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and in confidence you speak the truth, I shall Lucian, well skill'd in scoffing, this hath writ: put on a boldness to ask you, Sir, whether Friend, that's your folly which you think your wit: business or pleasure caused you to be so early This you vent ost, void both of wit and fear, up, and walk so fast; for this other gentleman Meaning another, when yourself you jeer.hath declared he is going to see a hawk that a 5 friend mews for him.

If to this you add what Solomon says of VEN. Sir, mine is a mixture of both, a little scoffers, that, “they are an abomination to business and more pleasure: for I intend this mankind,” (Prov. xxiv. 9), let him that thinks day to do all my business, and then bestow fit, scoff on, and be a scoffer still; but I account another day or two in hunting the otter, which, 10 them enemies to me, and to all that love virtue a friend, that I go to meet, tells me, is much and Angling pleasanter than any other chase whatsoever: And for you that have heard many grave, howsoever I mean to try it; for to-morrow serious men pity Anglers; let me tell you, Sir, morning we shall meet a pack of otter-dogs of there be many men that are by others taken noble Mr. Sadler's,» upon Amwell Hill,“ who 15 to be serious and grave men, which we contemn will be there so early, that they intend to pre- and pity. Men that are taken to be grave, vents the sun rising.

because nature hath made them of a sour comPisc. Sir, my fortune has answered my de- plexion, money-getting men, men that spend sires; and my purpose is to bestow a day or all their time, first in getting, and next in two in helping to destroy some of those vil- 20 anxious care to keep it; men that are conlanous vermin; for I hate them perfectly, demned to be rich, and then always busy or because they love fish so well, or rather, be- discontented: for these poor-rich-men, we cause they destroy so much; indeed, so much, Anglers pity them perfectly, and stand in no that, in my judgment all men that keep otter- need to borrow their thoughts to think ourselves dogs ought to have pensions from the King to 25 so happy. No, no. Sir, we enjoy a contentedencourage them to destroy the very breed of ness above the reach of such dispositions, and those base otters, they do so much mischief. as the learned and ingenious Montaigne says

Ven. But what say you to the foxes of the like himself freely, “When my cat and I enternation? Would not you as willingly have them tain each other with mutual apish tricks, as destroyed? for doubtless they do as much mis- 30 playing with a garter, who knows but that I chief as otters do.

make my cat more sport than she makes me? Pisc. Oh, Sir, if they do, it is not so much to Shall I conclude her to be simple, that has her me and my fraternity as those base vermin the time to begin or refuse to play as freely as I otters do.

myself have? Nay, who knows but that it is a Auc. Why, Sir, I pray, of what fraternity are 35 defect of my not understanding her language you, that you are so angry with the poor otters? (for doubtless cats talk and reason with one

Pisc. I am, Sir, a Brother of the Angle, and another) that we agree no better? And who therefore an enemy to the otter: for you are to knows but that she pities me for being no wiser note that we Anglers all love one another, and than to play with her, and laughs and censures therefore do I hate the otter both for my own 40 my folly for making sport for her, when we two and for their sakes who are of my brotherhood. play together?”

Ven. And I am a lover of hounds; I have Thus freely speaks Montaigne concerning followed many a pack of dogs many a mile, and cats; and I hope I may take as great a liberty heard many merry huntsmen make sport and to blame any man, and laugh at him too, let scoff at anglers.

45 him be never so grave, that hath not heard what Auc. And I profess myself a Falconer, and Anglers can say in the justification of their art have heard many grave, serious men pity and recreation; which I may again tell you is so them, 'tis such a heavy, contemptible, dull full of pleasure, that we need not borrow their recreation.

thoughts to think ourselves happy. Pisc. You know, gentlemen 'tis an easy 50 Ven. Sir, you have almost amazed me; for thing to scoff at any art or recreation: a little though I am no scoffer, yet I have, I pray let wit, mixed with ill-nature, confidence, and me speak it without offence, always looked upon malice, will do it; but though they often venture Anglers as more patient and more simple men boldly, yet they are often caught even in their than I fear I shall find you to be. own trap, according to that of Lucian, the-55 Pisc. Sir, I hope you will not judge my father of the family of scoffers.

earnestness to be impatience: and for my 3 A well-known sportsman and country-gentleman of simplicity, if by that you mean a harmlessness, the time.

or that simplicity which was usually found in 4 Amwell is a small village a few miles south of Ware. - Anticipate the sunrise.

the primitive Christians, who were, as most


Anglers are, quiet men, and followers of peace, have her wings scorched by the sun's heat, she men that were so simply-wise as not to sell their flies so near it, but her mettle makes her careconsciences to buy riches, and with them less of danger; for she then needs nothing, but vexation and a fear to die; if you mean such makes her nimble pinions cut the fluid air, simple men as lived in those times when there 5 and so makes her high way over the steepest were fewer lawyers; when men might have had mountains and deepest rivers, and in her a lordship safely conveyed to them in a piece of glorious career looks with contempt upon parchment no bigger than your hand, though those high steeples and magnificent palaces several sheets will not do it safely in this wiser which we adore and wonder at; from which age; I say, Sir, if you take us Anglers to be 10 height I can make her to descend by a word such simple men as I have spoken of, then from my mouth (which she both knows and myself and those of my profession will be glad obeys), to accept of meat from my hand, to to be so understood: but if by simplicity you own me for her master, to go home with me meant to express a general defect in those that and be willing the next day to afford me the profess and practise the excellent art of Angling 15 like recreation. I hope in time to disabuse you, and make the And more; this element of air which I procontrary appear so evidently, that, if you will fess to trade in, the worth of it is such, and it but have patience to hear me, I shall remove is of such necessity, that no creature whatsoall the anticipations that discourse, or time, or ever, not only those numerous creatures that prejudice, have possessed you with against 20 feed on the face of the earth, but those various that laudable and ancient art; for I know it is creatures that have their dwelling within the worthy the knowledge and practice of a wise waters, -every creature that hath life in its

nostrils stands in need of my element. The But, gentlemen, though I be able to do this, waters cannot preserve the fish without air, I am not so unmannerly as to engross all the 25 witness the not breaking of ice in an extreme discourse to myself; and therefore, you two frost: the reason is, for that if the inspiring and having declared yourselves, the one to be expiring organ of any animal be stopped, it a lover of hawks, the other of hounds, I shall suddenly yields to nature, and dies. Thus be most glad to hear what you can say in the necessary is air to the existence both of fish commendation of that recreation which each 30 and beasts, nay, even to man himself; that of you love and practise; and having heard air, or breath of life with which God at first what you can say, I shall be glad to exercise inspired mankind (Gen. ii. 7), he, if he wants your attention with what I can say concerning it, dies presently, becomes a sad object to all my own recreation and art of Angling, and by that loved and beheld him, and in an instant this means we shall make the way to seem the 35 turns to putrefaction. shorter: and if you like my motion, I would Nay, more, the very birds of the air, those have Mr. Falconer to begin.

that be not hawks, are both so many and so Auc. Your motion is consented to with all useful and pleasant to mankind, that I must my heart; and, to testify it, I will begin as you not let them pass without some observations: have desired me.

40 they both feed and refresh him: feed him with And first for the element that I used to trade their choice bodies, and refresh him with their in, which is the air, an element of more worth heavenly voices. I will not undertake to menthan weight, an element that doubtless exceeds tion the several kinds of fowl by which this is both the earth and water; for though I some- done; and his curious palate pleased by day, times deal in both, yet the air is most properly 45 and which with their very excrements& afford mine, I and my hawks use that most, and it him a soft lodging at night. These I will pass yields us most recreation; it stops not the high by, but not those little nimble musicians of soaring of my noble, generous falcon; in it she the air, that warble forth their curious ditties, ascends to such an height, as the dull eyes of with which nature hath furnished them to the beasts and fish are not able to reach to; their 50 shame of art. bodies are too gross for such high elevations: As first, the lark, when she means to rejoice, in the air my troops of hawks soar up on high, to cheer herself and those that hear her, she and when they are lost in the sight of men, then quits the earth, and sings as she ascends then they attend upon and converse with the higher into the air; and, having ended her gods; therefore I think my eagle is so justly 55 heavenly employment, grows then mute and styled Jove's servant in ordinary: and that very sad to think she must descend to the dull falcon, that I am now going to see, deserves earth, which she would not touch but for neno meaner a title, for she usually in her flight cessity. endangers herself, like the son of Dædalus, to &i. e., their feathers; used to stuff beds, pillows, etc.

How do the blackbird and thrassel? with nourisheth, and descend to the least of creatheir melodious voices bid welcome to the tures, how doth the earth afford us a doctrinal cheerful spring, and in their fixed mouths example in the little emmet, who in the summer warble forth such ditties as no art or instrument provides and lays up her winter provision, and can reach to!

5 teaches man to do the like! The earth feeds Nay, the smaller birds also do the like in their and carries those horses that carry us. If I particular seasons, as namely the laverock, s would be prodigal of my time and your pathe titlark, the little linnet, and the honest tience, what might not I say in commendation robin, that loves mankind both alive and dead. of the earth? that puts limits to the proud and

But the nightingale, another of my airy 10 raging sea, and by that means preserves both crcatures, breathes such sweet loud music out man and beast, that it destroys them not, as of her little instrumental throat, that it might we see it daily doth those that venture upon the make mankind to think miracles are not sea, and are there shipwrecked, drowned, and ceased. He that at midnight, when the very left to feed haddocks; when we that are so labourer sleeps securely, should hear, as I have 15 wise as to keep ourselves on earth, walk, and very often, the clear airs, the sweet descants, talk, and live, and eat, and drink, and go a the natural rising and falling, the doubling hunting: of which recreation I will say a little, and redoubling of her voice, might well be and then leave Mr. Piscator to the commendalifted above earth, and say, “Lord, what tion of Angling. music hast thou provided for the saints in 20 Hunting is a game for Princes and noble heaven, when thou affordest bad men such persons; it hath been highly prized in all ages; music on earth!”

it was one of the qualifications that Xenophon VEN. Well, Sir, and I will now take my turn, bestowed on his Cyrus, that he was a hunter and will first begin with a commendation of of wild beasts. Hunting trains up the younger the earth, as you have done most excellently of 25 uobility to the use of manly exercises in their the air; the earth being that element upon iper age. What more manly exercise than which I drive my pleasant, wholesome, hungry hunting the wild-boar, the stag, the buck, trade. The earth is a solid, settled element; the fox, or the hare! How doth it preserve an element most universally beneficial both to health, and increase strength and activity! man and beast: to men who have their several 30 And for the dogs that we use, who can comrecreations upon it, as horse-races, hunting, mend their excellency to that height which sweet smells, pleasant walks: the earth seeds they deserve? How perfect is the hound at man, and all those several beasts that both smelling, who never leaves or forsakes his feed him and afford him recreation. What first scent, but follows it through so many pleasure doth man take in hunting the stately 35 changes and varieties of other scents, even over stag, the generous buck, the wild-boar, the and in the water, and into the earth! What cunning otter, the crafty fox, and the fearful music doth a pack of dogs then make to any hare! And if I may descend to a lower game, man, whose heart and ears are so happy as what pleasure is it sometimes with gins to to be set to the tune of such instruments! How betray the very vermin of the carth! as namely, 40 will a right greyhound fix his eye on the best the fitchet,' the fulimart, the ferret, the pole- buck in a herd, single him out, and follow him, cat, the mouldwarp, 10 and the like creatures and him only, through a whole herd of rascal11 that live upon the face and within the bowels game, and still know and then kill him! For of the earth! How doth the earth bring forth my hounds, I know the language of them, and herbs, flowers, and fruits, both for physic and 45 they know the language and meaning of one the pleasure of mankind! and above all, to me another, as perfectly as we know the voices at least, the fruitful vine, of which when I of those with whom we discourse daily. drink moderately it clears my brain, cheers I might enlarge myself in the commendation my heart, and sharpens my wit. How could of hunting, and of the noble hound especially, Cleopatra have feasted Mark Antony with 50 as also of the docibleness of dogs in general; eight wild-boars roasted whole at one supper, and I might make many observations of landand other meat suitable, if the earth had not creatures, that for composition, order, figure, been a bountiful mother? But to pass by the and constitution, approach nearest to the mighty elephant, which the earth breeds and completeness and understanding of man; es? Throstle, song-thrush.

55 pecially of those creatures which Moses in the Lark, skylark.

law permitted to the Jews, (Lev. ix. 2–8), 9 The filchet, or fitchew, the fulimart (fumart, or foulmart), and the pole-cat closely resemble each other, all which have cloven hoofs and chew the cud, belong to the same family as the martens, weasels, ouers, and badgers.

11 "Animals unfit to chase or kill on account of ignoble 19 The common mole.

quality or lean condition."

which I shall forbear to name, because I will increase of wood to be from water of rain, or not be so uncivil to Mr. Piscator, as not to from dew, and not to be from any other eleallow him a time for the commendation of ment. And they affirm, they can reduce this angling, which he calls an art; but doubtless wood back again to water; and they affirm, 'tis an easy one: and, Mr. Auceps, I doubt we 5 also, the same may be done in any animal or shall hear a watery discourse of it, but I hope vegetable. And this I take to be a fair testi'twill not be a long one.

mony of the excellency of my element of Auc. And I hope so too, though I fear it water. will.

The water is more productive than the earth. Pisc. Gentlemen, let not prejudice pre- 10 Nay, the earth hath no fruitfulness without possess you. I confess my discourse is like to showers or dews; for all the herbs, and flowers prove suitable to my recreation, calm and and fruits, are produced and thrive by the quiet; we seldom take the name of God into water; and the very minerals are fed by streams our mouths, but it is either to praise Him or that run underground, whose natural course pray to Him; if others use it vainly in the midst 15 carries them to the tops of many high mounof their recreations, so vainly as if they meant tains, as we see by several springs breaking to conjure, I must tell you it is neither our forth on the tops of the highest hills; and this fault nor our custom; we protest against it. is also witnessed by the daily trial and testiBut pray remember, I accuse nobody; for as mony of several miners. I would not make "a watery discourse," so 20 Nay, the increase of those creatures that I would not put too much vinegar into it; nor are bred and fed in the water are not only would I raise the reputation of my own art more and more miraculous, but more advanby the diminution of another's.

And so

tageous to man, not only for the lengthening much for the prologue to what I meant to of his life, but for the preventing of sickness; say.

25 for 'tis observed by the most learned physiAnd now for the water, the element that I cians, that the casting off of Lent and other trade in. The water is the eldest daughter of fish days, which hath not only given the lie the creation, the element upon which the to so many learned, pious, wise founders of Spirit of God did first move (Gen. i. 2), the colleges, for which we should be ashamed, element which God commanded to bring forth 30 hath doubtless been the chief cause of those living creatures abundantly; and without which many putrid, shaking, intermitting agues, those that inhabit the land, even all creatures unto which this nation of ours is now more that have breath in their nostrils, must sud- subject than those wiser countries that feed denly return to putrefaction. Moses, the great on herbs, salads, and plenty of fish; of which law giver, and chief philosopher, skilled in all 35 it is observed in story, that the greatest part the learning of the Egyptians, who was called of the world now do. And it may be fit to rethe friend of God, and knew the mind of the member that Moses (Lev. xi. 9, Deut. xiv. 9) Almighty, names this element the first in the appointed fish to be the chief diet for the best creation; this is the element upon which the commonwealth that ever yet was. Spirit of God did first move, and is the chief 40 And it is observable, not only that there are ingredient in the creation: many philosophers fish, as namely, the whale, three times as big have made it to comprehend all the other ele- as the mighty elephant, that is so fierce in ments, and most allow it the chiefest in the battle; but that the mightiest feasts have been mixtion!? of all living creatures.

of fish. The Romans in the height of their There be that profess to believe that all 45 glory have made fish the mistress of all their bodies are made of water, and may be reduced entertainments; they have had music to usher back again to water only; they endeavour to in their sturgeons, lampreys, 13 and mullets, demonstrate it thus:

which they would purchase at rates rather to Take a willow, or any like speedy-growing be wondered at than believed. He that shall plant, newly rooted in a box or barrel full of 50 view the writings of Macrobius, 14 or Varro, 15 earth, weigh them all together exactly when may be confirmed and informed of this, and of the trees begin to grow, and then weigh all

13 The lamprey, when full grown, resembles an eel, together after the tree is increased from its

and is considered a delicacy. first rooting to weigh an hundred pound weight

11 A Latin writer of the fifth century. In his Conriria

Saturnalia, he speaks of a certain Roman villa which, more than when it was first rooted and weighed; 55 although not large, was put up for sale at four million and you shall find this augment of the tree to sesterces, because of its fish ponds.

15 Marcus Terentius Varro Realinus (116-28 B. C.), a be without the diminution of one drachm

voluminous writer, called "the most learned of the weight of the earth. Hence they infer this

Romans.In his treatise on husbandry he speaks of the

fresh and salt water fish ponds of the Romans. (De Re 12 Mixture.

Rustica, III. 17, 2).

the incredible value of their fish and fish- saved; but his second will was, that those only ponds.

should be saved that did live answerable to that degree of grace which he had offered or

afforded them.” SELECTION FROM THE LIFE OF 5 But the justifying of this doctrine did not HOOKER

prove of so bad consequence, as the kindness

of Mrs. Churchman's curing him of his late (From Walton's Lives, 1665)

distemper and cold; for that was so gratefully

apprehended by Mr. Hooker, that he thought I return to Mr. Hooker in his college,' where 10 himself bound in conscience to believe all he continued his studies with all quietness, for that she said: so the good man came to be the space of three years; about which time he persuaded by her, "that he was a man of entered into sacred orders, being then made tender constitution; and that it was best for deacon and priest, and, not long after, was him to have a wife, that might prove a nurse appointed to preach at St. Paul's Cross. 15 to him; such a one as might both prolong his

In order to which Sermon, to London he life, and make it more comfortable; and such came, and immediately to the Shunamite's a one she could and would provide for him, house;? which is a house so called, for that, if he thought fit to marry.” And he, not conbesides the stipend paid the preacher, there is sidering that “the children of this world are provision made also for his lodging and diet 20 wiser in their generation than the children of for two days before, and one day after his light;" but, like a true Nathanael, fearing no sermon. This house was then kept by John guile, because he meant none, did give her Churchman, sometime a draper of good note such a power as Eleazar was trusted with,in Watling Street, upon whom poverty had you may read it in the book of Genesis,—when at last come like an armed man, and brought 25 he was sent to choose a wife for Isaac; for even him into a necessitous condition; which, though so he trusted her to choose for him, promising it be a punishment, is not always an argument upon a fair summons to return to London, and of God's disfavor; for he was a virtuous man. accept her choice; and he did so in that, or I shall not yet give the like testimony of his about the year following. Now, the wife wife, but leave the reader to judge by what 30 provided for him was her daughter Joan, who follows. But to this house Mr. Hooker came brought him neither beauty nor portion: and so wet, so weary, and weatherbeaten, that he for her conditions, they were too like that wife's, was never known to express more passion, which is by Solomon compared to a dripping than against a friend that dissuaded him from house; so that the good man had no reason to footing it to London, and for finding him no 35" rejoice in the wife of his youth;” but too just easier a horse,-supposing the horse trotted cause to say with the holy prophet, “Woe is when he did not;—and at this time also, such me, that I am constrained to have my habitaa faintness and fear possessed him, that he tion in the tents of Kedar.” would not be persuaded two days' rest and This choice of Mr. Hooker's--if it were his quietness, or any other means could be used 40 choice-may be wondered at; but let us conto make him preach his Sunday's sermon: but a sider that the Prophet Ezekiel says, “There warm bed, and rest, and drink proper for a is a wheel within a wheel;" a secret sacred cold, given him by Mrs. Churchman, and her wheel of Providence,-most visible in mardiligent attendance added unto it, enabled him riages,-guided by His hand that “allows not to perform the office of the day, which was in 45 the race to the swift ”nor “bread to the wise,” or about the year 1581.

nor good wives to good men: and he that can And in this first public appearance to the bring good out of evil-for mortals are blind world, he was not so happy as to be free from to this reason-only knows why this blessing exceptions against a point of doctrine delivered was denied to patient Job, to meek Moses, in his sermon; which was, “That in God there 50 and to our as meek and patient Mr. Hooker. were two wills; an antecedent and a consequent But so it was; and let the reader cease to wonwill; his first will that all mankind should be der, for affliction is a divine diet; which though

it be not pleasing to mankind, yet Almighty li. e., Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Hooker was sent

God hath often, very often, imposed it as good, to Oxford in 1567, when he was in his fifteenth year. He graduated M. A. in 1577, and obtained his Fellowship in 55 though bitter physic to those children whose

About three years later (having taken souls are dearest to him. boly orders in 1581) he received the appointment to preach in London to which Walton here refers.

And by this marriage the good man was 2 A reference to the woman of Shunem (Shuna mile) who entertained the prophet Elisha, and “constrained him to

drawn from the tranquility of his college; from eat bread." II Kings, iv, 8:11.

the garden of piety, of pleasure, of peace, and

the same year.

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