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keep sight of the enemy. They were observed fleet! For myself individually,–I commit so well that all their motions were made known my life to Him that made me, and may Hs to him, and, as they wore twice, he inferred that blessing alight on my endeavours for serving that they were aiming to keep the port of Cadiz my country faithfully! To Him I resign my. open, and would retreat there as soon as they 5 self, and the just cause which is entrusted to saw the British fleet; for this reason he was very me to defend. Amen, Amen, Amen." careful not to approach near enough to be seen Blackwood went on board the Victory about by them during the night. At daybreak the com- six. He found him in good spirits, but very bined fleets' were distinctly seen from the Vic- calm; not in that exhilaration which he had tory's deck, formed in a close line of battle ahead, 10 felt upon entering into battle at Aboukir ani on the starboard tack, about twelve miles to Copenhagen; he knew that his own life would leeward, and standing to the south. Our fleet be particularly aimed at, and seems to have consisted of twenty-seven sail of the line and looked for death with almost as sure an er. four frigates;10 theirs of thirty-three and seven pectation as for victory. His whole attention large frigates. Their superiority was greater in 15 was fixed upon the enemy. They tacked to the size and weight of metal than in numbers. northward, and formed their line on the larThey had four thousand troops on board; and board tack; thus bringing the shoals of Tralalthe best riflemen who could be procured, many gar and St. Pedro under the lee of the British of them Tyrolese, were dispersed through the and keeping the port of Cadiz open for themships. Little did the Tyrolese, and little did 20 selves. This was judiciously done; and Nelson, the Spaniards at that day, imagine what horrors aware of all the advantages which it gave them, the wicked tyrant whom they served was pre- made signal to prepare to anchor. paring for their country.

Villeneuvel3 was a skilful seaman, worthy Soon after daylight Nelson came upon deck. of serving a better master and a better cause. The 21st of October was a festival in his family, 25 His plan of defence was as well conceived and because on that day his uncle, Captain Suckling as original as the plan of attack. He formed in the Dreadnought, with two other line-of- the fleet in a double line, every alternate ship battle ships, had beaten off a French squadron being about a cable's length to windward of of four sail of the line and three frigates. 11 her second ahead and astern. Nelson, certain Nelson, with that sort of superstition from 30 of a triumphant issue to the day, asked Blackwhich few persons are entirely exempt, had wood what he should consider as a victory. more than once expressed his persuasion that That officer answered that, considering the this was to be the day of his battle also, and he handsome way in which battle was offered by was well pleased at seeing his prediction about the enemy, their apparent determination for to be verified. The wind was now from the 35 a fair trial of strength, and the situation of the west-light breezes, with a long heavy swell. land, he thought it would be a glorious result if Signal was made to bear down upon the enemy fourteen were captured. He replied: "I shall in two lines, and the fleet set all sail. Colling- not be satisfied with less than twenty.” Soon wood, 12 in the Royal Sovereign, led the lee line afterwards he asked him if he did not think of thirteen ships; the Victory led the weather 40 there was a signal wanting. Captain Blackline of fourteen. Having seen that all was as it wood made answer that he thought the whole should be, Nelson retired to his cabin and wrote fleet seemed very clearly to understand what the following prayer:-“May the great God they were about. These words were scarcely whom I worship grant to my country, and for spoken before that signal was made which will the benefit of Europe in general, a great and 45 be remembered as long as the language or even glorious victory, and may no misconduct in the memory of England shall endure-Nelson's anyone tarnish it, and may humanity after vic- last signal: “ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO tory be the predominant feature in the British DO HIS DUTY!" It was received throughout the

fleet with a shout of answering acclamation, • In 1805 Spain formed an alliance with France, and 50 made sublime by the spirit which it breathed agreed to furnish twenty-five ships of the line and eleven frigates for the combined fleet.

and the feeling which it expressed. “Now," 10 Sail of the line corresponded to the modern battle

said Lord Nelson, “I can do no more. We ships and were so called because of their heavy arma. ment, which enabled them to take a place in the line of must trust to the great Disposer of all events battle. Frigates were fast sailers, corresponding to the and the justice of our cause. I thank God for modern cruisers; Nelson called them “the eyes of the ficet."

55 this great opportunity of doing my duty.". 11 The action referred to took place in 1757 off Cape Francis in the West Indies, when Capt. Suckling, under

He wore that day, as usual, his Admiral's Coinmodore Forrest attacked and disabled a powerful frock-coat, bearing on the left breast four stars French squadron.

of the different orders with which he was in1. Cuthbert Collingwood (1750-1810) was next in command to Nelson, with the rank of Vice-Admiral.

18 The French Admiral. "A cable's length is 600 feet.

vested. Ornaments which rendered him so Villeneuve had made his own dispositions with conspicuous a mark for the enemy were beheld the utmost skill, and the fleets under his comwith ominous apprehensions by his officers. mand waited for the attack with perfect coolIt was known that there were riflemen on board ness. Ten minutes before twelve they opened the French ships, and it could not be doubted 5 their fire. Eight or nine of the ships immedibut that his life would be particularly aimed at. ately ahead of the Victory, and across her They communicated their fears to each other, bows, fired single guns at her to ascertain and the surgeon, Mr. Beatty, 15 spoke to the whether she was yet within their range. As chaplain, Dr. Scott, and to Mr. Scott, the public soon as Nelson perceived that their shot passed secretary, desiring that some person would 10 over him he desired Blackwood and Captain entreat him to change his dress or cover the Prowse, of the Sirius, to repair to their respecstars; but they knew that such a request would tive frigates, and on their way to tell all the highly displease him. “In honour I gained captains of the line-of-battle ships that he de them,” he had said when such a thing had been pended on their exertions, and that, if by the hinted to him formerly, “and in honour I will 15 prescribed mode of attack they found it imdie with them.” Mr. Beatty, however, would practicable to get into action immediately, not have been deterred by any fear of exciting they might adopt whatever they thought best, his displeasure from speaking to him himself provided it led them quickly and closely alongupon a subject in which the weal of England, side an enemy. As they were standing on the as well as the life of Nelson, was concerned; but 20 front of the poop, Blackwood took him by he was ordered from the deck before he could the hand, saying he hoped soon to return and find an opportunity. This was a point upon find him in possession of twenty prizes. He which Nelson's officers knew that it was hope- replied, "God bless you, Blackwood; I shall less to remonstrate or reason with him; but never see you again.” both Blackwood and his own captain, Hardy, 25 Nelson's column was steered about two represented to him how advantageous to the points more to the north than Collingwood's, fleet it would be for him to keep out of action in order to cut off the enemy's escape into as long as possible, and he consented at last Cadiz. The lee line, therefore, was first ento let the Leviathan and the Téméraire, which gaged. "See,” cried Nelson, pointing to the were sailing abreast of the Victory, be ordered 30 Royal Sovereign, 17 as she steered right for the to pass ahead. Yet even here the last infirmity centre of the enemy's line, cut through it astern of this noble mind was indulged, for these of the Santa Anna, three-decker, and engaged ships could not pass ahead if the Victory con- her at the muzzle of her guns on the starboard tinued to carry all her sail, and so far was Nel- side; "see how that noble fellow Collingwood son from shortening sail that it was evident he 35 carries his ship into action!” Collingwood, took pleasure in pressing on, and rendering it delighted at being first in the heat of the fire, impossible for them to obey his own orders. A and knowing the feelings of his Commander long swell was setting into the Bay of Cadiz. and old friend, turned to his captain and exOur ships, crowding all sail, moved majestically claimed, “Rotherham, what would Nelson give before it, with light winds from the south-west. 40 to be here!” Both these brave officers perhaps The sun shone on the sails of the enemy; and at this moment thought of Nelson with gratitheir well-formed line, with their numerous tude for a circumstance which had occurred three-deckers, made an appearance which any on the preceding day. Admiral Collingwood, other assailants would have thought formid- with some of the captains, having gone on able; but the British sailors only admired the 45 board the Victory to receive instructions, Nelson beauty and the splendour of the spectacle, inquired of him where his captain was, and and, in full confidence of winning what they was told in reply that they were not upon good saw, remarked to each other what a fine sight terms with each other. “Terms!” said Nelson, yonder ships would make at Spithead.16

"good terms with each other!" Immediately The French Admiral, from the Bucentaure 50 he sent a boat for Captain Rotherham, led beheld the new manner in which his enemy was him, as soon as he arrived, to Collingwood, and advancing-Nelson and Collingwood each lead- saying, “Look, yonder are the enemy!" bade ing his line; and pointing them out to his of- them shake hands like Englishmen. ficers, he is said to have exclaimed that such The enemy continued to fire a gun at a time conduct could not fail to be successful. Yet 55 at the Victory till they saw that a shot had 16 Afterwards Sir William Beatty, physician to the

passed through her main-top-gallant sail; then fleet. Beatty's Narration of Lord Nelson's Death was Southey's chief authority for this part of his book.

17 Collingwood's ship, being new-coppered, outsailed 16 Off the south coast of England, between the Isle of the other ships by three-quarters of a mile, and for twenty Wight and Portsmouth; a station for the British navy, minutes stood the combined fire of the enemy alone.

they opened their broadsides, aiming chiefly in his tops; he had a strong dislike to the praaat her rigging, in the hope of disabling her tice, not merely because it endangers setting before she could close with them. Nelson, as fire to the sails, but also because it is a murusual, had hoisted several flags, lest one should derous sort of warfare, by which individuals be shot away. The enemy showed no colours 5 may suffer, and a commander now and then till late in the action, when they began to feel be picked off, but which never can decide the the necessity of having them to strike. For fate of a general engagement. this reason the Santissima Trinidad-Nelson's Captain Harvey, in the Téméraire, fell on old acquaintance, as he used to call her—was board the Redoublable on the other side; andistinguishable only by her four decks, and to 10 other enemy was in like manner on board the the bow of this opponent he ordered the Victory Téméraire; so that these four ships formed as to be steered. Meantime an incessant raking fire compact a tier as if they had been moored to was kept up upon the Victory. The Admiral's gether, their heads all lying the same way. secretary was one of the first who fell; he was The lieutenants of the Victory, seeing this killed by a cannon-shot while conversing with 15 depressed their guns of the middle and lower Hardy. Captain Adair, of the marines, with decks, and fired with a diminished charge, the help of a sailor, endeavoured to remove lest the shot should pass through and injure the body from Nelson's sight, who had a great the Téméraire; and because there was danger regard for Mr. Scott; but he anxiously asked, that the Redoublable might take fire from the "Is that poor Scott that's gone?” and being 20 lower-deck guns, the muzzles of which touched informed that it was indeed so, exclaimed, her side when they were run out, the fireman Poor fellow!” Presently a double-headed of each gun stood ready with a bucket of water, shot struck a party of marines who were drawn which, as soon as the gun was discharged, he up on the poop, and killed eight of them, upon dashed into the hole made by the shot. An which Nelson immediately desired Captain 25 incessant fire was kept up from the Victory from Adair to disperse his men round the ship, that both sides; her larboard guns playing upon the they might not suffer so much from being to- Bucentaure and the huge Santissima Trinidad. gether. A few minutes afterwards a shot struck It had been part of Nelson's prayer that the the fore-brace bits on the quarter-deck, and British fleet might be distinguished by humanpassed between Nelson and Hardy, a splinter 30 ity in the victory which he expected. Setting from the bit tearing off Hardy's buckle and an example himself, he twice gave orders to bruising his foot. Both stopped and looked cease firing upon the Redoubtable, supposing anxiously at each other: each supposed the other that she had struck, because her great guns were to be wounded. Nelson then smiled, and said: silent; for, as she carried no flag, there was no “This is too warm work, Hardy, to last long." 35 means of instantly ascertaining the fact. From

The Victory had not yet returned a single this ship, which he had thus twice spared, he gun; fifty of her men had been by this time received his death. A ball fired from her killed or wounded, and her main-topmast, with mizzen-top, which in the then situation of the all her studding-sails and their booms, shot two vessels was not more than fifteen yards away. Nelson declared that in all his battles 40 from that part of the deck where he was standhe had seen nothing which surpassed the cool ing struck the epaulette on his left shoulder courage of his crew on this occasion. At four about a quarter after one, just in the heat of minutes after twelve she opened her fire from action. He fell upon his face, on the spot which both sides of her deck. It was not possible to was covered with his poor secretary's blood. break the enemy's line without running on 45 Hardy, who was a few steps from him, turning board 18 one of their ships; Hardy informed him round, saw three men raising him up. "They of this, and asked him which he would prefer. have done for me at last, Hardy!" said he. Nelson replied: “Take your choice, Hardy; it "I hope not!" cried Hardy. “Yes," he replied, does not signify much." The master was "my back-bone is shot through!" Yet even ordered to put the helm to port, and the Victory 50 now, not for a moment losing his presence of ran on board the Redoubtable just as her tiller- mind, he observed, as they were carrying him ropes were shot away. The French ship re- down the ladder, that the tiller-ropes, which had ceived her with a broadside, then instantly let been shot away, were not yet replaced, and down her lower-deck ports for fear of being ordered that new ones should be rove imboarded through them, and never afterwards 55 mediately. Then, that he might not be seen fired a great gun during the action. Her tops, by the crew, he took out his handkerchief, like those of all the enemy's ships, were filled and covered his face and his stars. Had he but with riflemen. Nelson never placed musketry concealed these badges of honour from the 18 Alongside, for boarding purposes.

enemy, England perhaps would not have had

cause to receive with sorrow the news of the ascertain this, said to him: “You know I am battle of Trafalgar. The cockpit was crowded gone. I know it. I feel something rising in with wounded and dying men, over whose my breast”-putting his hand on his left side bodies he was with some difficulty conveyed, "which tells me so." And upon Beatty's inand laid upon a pallet in the midshipmen's 5 quiring whether his pain was very great, he berth. It was soon perceived upon examina- replied, “So great that he wished he was dead. tion that the wound was mortal. This, how- Yet,” said he in a lower voice, “one would like ever, was concealed from all except Captain to live a little longer too!” And after a few Hardy, the chaplain, and the medical attend- minutes, in the same under-tone, he added: ants. He himself being certain, from the sensa- 10 “What would become of poor Lady Hamilton tion in his back and the gush of blood he felt if she knew my situation?" Next to his counmomently within his breast, that no human try she occupied his thoughts. Captain Hardy, care could avail him, insisted that the surgeon some fifty minutes after he had left the cockpit, should leave him, and attend to those to whom returned, and again taking the hand of his dyhe might be useful; “for,” said he, “you can 15 ing friend and Commander, congratulated him do nothing for me.' All that could be done on having gained a complete victory. How was to fan him with paper, and frequently to many of the enemy were taken he did not give him lemonade to alleviate his intense know, as it was impossible to perceive them thirst. He was in great pain, and expressed distinctly, but fourteen or fifteen at least. much anxiety for the event of the action, which 20 "That's well!” cried Nelson, “but I bargained now began to declare itself. As often as a ship for twenty.” And then in a stronger voice he struck, the crew of the Victory hurraed, and said: “Anchor, Hardy, anchor.” Hardy upon at every hurra a visible expression of joy this hinted that Admiral Collingwood would gleamed in the eyes and marked the counte- take upon himself the direction of affairs. “Not nance of the dying hero. But he became im- 25 while I live, Hardy," said the dying Nelson, patient to see Captain Hardy; and as that ineffectually endeavouring, to raise himself officer, though often sent for, could not leave from the bed. “Do you anchor.” His previous the deck, Nelson feared that some fatal cause order for preparing to anchor had shown how prevented him, and repeatedly cried: "Will clearly he foresaw the necessity of this. Presno one bring Hardy to me? He must be killed! 30 ently, calling Hardy back, he said to him in He is surely dead!” An hour and ten minutes low voice: “Don't throw me overboard!” and elapsed from the time when Nelson received he desired that he might be buried by his his wound before Hardy could come to him. parents unless it should please the king to order They shook hands in silence; Hardy in vain otherwise. Then, reverting to private feelings, struggling to suppress the feelings of that most 35 "Take care of my dear Lady Hamilton, Hardy; painful and yet sublimest moment. “Well, take care of poor Lady Hamilton. Kiss me, Hardy,” said Nelson, “how goes the day with Hardy!” said he. Hardy knelt down and us?”“Very well,” replied Hardy, "ten ships kissed his cheek, and Nelson said: “Now I am have struck, but five of the van have tacked satisfied. Thank God I have done my duty!" and show an intention to bear down upon the 40 Hardy stood over him in silence for a moment Victory. I have called two or three of our fresh or two, then knelt again, and kissed his foreships round, and have no doubt of giving head. “Who is that?" said Nelson; and being them a drubbing."-"I hope," said Nelson, informed, he replied: "God bless you, Hardy!” “none of our ships have struck?" Hardy And Hardy then left him for ever. answered, “There was no fear of that.” Then, 45 Nelson now desired to be turned upon his and not till then, Nelson spoke of himself. right side, and said: “I wish I had not left the “I am a dead man, Hardy," said he, “I am deck, for I shall soon be gone." Death was going fast; it will be all over with me soon. indeed rapidly approaching. He said to the Come nearer to me. Let my dear Lady Hamil-. chaplain: “Doctor, I have not been a great ton have my hair and all other things belong- 50 sinner." And after a short pause: “Remember ing to me. Hardy observed that he hoped that I leave Lady Hamilton and my daughter Mr. Beatty could yet hold out some prospect Horatia as a legacy to my country.” His of life. “Oh, no!” he replied, "it is impossible; artic on now became difficult, but he was my back is shot through. Beatty will tell you distinctly heard to say: “Thank God, I have

Captain Hardy then once more shook 55 done my duty!” These words he repeatedly hands with him, and with a heart almost burst- pronounced, and they were the last words ing hastened upon deck.

which he uttered. He expired at thirty minutes By this time all feeling below the breast was after four, three hours and a quarter after he gone; and Nelson, having made the surgeon had received his wound.

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The death of Nelson was felt in England as hero in the hour of victory; and if the chariu something more than a public calamity; men and the horses of fire had been vouchsafed for started at the intelligence and turned pale, as Nelson's translation, he could scarcely have if they had heard of the loss of a dear friend. departed in a brighter blaze of glory. He has An object of our admiration and affection, of 5 left us, not indeed his mantle of inspiration our pride and of our hopes, was suddenly taken but a name and an example which are at this from us; and it seemed as if we had never till hour inspiring thousands of the youth of Edf then known how deeply we loved and rever- land-a name which is our pride, and an ej. enced him. What the country had lost in its ample which will continue to be our shield great naval hero—the greatest of our own and 10 and our strength. Thus it is that the spiris of all former times—was scarcely taken into of the great and the wise continue to live and the account of grief. So perfectly indeed had to act after them, verifying in this sense the he performed his part that the maritime war language of the old mythologist: after the battle of Trafalgar was considered at an end: the fleets of the enemy were not merely 15

Tοί μεν δαίμονες εισί, Διός μεγάλου διά βουλάς

'Εσθλοι, επιχθόνιοι, φύλακες θνητων ανθρώπων. 3 defeated, but destroyed; new navies must be built, and a new race of seamen reared for them, before the possibility of their invading

Charles Lamb our shores could again be contemplated. It was not, therefore, from any selfish reflection 20

1775-1834 upon the magnitude of our loss that we mourned for him; the general sorrow was of a higher

DREAM CHILDREN: A REVERY character. The people of England grieved that

(Essays of Elia, 1822-24) funeral ceremonies, and public monuments, and posthumous rewards were all which they 25 Children love to listen to stories about their could now bestow upon him whom the king, elders, when they were children; to stretch their the Legislature, and the nation would have imagination to the conception of a traditionary alike delighted to honour; whom every tongue great-uncle, or grandame whom they never would have blessed; whose presence in every saw. It was in this spirit that my little ones village through which he might have passed 30 crept about me the other evening to hear about would have wakened the church bells, have their great-grandmother Field,' who lived in given school-boys a holiday, have drawn a great house in Norfolk (a hundred times children from their sports to gaze upon him, bigger than that in which they and Papa lived) and “old men from the chimney-corner" to which had been the scene—so at least it was look upon Nelson ere they died. The victory 35 generally believed in that part of the countryof Trafalgar was celebrated, indeed, with the of the tragic incidents which they had lately usual forms of rejoicing, but they were without become familiar with from the ballad of the joy; for such already was the glory of the Children in the Wood. Certain it is that the British navy through Nelson's surpassing whole story of the children and their cruel genius that it scarcely seemed to receive any 40 uncle was to be seen fairly carved out in wood addition from the most signal victory that ever upon the chimney piece of the great hall, the was achieved upon the seas; and the destruction whole story down to the Robin Redbreasts, of this mighty fleet, by which all the maritime till a foolish rich person pulled it down to set schemes of France were totally frustrated, up a marble one of modern invention in its hardly appeared to add to our security or 45 stead, with no story upon it. Here Alice put strength; for while Nelson was living, to watch out one of her dear mother's looks, too tender the combined squadrons of the enemy, we felt to be called upbraiding. Then I went on to ourselves as secure as now, when they were no say, how religious and how good their greatlonger in existence.

grandmother Field was, how beloved and There was reason to suppose, from the ap- 50 respected by everybody, though she was not pearances upon opening the body, that in the course of nature he might have attained, like

19 "Shining spirits there are that dwell upon earth

among mortals, his father, to a good old age. Yet he cannot be Prompting illustrious deeds, and fulfilling the counsel said to have fallen prematurely whose work

Hesiod, Works and Days, 122.

Lamb's maternal grandmother, Mary Field, was for was done, nor ought he to be lamented who 55 fifty years housekeeper to the Plummer family. Recoldied so full of honours and at the height of

lections of their “fine old family mansion" at Blakesmoor

enter into his essay, and form the subject of the essay human fame. The most triumphant death is Blakesmoor in H.... shire. Lamb, in his fondness for that of the martyr; the most awful that of the disguising facts, here places it in Norfolk.

2 The familiar old ballad, known also as Babes in the martyred patriot; the most splendid that of the Wood.

of Zeus."

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