some in the king's now they lord and preach not. For they that matters, some are ambassadors, some of the be lords will ill go to plough: it is no meet privy council, some to. furnish the court, office for them; it is not seeming for their state. are Lords of the Parliament, some Thus came up lording loiterers: thus crept in 35 are presidents, and some comptrollers of unpreaching prelates; and so have they long mints. continued. For how many unlearned prelates And now I would ask a strange question: have we now at this day? And no marvel: for who is the most diligent bishop and prelate in if the ploughmen that now be were made all England, that passeth all the rest in doing lords, they would clean give over ploughing; 40 his office? I can tell, for I know him, who it is: they would leave off their labour, and fall to I know him well. But now I think I see you lording outright, and let the plough stand: and listening and hearkening that I should name then both ploughs not walking, nothing should him. There is one that passeth all the other, be in the commonweal but hunger. For ever and is the most diligent prelate and preacher in since the prelates were made lords and nobles, 45 all England. And will ye know who it is? the plough standeth, there is no work done, I will tell you: it is the Devil. He is the most the people starve. They hawk, they hunt, they diligent preacher of all other; he is never out card, they dice; they pastime in their prelacies of his diocese; he is never from his cure; ye with gallant gentlemen, with their dancing shall never find him unoccupied; he is ever in minions, and with their fresh companions, so 50 his parish; he keepeth residence at all times; that ploughing is set aside: and by the lording ye shall never find him out of the way, call for and loitering, preaching and ploughing is clean him when you will he is ever at home; the gone. And thus if the ploughmen of the diligentest preacher in all the realm; he is ever country were as negligent in their office as at his plough: no lording nor loitering can prelates be, we should not long live, for lack of 55 hinder him; he is ever applying his business, sustenance. And as it is necessary for to have ye shall never find him idle, I warrant you. ... this ploughing for the sustentation of the

Spiritually.

6 Putting on airs, or swaggering, because of their riches • Exposure to the air for drying purposes.

some

or rents.

Oh that our prelates would be as diligent to

Koger Ascham sow the corn of good doctrine, as Satan is to sow cockle and darnel! ...

1515-1568 But in the meantime the prelates take their

ASCHAM EXPLAINS THE PURPOSE OF pleasures. They are lords, and no labourers, 5 but the devil is diligent at his plough. He is no

HIS BOOK unpreaching prelate: he is no lordly loiterer

(From the Preface to The Schoolmaster, pub. from his cure, but a busy ploughman; so that

1570) among all the prelates, and among all the pack of them that have cure, the devil shall go for 10 Yet some men, friendly enough of nature, my money,' for he still applieth his business. but of small judgment in learning, do think I Therefore ye unpreaching prelates, learn of the take too much pains and spend too much time devil: to be diligent in doing of your office, in setting forth these children's affairs. But learn of the devil: and if you will not learn of those good men were never brought up in God nor of good men for shame learn of the 15 Socrates' school, who saith plainly, that no devil. Howbeit there is now very good hope man goeth about a more goodly purpose, than that the king's majesty, being by the help of he that is mindful of the good bringing up both good governance of his most honourable of his own and other men's children. counsellors, he is trained and brought up in Therefore, I trust, good and wise men will learning, and knowledge of God's word, will 20 think well of this my doing. And of other, shortly provide a remedy, and set an order that think otherwise, I will think myself, they herein; which thing that it may so be, let us are but men to be pardoned for their folly and pray for him. Pray for him, good people: pitied for their ignorance. pray for him. Ye have great cause and need to In writing this book, I have had earnest pray for him.

25 respect to three special points, truth of religion,

honesty in living, right order in learning. In which three ways, I pray God, my poor children

may diligently walk; for whose sake, as nature DESCRIPTION OF HIS FATHER would and reason required and necessity also

30 somewhat compelled, I was the willinger to (From First Sermon preached before King take these pains. Edward VIth, March 8th, 1549)

For, seeing at my death I am not like to

leave them any great store of living, therefore My Father was a yeoman, and had no lands in my lifetime I thought good to bequeath unto of his own, only he had a farm of three or four 35 them in this little book, as in my Will and pounds by year at the uttermost, and hereupon Testament, the right way to good learning: he tilled so much as kept half a dozen men. which if they follow with the fear of God, they He had walk for a hundred sheep; and my shall very well come to sufficiency of living. mother milked thirty kine. He was able and I wish also, with all my heart, that young did find the king a harness, with himself and 40 Mr. Rob. Sackvillemay take that fruit of this his horse, while he came to the place that he labour, that his worthy grandfather purposed should receive the king's wages. I can remem- he should have done; and if any other do take ber that I buckled his harness when he went either profit or pleasure hereby, they have unto Blackheath field. He kept me to school, cause to thank Mr. Robert Sackville, for whom or else I had not been able to have preached 45 specially this my Schoolmaster was provided. before the king's majesty now. He married my sisters with five pounds, or twenty nobles

THE TRAINING OF CHILDREN apiece; so that he brought them up in godliness and fear of God. He kept hospitality for his

(From the same) poor neighbors, and some alms he gave to the 50 poor. And all this did he of the said farm, Yet, some will say, that children of naturel where he that now hath it payeth sixteen love pastime, and mislike learning: because, in pounds by year, or more, and is not able to do their kind, the one is easy and pleasant, the anything for his prince, for himself, nor for other hard and wearisome, which is an opinion his children, or give a cup of drink to the 55 not so true as some men ween: for, the matter poor.

lieth not so much in the disposition of them

1 Second Earl of Dorset (1561-1609), whose education 6 Parish.

was entrusted to Ascham by his grandfather, Sir Richard 7 i. e. I'll stake my money on the devil.

Sackville. 1 A sheep-walk in a pasture.

Naturally.

that be young, as in the order and manner of allured from innocency, delighted in vain bringing up, by them that be old, nor yet in sights, filled with foul talk, crooked with the difference of learning and pastime. For, wilfulness, hardened with stubbornness, and beat a child, if he dance not well, and cherish let loose to disobedience, surely it is hard with him though he learn not well, ye shall have him 5 gentleness, but unpossible with severe cruelty, unwilling to go to dance, and glad to go to his to call them back to good frame again. For, book. Knock him always, when he draweth where the one perchance may bend it, the other his shaft? ill, and favour him again, though he shall surely break it; and so instead of some fault at his book, ye shall have him very loth to hope, leave an assured desperation, and shamebe in the field, and very willing to be in the 10 less contempt of all goodness, the farthest school. Yea, I say more, and not of myself, point in all mischief, as Xenophon doth most but by the judgment of those, from whom few truely and most wittily mark. wise men will gladly dissent, that if ever the Therefore, to love or to hate, to like or connature of man be given at any time, more than temn, to ply this way or that way to good or to other, to receive goodness, it is in innocency of 15 bad, ye shall have as ye use a child in his youth. young years, before that experience of evil have And one example, whether love or fear doth taken root in him. For, the pure clean wit of a work more in a child, for virtue and learning, I sweet young babe is like the newest wax, most will gladly report: which may be heard with able to receive the best and fairest printing: some pleasure, and followed with more profit. and like a new bright silver dish never occupied, 20 Before I went into Germany, I came to Brodeto receive and keep clean any good thing that gate in Leicestershire, to take my leave of that is put into it.

noble Lady Jane Grey,to whom I was exceedAnd thus, will in children, wisely wrought ing much beholden. Her parents, the Duke and withal, may easily be won to be very well Duchess, with all the household, Gentlemen willing to learn. And wit in children, by 25 and Gentlewomen, were hunting in the Park: nature, namely memory, the only key and I found her, in her chamber, reading Phaedon keeper of all learning, is readiest to receive, Platonis in Greek, and that with as much and surest to keep any manner of thing, that is delight, as some gentlemen would read a merry learned in youth: this, lewds and learned, by tale in Bocace. After salutation, and duty common experience, know to be most true. 30 done, with some other talk, I asked her why she For we remember nothing so well when we be would lose such pastime in the Park? Smiling old, as those things which we learned when we she answered me: I wisse, all their sport in the were young: and this is not strange, but com- Park is but a shadow to that pleasure, that I mon in all nature's works. Every man sees find in Plato: Alas good folk, they never felt (as I said before) new wax is best for printing: 35 what true pleasure meant. And how came you new clay, fittest for working: new shorn wool, Madame, quoth I, to this deep knowledge of aptest for soon and surest dying: new fresh pleasure, and what did chiefly allure you unto flesh, for good and durable salting. And this it: seeing, not many women, but very few similitude is not rude, nor borrowed of the men have attained thereunto? I will tell you, larder house, but out of his schoolhouse, of 40 quoth she, and tell you a truth, which perwhom the wisest of England need not be chance ye will marvel at. One of the greatest ashamed to learn. Young grafts grow not only benefits, that ever God gave me, is that he soonest, but also fairest, and bring always forth sent me so sharp and severe parents, and so the best and sweetest fruit: young whelps learn gentle a schoolmaster. For when I am in easily to carry: young poppinjays learn quickly 45 presence either of father or mother, whether to speak: and so, to be short, if in all other I speak, keep silence, sit, stand, or go, eat, things, though they lack reason, sense, and drink, be merry, or sad, be sewing, playing, life, the similitude of youth is fittest to all dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it, as goodness, surely nature, in mankind, is most it were, in such weight, measure, and number, beneficial and effectual in this behalf.

50 even so perfectly as God made the world, or Therefore, if to the goodness of nature be else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatjoined the wisdom of the teacher, in leading ened, yea presently sometimes with pinches, young wits into a right and plain way of nips, and bobs, and other ways, which I will not learning, surely, children, kept up in God's name, for the honour I bear them, so without fear, and governed by His grace, may most 55 measure misordered, that I think myself in easily be brought well to serve God and country

*Lady Jane Grey (c. 1537-1554), great grand-daughter both by virtue and wisdom.

of Henry VIIth was made queen at 17, by ambitious

and self-seeking men. But if will and wit, by farther age, be once

She reigned for nine days and 3 Unlearned.

6 Boccaccio. 7 Indeed.

was then beheaded in the tower.

6 The Phædo of Plato.

2 Arrow.

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