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ful Knowledge is that which tends to make if, by such skilful management, they get us more useful to ourselves;-a most definite through the day without an outbreak. When
and intelligible account of the matter, and a child cries, the nurserymaid dances it about, is one needing no explanation. But it would be a or points to the pretty black horses out of a great injustice, both to Lord Brougham and to 5 window, or shows how ashamed poll-parrot or
Sir Robert, to suppose, when they talk of poor puss must be of its tantrums. Such is Knowledge being Virtue, that they are Ben- the sort of prescription which Sir Robert Peel thamizing. Bentham had not a spark of poetry offers to the good people of Tamworth. He in him; on the contrary, there is much of high makes no pretence of subduing the giant nature, aspiration, generous sentiment, and impas- 10 in which we were born, of smiting the lions sioned feeling in the tone of Lord Brougham of the domestic enemies of our peace, of overand Sir Robert. They speak of knowledge as throwing passion and fortifying reason; he something “pulchrum,” fair and glorious, ex- does but offer to bribe the foe for the nonce alted above the range of ordinary humanity, with gifts which will avail for that purpose and so little connected with the personal in- 15 just so long as they will avail, and no longer. terest of its votaries, that, though Sir Robert This was mainly the philosophy of the great
does obiterl talk of improved methods of drain- Tully, except when it pleased him to speak as a ding, and the chemical properties of manure, disciple of the Porch. Cicero handed the recipe
yet he must not be supposed to come short of to Brougham, and Brougham has passed it on to the lofty enthusiasm of Lord Brougham, who 20 Peel. If we examine the old Roman's meaning expressly panegyrizes certain ancient philoso- in “O philosophia, vilæ dux,''? it was neither phers who gave up riches, retired into solitude, more nor less than this;—that, while we were or embraced a life of travel, smit with a sacred thinking of philosophy, we were not thinking of curiosity about physical or mathematical truth. anything else; we did not feel grief, or anxiety,
Here Mr. Bentham, did it fall to him to offer 25 or passion, or ambition, or hatred all that a criticism, doubtless would take leave to in- time, and the only point was to keep thinking quire whether such language was anything of it. How to keep thinking of it was extra better than a fine set of words “signifying artem. If a man was in grief, he was to be nothing,”—flowers of rhetoric, which bloom, amused; if disappointed, to be excited; if in a smell sweet, and die. But it is impossible to 30 rage, to be soothed; if in love, to be roused to suspect so grave and practical a man as Sir the pursuit of glory. No inward change was Robert Peel of using words literally without contemplated, but a change of external objects; any meaning at all; and though I think at as if we were all White Ladies or Undines, 3 our best they have not a very profound meaning, moral life being one of impulse and emotion, yet, such as it is, we ought to attempt to draw 35 not subjected to laws, not consisting in habits, it out.
nor capable of growth. When Cicero was outNow, without using exact theological lan- witted by Cæsar, he solaced himself with guage, we may surely take it for granted, from Plato;t when he lost his daughter, he wrote the experience of facts, that the human mind a treatise on consolation. Such, too, was the is at best in a very unformed or disordered 40 philosophy of that Lydian city, mentioned by state; passions and conscience, likings and the historian, who in a famine played at dice reason, conflicting,-might rising against right, to stay their stomachs. with the prospect of things getting worse. And such is the rule of life advocated by Under these circumstances, what is it that the Lord Brougham; and though, of course, he School of philosophy in which Sir Robert has 45 protests that knowledge “must invigorate enrolled himself proposes to accomplish? Not the mind as well as entertain it, and refine a victory of the mind over itself--not the su- and elevate the character, while it gives listpremacy of the law-not the reduction of the lessness and weariness their most agreeable rebels- not the unity of our complex nature excitement and relaxation,” yet his notions not an harmonizing of the chaos—but the mere 50 of vigour and elevation, when analyzed, will lulling of the passions to rest by turning the be found to resolve themselves into a mere course of thought; not a change of character, preternatural excitement under the influence
mere removal of temptation. This should be carefully observed. When a husband ? "O philosophy, guide of life."
3 Undine by La Motte Fouqué was a water nymph is gloomy, or an old woman peevish and fretful, 55 born without a soul. those who are about them do all they can to
4 After the overthrow of Pompey's cause at the Battle
of Pharsalia (48 B. C.) Cicero who, after much vacillakeep dangerous topics and causes of offence
tion, had supported Pompey, found his political career out of the way, and think themselves lucky,
for the time at an end. In his enforced inactivity be
turned to philosophy for consolation. 1 Incidentally.
5 Heroditus, Bk. İ. 94.
of some stimulating object, or the peace which is attained by there being nothing to quarrel
stop drinking, they gamble; stop gambl., with.
and a worse license follows. You do 10 E
rid of vice by human expedients; you can b. In morals, as in physics, the stream cannot rise higher than its source. Christianity raises 5 their place, as making the best of a bad male
use them according to circumstances, and men from earth, for it comes from heaven; but human morality creeps, struts, or frets
You must go to a higher source for renovam
of the heart and of the will. You do but please upon the earth's level, without wings to rise. The Knowledge School does not contemplate
a sort of “hunt the slipper" with the isul: raising man above himself; it merely aims at 10
our nature, till you go to Christianity, disposing of his existing powers and tastes,
I say, you must use human methods in the as is most convenient, or is practicable under
place, and there they are useful; but the *
worse than useless out of their place. I bar circumstances. It finds him, like the victims of the French Tyrant, doubled up in a cage in
no fanatical wish to deny to any whalere which he can neither lie, stand, sit, nor kneel, 15 altogether, if it chooses to claim it, in the
subject of thought or method of reason a pkt and its highest desire is to find an attitude in which his unrest may be least. Or it finds
tivation of the mind. Mr. Bentham may
spise verse-making, or Mr. Dugald Sterr him like some musical instrument, of great logic, but the great and true maxim is to ser: power and compass, but imperfect; from its very structure some keys must ever be out of 20 all. All cannot be first,
and therefore each is
fice none-to combine, and therefore to ad, tune, and its object, when ambition is highest, its place, and the problem is to find it. I is to throw the fault of its nature where least it will be observed. It leaves a man where it
at least not a lighter mistake to make star i found him-man, and not an Angel--a sinner,
secondary first, than to leave it out altogeth:
Here then it is that the knowledge Society not a Saint; but it tries to make him look as 25 Gower Street College, Tamworth Real much like what he is not as ever it can. The poor indulge in low pleasures; they use bad
Room, Lord Brougham and Sir Robert Peis language, swear loudly and recklessly, laugh
are all so deplorably mistaken. Christigai: at coarse jests, and are rude and boorish.
and nothing short of it, must be made the ele Sir Robert would open on them a wider range 30 it has been laid as the first stone, and ackor
ment and principle of all education. Wer teaching them science; but what warrant will he give us that, if his object could be achieved,
into itself, assimilate, and give a character
literature and science. what they would gain in decency they would not lose in natural humility and faith? If so, 35 Knowledge, Knowledge of
Truth has given the aim and direction to he has exchanged a gross fault for a more minister to Revealed Truth. subtle one. “Temperance topics" stop drinking; let us suppose it; but will much be gained,
of Religion, natural theology, metaphysicsif those who give up spirits take to opium?
or, again, poetry, history, and the clasics Naturam expellas furcâ, tamen usque recurret,” 40 grafted into the mind of a Christian, and or
or physics and mathematics, may all for is at least a heathen truth, and universities and libraries which recur to heathenism may
and take by the grafting. But if in educatius reclaim it from the heathen for their motto.
we begin with nature before grace, with a Nay, everywhere, so far as human nature re
dences before faith, with science before con
science, with poetry before practice, we xis. heathen law remains in force; as is felt in a measure even in the most religious places and
the appetites and passions, and turn a dai
ear to the reason. societies. Even there, where Christianity has power, the venom of the old Adam is not sub
what in its place is a divine gift. If we atteny
to effect a moral improvement by dued. Those who have to do with our Colleges 50 poetry, we shall but mature into a manent give us their experience, that in the case of the frivolous, and fastidious sentimentalism, young committed to their care, external dis- by means of argument, into a dry, unamushk cannot allay the principle of sinning. Stop polished outside, with hollowness within, in cipline may change the fashionable excess, but longheadedness;-if by good society, into cigars, they will take to drinking parties; 55 which vice has lost its grossness, and perta.
6 Louis XI (1461-83). Scott describes these cages in Quentin Duriard, I. xv. “In point of fact these cages
increased its malignity;-if by experiments! were eight feet long and about seven feet high."
science, into an uppish, supercilious temper 7." You may cast out nature with a pitchfork, but it
order of things: put Faith first and know
much inclined to scepticism. will always return."
In each case we mispisar
But reverse the
edge second; let the University minister to and their civilization. The arts and philosophy the Church, and then classical poetry becomes of the Asiatic coast were easily carried across the type of Gospel truth, and physical science the sea, and there was Cimon, as I have said, a comment on Genesis or Job, and Aristotle with his ample fortune, ready to receive them changes into Butler, and Arcesilaus into Berk- 5 with due honours. Not content with patronizeley8
ing their professors, he built the first of those SITE OF A UNIVERSITY
noble porticos, of which we hear so much in
Athens, and he formed the groves, which in (From The Office and Work of Universities, 1854)
process of time became the celebrated Academy. If we would know what a University is, con- 10 Planting is one of the most graceful, as in sidered in its elementary idea, we must betake Athens it was once the most beneficent, of ourselves to the first and most celebrated employments. Cimon took in hand the wild home of European literature and source of wood, pruned and dressed it, and laid it out European civilization, to the bright and beau- with handsome walks and welcome fountains. tiful Athens,-Athens, whose schools drew to 15 Nor, while hospitable to the authors of the her bosom, and then sent back again to the city's civilization, was he ungrateful to the business of life, the youth of the western world instruments of her prosperity. His trees exfor a long thousand years. Seated on the tended their cool, umbrageous branches over verge of the continent, the city seemed hardly the merchants, who assembled in the Agora,“ suited for the duties of a central metropolis 20 for many generations. of knowledge; yet, what it lost in convenience Those merchants certainly had deserved of approach, it gained in its neighbourhood to that act of bounty; for all the while their ships the traditions of the mysterious East, and of had been carrying forth the intellectual fame the loveliness of the regions in which it lay. of Athens to the western world. Then comHither, then, as to a sort of ideal land, where 25 menced what may be called her University all archetypes of the great and the fair were existence. Pericles, who succeeded Cimon both found in substantial being, and all departments in the government and in the patronage of art, of truth explored, and all diversities of intel- is said by Plutarch to have entertained the lectual power exhibited, where taste and idea of making Athens the capital of federated philosophy were majestically enthroned as 30 Greece; in this he failed, but his encouragein a royal court, where there was no sover- ment of such men as Phidias and Anaxagoras eignty but that of mind, and no nobility but led the way to her acquiring a far more lasting that of genius, where professors were rulers, sovereignty over a far wider empire. Little and princes did homage, hither flocked con- understanding the sources of her own greattinually from the very corners of the orbis 35 ness, Athens would go to war: peace is the terrarum, the many-tongued generation, just interest of a seat of commerce and the arts; rising, or just risen into manhood, in order but to war she went; yet to her, whether peace to gain wisdom.
or war, it mattered not. The political power Pisistratus 2 had in an early age discovered of Athens waned and disappeared; kingdoms and nursed the infant genius of his people, and 40 rose and fell; centuries rolled away,—they did Cimon, after the Persian war, had given it a but bring fresh triumphs to the city of the home. That war had established the naval poet and the sage. There at length the swarthy supremacy of Athens; she had become an im
Moor and Spaniard were seen to meet the blueperial state; and the Ionians, bound to her by eyed Gaul; and the Cappadocian, late subject the double chain of kindred and of subjection, 45 of Mithridates, gazed without alarm at the were importing into her both their merchandise haughty conquering Roman. Revolution after
revolution passed over the face of Europe, as 8 The two ancient Greek philosophers, Aristotle, the profound thinker and logician, and Arcesilaus, a sceptical
well as of Greece, but still she was there, teacher of the fourth century, who declared that certain Athens, the city of mind,--as radiant, as splenknowledge was unattainable by man, are here taken as types of those who put knowledge before faith; while 50 did, as delicate, as young, as ever she had been. Bishop Buller, who held in his Analogy that the revela- Many a more fruitful coast or isle is washed tion of God in nature confirmed the revelation of Him in the Bible, and Bishop Berkeley, who, denying the existence
by the blue Ægean, many a spot is there more of matter, found in ideas, or spirit, the one reality - beautiful or sublime to see, many a territory are selected to represent those who give the first place
more ample; but there was one charm in At1 “Of the circle of lands."
55 tica, which in the same perfection was nowhere ? Pisistratus' administration was famous for its en- else. The deep pastures of Arcadia, the plain couragement of literature and the arts. edition of the Homeric poems prepared, and he built the Lyceum and several temples.
4 The market place, used not only for buying and sell* This commander, after defeating the Persians, spent ing, but as a place of assembly for debating, elections, much of his money on improving Athens.
He had a new
of Argos, the Thessalian vale, these had not the gift; Bæotia, which lay to its immediate duct thereto across the sea; but that farm
would visit their Ionian cousins, a sort of ris north, was notorious for its very want of it. The heavy atmosphere of that Bæotia might of the dark violet billows with their st*
would not occur to him, nor any admiration be good for vegetation, but it was associated 5 edges down below; nor of those graceful
, fasin popular belief with the dulness of the Bæotian intellect: on the contrary, the special rise aloft like water spirits from the deep, the
like jets of silver upon the rocks, which slen purity, elasticity, clearness, and salubrity of shiver, and break, and spread, and shru the air of Attica, fit concomitant and emblem of its genius, did that for it which earth did 10 foam; nor of the gentle, incessant hearica
themselves, and disappear, in a soft mist not;-it brought out every bright hue and tender shade of the landscape over which it was
and panting of the whole liquid plain; nor spread, and would have illuminated the face
the long waves, keeping steady time, like a even of a more bare and rugged country.
line of soldiery, as they resound upon the bot A confined triangle, perhaps fifty miles its 15 restless living element at all, except to bites
low shore,—he would not deign to notice tha: greatest length, and thirty its greatest breadth; his stars that he was not upon it. Nor to two elevated rocky barriers, meeting at an angle; three prominent mountains, command
distinct detail, nor the refined colouring
, my ing the plain,-Parnes, Pentelicus, and Hymet
the graceful outline and roseate golden hue a tus; an unsatisfactory soil; some streams, not 20 from Otus or Laurium by the declining sun
the jutting crags, nor the bold shadows caxi always full;-such is about the report which the agent of a London company would have
our agent of a mercantile firm would not fals made of Attica. He would report that the
these matters even at a low figure. Rate climate was mild; the hills were limestone;
we must turn for the sympathy we seek : there was plenty of good marble; more pasture 25 barbarous land to that'small corner of the earta
yon pilgrim student, come from & seni
as to a shrine, where he might take his fill ! fisheries productive; silver mines once, but long since worked out; figs fair; oil first-rate; stranger from a remote province, from Britain
invisible unoriginate perfection. It was the olives in profusion. But what he would not 30 or from Mauritania, who in a scene so different think of noting down, was, that the olive tree was so choice in nature and so noble in shape,
from that of his chilly, woody swamps, or c that it excited a religious veneration; and that
his fiery choking sands, learned at once the it took so kindly to the light soil, as to expand
a real University must be, by coming to under into woods upon the open plain, and to climb 35 able home.
stand the sort of country, which was its suit up and fringe the hills. He would not think of
Nor was this all that a University required writing word to his employers, how that clear and found in Athens. air, of which I have spoken, brought out, yet blended and subdued, the colours on the mar
could live on poetry. If the students at thai ble, till they had a softness and harmony, for 40 hues and soothing sounds, they would not han
famous place had nothing better than brigts all their richness, which in a picture looks exaggerated, yet is after all within the truth. He
been able or disposed to turn their resideno would not tell, how that same delicate and
there to much account. Of course they mus brilliant atmosphere freshened up the pale
sense, of enjoyment, if Athens was to be an its cheek glowed like the arbutus or beech of olive, till the olive forgot its monotony, and 45 Alma Mater at the time, or to remain after the Umbrian hills. He would say nothing of
wards a pleasant thought in their memory the thyme and thousand fragrant herbs which
And so they had: be it recollected Athens was carpeted Hymettus; he would hear nothing of
a port, and a mart of trade, perhaps the first the hum of its bees; nor take much account of 50 when a number of strangers were ever flockin:
in Greece; and this was very much to the point the rare flavour of its honey, since Gozo and Minorra were sufficient for the English de
to it, whose combat was to be with intellectual. mand. He would look over the Ægean from
not physical difficulties, and who claimed to the height he had ascended; he would follow
have their bodily wants supplied, that they
might be at leisure to set about furnishing with his eye the chain of islands, which, start- 55 their minds. Now, barren as was the soil ing from the Sunian 5 headland, seemed to offer the fabled divinities of Attica, when they
Attica, and bare the face of the country, bet
No one, even there.
it had only too many resources for an clegant, 5 A promontory forming the extreme southern point of the province of Attica.
apparently a misprint for Orus, the peak of Aegina.
6 Laurium was a mountain range in Attica. Our
nay luxurious abode there. So abundant were at the time; and one point which he was strong the imports of the place, that it was a common upon, and was evidently fond of urging, was saying, that the productions, which were the material pomp and circumstance which found singly elsewhere, were brought all to- should environ a seat of learning. He congether in Athens. Corn and wine, the staple 5 sidered it was worth the consideration of the of subsistence in such a climate, came from the government, whether Oxford should not stand isles of the Ægean; fine wool and carpeting in a domain of its own. An ample range, say from Asia Minor; slaves, as now, from the four miles in diameter, should be turned into Euxine, and timber too; and iron and brass wood and meadow, and the University should from the coasts of the Mediterranean. The 10 be approached on all sides by a magnificent Athenian did not condescend to manufactures park, with fine trees in groups and groves and himself, but encouraged them in others; and avenues, and with glimpses and views of the a population of foreigners caught at the lucra- fair city, as the traveler drew near it. There tive occupation both for home consumption is nothing surely absurd in the idea, though and for exportation. Their cloth, and other 15 it would cost a round sum to realize it. What textures for dress and furniture, and their has a better claim to the purest and fairest hardware--for instance, armour-were in great possessions of nature, than the seat of wisdom? request. Labour was heap; stone and marble
So thought my coach con panio and he did in plenty; and the taste and skill, which at but express the tradition of ages and the infirst were devoted to public buildings, as tem- 20 stinct of mankind. ples and porticos, were in course of time applied to the mansions of public men. If nature did much for Athens, it is undeniable that art
THE AIM OF A UNIVERSITY COURSE did much more.
(From Idea of a University, 1852) Here some one will interrupt me with the 25 remark: “By the bye, where are we, and To-day I have confined myself to saying whither are we going?—what has all this to that that training of the intellect, which is do with a University? at least what has it to best for the individual himself, best enables do with education? It is instructive doubtless; him to di harge his duties to society. The but still how much has it to do with your sub-30 Philosopher, indeed, and the man of the world ject?” Now I beg to assure the reader that I differ in their very notion, but the methods am most conscientiously employed upon my by which they are respectively formed, are subject; and I should have thought every one pretty much the same. The Philosopher has would have seen this: however, since the ob- the same command of matters of thought, jection is made, I may be allowed to pause 35 which the true citizen and gentleman has of awhile, and show distinctly the drift of what matters of business and conduct. If then a I have been saying, before I go farther. What practical end must be assigned to a University has this to do with my subject! why, the ques- course; I say that it is that of training good tion of the site is the very first that comes into members of society. Its art is the art of social consideration, when a Studium Generale? is 40 life; and its end is fitness for the world. It contemplated; for that site should be a liberal neither confines its views to particular proand a noble one; who will deny it? All authori- fessions on the one hand, nor creates heroes ties agree in this, and very little reflection will or inspires genius on the other. Works indeed be sufficient to make it clear. I recollect a con- of genius fall under no art; heroic minds come versation I once had on this very subject with 45 under no rule; a University is not a birthplace of a very eminent man. I was a youth of eighteen, poets or of immortal authors, of founders and was leaving my University for the Long of schools, leaders of colonies, or conquerors of Vacation, when I found myself in company nations. It does not promise a generation in a public conveyance with a middle-aged of Aristotles or Newtons, of Napoleons or person, whose face was strange to me. How- 50 Washingtons, of Raphaels or Shakespeares, ever, it was the great academical luminary of though such miracles of nature it has before the day, whom afterwards I knew very well. now contained within its precincts. Nor is it Luckily for me, I did not suspect it; and luckily content on the other hand with forming the too, it was a fancy of his, as his friends knew, critic or the experimentalist, the economist to make himself on easy terms especially with 55 or the engineer, though such too it includes stage-coach companions. So, what with my within its scope. But a University training is flippancy and his condescension, I managed the great ordinary means to a great but orto hear many things which were novel to me dinary end; it aims at raising the intellectual
7 A university, or school of universal learning. tone of society, at cultivating the public mind,