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into a leadership, his influence would now word, to baye all their attention fixed on be first-rate ou boll sides of the House, the delivery and none on the sense, or on and he would be liniversally looked up to the propriery of those teachings-asat ges. as, take tim all in all, the best made-up ture and intonationi, wlieni effective that and must satisfactory seven-day-all-the- is, natural-were not the mayondable re“ week debater in parliament. As it is, sults of feeling and under-tanding the

every man must admit that he approaches matter at issue, and therefore need ouly the character of a first-rale statesman, if be left to take care of themselves, not of an Oiator :--in a word, as one MR, BROUGULAM.- What I have just emiuently cupar imperii, nisi iinperasset. remarked concerving the disadvantages It is not just now my cue to touch upon conseguent upon the appearance of at: hls official conduct, nor upon the calum. tending too much to selt, and the manner nies' with which he has been assailed for in elocution, may be strikwgly illustrated the most unquestiovable proof he has by the opposite advantages of seeming to given, or perhaps could give, of more than be wholly unconscious of both, as 18 seen oritinary breadth and height of nsind, his in Mr. Bronghan's matchless delivery; zealous advocacy of the Catholie relief and ideed constitutes the great charm of bill. The distinguishiqg characteristics of bis eloquence. It nray startie, the blind Sir Robert Peel's speeches is their per. admirers of this doubtless extraordinary spicuity, their conciliatingness (if there be man to be informed, that no nian ever saich a word), and their freedom from won such a splendu reputation with so all common-place, Minisy, rhetorical de-, few of the higher elèinents of an orator, coration. Hence their general satis. He has neither invention nor imagination, factorines; and hence their success in not even rhetorical-fancy, and has not insinuating themselves through the under said or written a single expression indi. standing to those feelings which usually calive of depth of thought or jutimate deterinne the will of the auditor. No acquaintance witli general principles; and matter with what pariy violence he may be yet he is .without a living rival as a deassailed, the Right Horionable Secretary barer, aud wields the inflųeuce of great never for a nioment forgets the conduct mental power beyond any-with a long and ruffled demeanour of a bighs interest man in either konse of parlia

morived and independent gentleman; and meni. Whence then this influence, this · "never loses that sobriety and self-pos admission of extraordinary mental power?

session which enable him to adapt his Is it in the novelty of his thoughts, or the inatter to the temper of his opponents, variety and happiness of his illustrations, and persuude their good-nature into calm- or ile epigrammatic force of his expresness, if not convince them of the erro- sions ?. No:, there is nothing new nor neousness of their assertions or argnments. profound in his inatter; there is no It tras been usual to consider the detects imagery, no fanciful illustration, and he is of Sir R. Peel's style of debating as coll. copious and rather verbose in his langyage, sequent upon an impotent ambition to ex. But and here is the grand-secret of his col as an oratorical statesman. But there spell over the niinds of Anis auditory-lie is nofi:ing in either the choice or arrange invests truths and facts already known ment of his subject, still less in the struc with a clearvess and urbauity and vividture of his sentences, to warrant such an ness which rivets the attention still more opiniou. Neither is it so much owing to than novelty, and he rouses, and come the want of the variety, and invention, niands their wills to action by forcing and rapidity, and enthusiasm of genins, as through opposition by the mere force of to a bad method of elocution and gestrire, his own uncontrollable ardour of disthat our feelings are seldom roused by the position. While another man would be right honourable baronet. Sir R. Peel's endeavouring to convince them by reasous delivery is detective, simply because it is and by elaborate inductions from adthat wliich he (and unfortunately 100 many mitted facts, he persuades, actually storms olher youths) was taught at school; and them into compliance by ttie evident clearwhicle being in the teeth of nature and Dess and force of his own convictions, the common seuse, oftend buth by the constant arrogant impatience, of all contradiction appearance of artificialuess. In the first and overbearing consciouspess of his own place, bogs are taught to spout what they inental superiority, and baughty scorn of cannot understand, and could not feel an his adversaries, and all this too as if lie interest in even if they did ;-are tanght had wholly forgotten himself and every to employ this tone for this passage, and thing connected with the manner in which that tone for another-without a reason he was giving expression to his feelings. why or wherefore and thi, motion of the Mr. Brougham has evidently made oratory hand and arm, and that niotion, and this a study, and by force of that practical mudulation and that modulation; in a' wisdom, which serve him better for every: day purposes than if he bad had the geuils envy were le not conscious that lie wonld and foresight and untameable vigour and be a landmark in the bistory of the nasteroriginality of Mr. Burke, arrived at the spirits among English statesmen, when sound conclusion that to be a powerful all that have enjoyed the paine since his debater it was not necessary that he shoull time shall have passed to the tomb of the employ the liigliest facullies of the human capulets. urind, but that lie should ronse to their greatest energy its every-day feelings and

wwwmood apprehensions; and he shaped his studies and style accordingly. Being depandant wholly on meinory and experience for his

THE USE OF TEARS. matcriats, from want of invention and that power of the imagination by which the probable is invested with the attributes of

BB not thv tears too harshly chid, ine real, it became necessary that he .

Repine not at the rising sigh: shonld make himself acquainted exten). Who, if they might, would always bid sively with that lore which lies near the The breasi be still, the cheek ve diy ? surface (making variety effect more than

: How little of ourselves we know depth possibly could) so as to be able

Before a grief the heart his felt; to make his inferences' appear to spring * The lessons that we learn of woe irresistibly from facts. Hence the apie May bruce the mind as well as melt. parent fuiness of his mind even to overflowing; bence wliat has been absurdly • The energies ton stern for mirih, called his encyclopedic knowledge, and

'The reai hot througint, true stiength of will,

Mid cloud and lempest have their birth, hence the extemporaneous character of his

Through blight and biast their couise fuibil. speeches. Having naturally au acule, and perhaps à capacious niind, no man excels Love's perfect triunpl never crown'd him in mastering clearly what he does

The hope unichequer'd by it pang; know, or in foringing it forward with force

The gaud.est wreathis with thorns are bound,

And Sapphio wept betore she sung. and vividness, so that as long as lie has facts or opinions, or prejudices possessin:

Trárs at each pure emotion flow; with the mass the weight of facts, to rest Tivey wait ou Pity's gentle claim, upon and sieady liniself by, to exercise On Admiral jou's fervid glow, his ingenuity upon by analysing and turn.

On Picty's Seraphic tame. ing them over and over, and exhibiting

'Tis only when it mourns and fra's them in every shape and feature to serve as

Tuve lead-di spirit feels forgiven, the serarion or pég for sorting his miscel.

And thongli the mist of tallona tenis laveons reading-it is in vain for any man We catch the clearest gimpse of heaven. at present in parliament to enter the liats

Lord Morpelh. with him, aided as he is moreover by liis inflexible confidence in his own resources, by his arrogant sarcasm, by a voire remarkable for 118 depth and sweetness, and by what I before mentioned as the great

VARIETIES. charın of bis elocution, its urs celare artem naturalness. In every thing Mr. Brougham does, whether it be a speech The Ashantee Yum Carnival.-The Ashat the bar or in Parliament, or an article antee yam custom is annual, just at the in a review, this peculiar character of maturity of that vegetable, which is planted his mind is exhibited, that all appears to in December, and not eaten until tiie ('onbe the result of memory and self-confi- clusion of the custom, the early part of dence, and of a Napoleon power of con. September. The yam custom is like the centrating his mind and knowledge at Saturnalia. Neillier theti, intrigne, vor will upon a single point, rather than of assault are punishable during the contimn. the reasoning or inventive facultier ; all ance; but the greatest liberty prevails, is detail and variety of combination; and each sex abandons itselt' to its pas. but no original and coinprehensive general sions. It continnes for a week, at the end principle is valued or even referred to. of which time it is considered the heiglit Hence the admiration of and the in- of rudeness for any black lady to taunt fuence upon the many-hence his beiny another by alluding to any circumstance perhaps unfairly underrated by the phié that may be passed during this tropical Josophical thinker--and hence too his carnival.-Boudich. practical debating preeminence, which Cooking Połutat:es.-" To have pohave acquired for him a senatorial reputa. tatves boiled in the greatest perfection," tion, which even Edmund Burke might says Sir Joli Sinclair," it would be 1:20

proper to attend to the following direc. some: for the injarions liquor in the po: tons. The potatoes should be surfed, so tato already alluded to, cannot be so as to have the large and small boiled se effectnally extracted from it by steaming parately. After being thoronghly washed as by briling them in water." by a birch-broon m a pail of water, ur Lont Brougham -Lord Brongham was otherwise, they ought to be lightly peeled, horn in the year 1779, and is descended and theu put into a pot, with less water from a respectable Cauberiand family, than is sufficient to cover them, as the poc who sisty or seventy years ago first settled tatoes themselves will produce a considere in Westmoreland, in which is situated derable addition of buid before they be. Brongham Hall (in the path of giu to boil. Sea-water is sometimes used, Brongham), called by a celebrated but it makes them tough. A little salt, tourist the Windsor of the Norin. His however, thrown into the water, is of mother was the sister of Professor Rogreat ase, rendering them freer. If the bertson, the historian, and is still in the potatoes are tolerably large, it will be ne- enjoyment of a green oid age. He has cessary, as soon as they begin to boil, to three brothers - James, Jolin, and Wil. pour in some cold water, and occasionally lian. T'be for mer resides with his mother, to repeat it, till, by trial, the potatoes shall in the Hall: he is in Parliament. The be found to be boiled quite to the heart; latter is at the bar. Joho was many years they will otherwise crack and burst to a wine-merchant in Edinburgh, where he pieces on the outside, whilst the inside lately failed. The learned Lord first took will be nearly in a crude state, and con- his seat in the Commons for Camilford, sequently very unpalatable. This is par. having being retured by the Duke of ticularly necessary if the potatoes are Bediord; he subsequently sat for Win. large. When thoroughly boiled, the water chelsea, nnder the Marquis of Cleveland ; should be poured out of the pot, for they then for Knare boro Ryh; la-tly, as we all become quite insipid if they remain long know, for Yorkshire. A few years ago in the water after being boiled; but when he married the widow of the late John the water is got rid of, the pot, with the Slade, Esq. of Hill Street (now Lady potatoes in it, shonid be put again upon Brougham) by whom he acquirei a con. the tire, that they may be thoroughly siderable property; by this lady he has cleared of all moisture, and the cover only one daughter, who is about eight should be taken off, that the steam years of age. may eraporate. If any moisture should Twiitte a Carne git * to the Royal remain, they may be put on tio plates be Family bus relcro cillage in Greece, -A fore the fire, that they may be made the prominent object on the Grecian coast is roughly dry, and the top of the heap will Castel Tornese, an od Venetian fort, now thus be slightly browned, which bas a a ruin, but in former dars affording propleasing appearance. Some recommend tection to the town of Chiarezza, or Cla. boiling them with the skins on; but the rentza, which, by a strange decree of black and unwholesome liquor with which fortune, has given the title of Clarence to potatoes are naturally impregnated, re- ons royal family. It wonld appear that at sides much in the skin, and it is much the time when the Latin conquerors of better to get rid of that portion of it before Constantinople divided the Western Emthe boiling commences. The potatoes, if pire amongst their kading chieftains; they are of a good mealy qaahiy, thus Clarentza, with the district around it, and have a beautiful white colour when bronghat which comprised almost all of ancient to the table. It is said, that good po Es is, was formed into a dachy, and fell to tatoes are less frequently to be seen at the the lot of one of the victorious nobles, who tables of those who keep professional transmitted the title and dukedom to bis rooks, than in the wooden bowl of the descendants, until the male line failed, and cottager ; but the fact is, that in the one the heiress of Clarence married into the case there is only oue dish to attend to, Hainault family. By this union, Philippa, whereas, in the other, there are many; the consort of Edwari the Third, became and that the potatoes of the cottager are the representative of the Dukes of Cla. cousumed hot from the tire, as soon & rence; and on this account was Prince they are ready, whereas those prepared Lionel mvested with the tite, which has by the professional cook are otico Dot spre remained in our royal family. It is tasted till they have become cold, and certainly singular that a wretched village cousquently become tongh and unplcain Grere should bare bestowed its name sant. It is a good plan, therefore, to bave apoa a British Monarch.-Trent's Journey a dich er plate with builing water put tirgi Grad. under them, when they are sent in table, to keep them bot. lu regard to steaming potatoes, it is aut reckoned to be whole

CUIVALRY, KNIGHTHO01), AND to a more regnlar form and discipline. THE COURTS OF LOVE.+ The great barons wishing to draw closer

the bonds of fendality, added to the cere.'

mony ot' homage that of conferring arms CHIVALRY, viewed as a distinct order in on their youny vassals, when they took the social state, was the offspring of fen out for the first time on their expeditions.' dality. The epoch of its origin is not

They afterwards granted a similar investia! clearly ascertained, but it does not appear ture to volunteers, who, without bolding to ascend earlier than the eleventh cen- any tenure of them, offered their services' tury : knighthood, however, may be said througlı desire of glory. The hononr of to have existed previously as a mere cere- receiving arms in presence of a numerous mony, in which young men intended for and noble assembly, the distributiou of the inilitary profession received their first dresses, pelisses, cloaks, swords, and arm, and Tacirlis mentions its existence jewels, beside gold aud silver, which were' among the ancient German nations. It lavished on those occasions, and the pride was to them, as the assuining the toga to of appearing worthy of the honour of the young Romaus, after which they were knighthood, were powerful attractivns 10 considered as effective members of the young men, especially of narrow fortunes. republic. The Romans themselves bor. Many youths of gentle lineage, but orphan rowed the custom, and solemnly invested or destitute, were likewise brought up at their young patricians with the rank of the court of some great lord, or in some of knight. The young Cæsars, who were ad- the hospices which were supported for the niiited to this hogonr, were styled so Prin- pirpose boy baronial munificence, and cipes juventutis," and Gajus Cæsar, adopt where they received their first instroc. ed by Augustus, was the first to attain

tions, to enter afterwards their patron's this jille. Among the Longobards, the

service as varlets or pages. This was the sons of their kings were not allowed to sit only resource in those turbulent ages, at their father's table unless they had re.

when the power and the wealth of the Crived the sword froin the ehief of another

crown, circumscribcd within narrow Balion. In subsequent ages we find fre

bounds, could not afford nobler or more gnent mention of the cingulum militaire, or

advantageous employment to those who sword-belt, and the young men invested

wished to devote themselves to the service with it were called milites, by which ap.' of the state. It was not then cousidered a pellation the cavalry was distinguished. degradation for a young gentleman to But chivalry, considered as an association

enter the service of a baron, it was but an bestowing high rauk and privilege in the

exchange of personal services for past care state and in the militia, having its degrees and fnture patronage. The bonseholds of af noviciate and of preferment, subject to

the great lords were composed like those fixed, regulations, and bound by oath to

of kings, having corresponding officers. certain dities, the chivalry in short of the The first situation given to youths just middle ages, which affords an inexhausti

emerged from infancy was that of varlet, ble theme to romance and poetry, begins

or domicellus, Italicé donzello ; as such, to appear in history as a dignity, and is they served their masters and mistresses. fecorted in public acts only about the end carried their messages, attended them in of the second or Carlovingian dynasty, their journeys, visits, and hunting parties, The chivalric institutions were by degrees and sometimes waited on thein at table. carried to a singular degree of refinement

The first lessons they received (and the and exaltation, and patronized by mo

task of instructing them devolveu chiefly narchs from a political view of binding the

on the ladies) were of piety to God and will and checking the power of the no- devotion to the fair. Their religion was bility.

of course encumbered with superstition, " " When France (the cradle and seat of but their catechisın of love was siugularly chivalry),” says Ferrario, who himself refined, and in order to strengthen their quotes from ine learned' Saint-Palave, principles, and to guard against the aber. 1. emerged out of the chaos of troubles rations of youth, they were made to select which accompanied the extinction of the early a lady among the most noble and second dynasty, the royal anhority made virtuous at court, to whom they devoted itself better respected ; thungs assamed a all their sentiments and all their actions. new aspect, laws were enacted, and com- They were at the same time exercised in mones formed, freedoms were granted to gyninastic and niartial games, and taught towus, and feudal tenure became subject wns and fol tenure bune subiect to venerate above all the august character

of chivalry." + Abridged from the Foreign Quarterly Review.

The next step in a young man's career No. XII, uf-Ferrario's History of Chivalry, &c.

was that of squire, which was attainable &r. Milano.

at fourteen years of age. This promotion VOL. VI.

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was accompanied by a religionis ceremony.. neck of the candidate, accompanied by The officiating clergyman took from the the words : -" In the name of God, of altar a belt and a sword, blessed them, St. Michael and St. George, I make theç and girded them on the candidate. This a knight; be valiant, courageous, and ceremony was similar to the ancient in- loyal! Then he received his lielmet, his stallation of knight. The squires were shield, and spear, and thus the investiture classed according to the offices they held; ended.” there were the squire of the chumber, or The three blows were, like most other chamberlain, the curcing squire, the squire ceremonies of chivalry, syınbolic, and @ellurer, the groom of the stables, and the meant as a waining to the young kniglit squire of honour, wbose special office it was to be prepared for hardships and dangers to attend the person of the knight or lady; in the fuldlnient of his vocation. A double others took care of tlicir master's arms, coat of mail, sword proof, a stont lance, a and armour, and went their rounds at Şurcoat emblazoned with arınorial des night, and visited the ramparts of the vices, these were exclusively worn by castle. When the lord went to combat, knights ;'synires bad only a slight hauberi, he was attended by some of his chosen a shield, and a sword. The cloaks of squires, who carried bis arms, led his war knights werc scarlet lived with fur; their liorse, and then fell back behind their vizors, their spurs, and the bridles of their waster when in actual engagement, ready borses were ornaniented with gold ; silver to assist him if wounded, or to supply him was the distinction of squires. To the with firesin, horses and weapons. The names of the former were prefixed the courts of the barons afforded a good school titles of Sire, Nięssįre, Don, and Dume and of courloisge; becoming manners, a modest Madame to those of their ladies, whilst yet manly bearing, and a graceful address, the squires were styled Monsieur and Dus were qualities requisite iu a synire. The moiseuu, and their wives Demoiselles, society of the ladies and of their damsels Knights alove had a right to use seals en: was calculated to inspire him with that graved with arms. In short, no man, respectful attention to the sex which by lowever high might be his birth, was condegrees became, and long continued, a sidered as a free agent and an effeetive pational feature of the French character. member of the state, until he was ad:

The age in which a squire was admissi, puitted to knighthood. Other solid ad. ble to the order of knighthood was fixed vantages pertained to the order. A knight, at twenty-one years, except for princes of like the old Roman soldier, was free of the blood, and in cases of young men of taxes on provisions, and tolls on the road; extraordinary merit. The ceremony of all barriers were thrown open before hin, admission was peculiarly solemi.

His appearance and dress sufficiently prog “ After undergoing a severe fast, and claimed his rank. If he fell into the hands spending whole vights in prayer in the of the enemy, he was exempted from feta company of a clergyman, and of his god- ters or chains, and allowed a certain fathers, the caudidate confessed and re- liberty within the precincts of the place ceived the sacrament; he then tuok a of his confinement. The aide-chevels or bath, consipy out of which he clothed chivalry tax was levied on four occasions himself in snow-white garments, symbolic on the vassals of a knight : 1st, on the inof the purity required by the order he was stallation of his eldest son : 2nd, on the going to enter, and thus accontred, he marriage of his danghiters : Saly, on the repaired to the church, or the hall wliere occasion of his crossing the sea to the the ceremony was to take place, bearing Holy Land : 4thly, to defray bis ransom. a knightly sword suspended from his neck, Rausoms, which were valned generally at which the clergyınan took and blessed, one year's revenge of the captive, forned and then returned to him. The candidate an occasional item in the revenue of a then proceeded with folded hands and knight. The custom of prisoners paying kuelt before the presiding knight, who, a ransgm was continued as late as the sixafter some questions about his motives teenth century among Christian nations, and purposes in requesting admission, ad, and in the East it prevails to this day, ministered to him the oaths, and granted As it often happened that a kuight underhis request. Some of the knights present, took the defence of the person and prosometinęs even ladies and danisels, lani. perty of an heiress or widow who was ated to him in succession the spars, the coattacked or threatened by some violent of mail, the lauberk, the armlet and neighbour, whilst her natural protectors gauutlet, and lastly he girded the sword. were perhaps dead or far away, it also He then knult again before the president, followed not onfrequently that the de: who rising from his seat gave him the fender married his fair protegée, and thus colade, which consisted of threc strokes acquired, wealth and power. with the day of a sword ou lhe shoulder or Å¥ ¢sseutial prerogative of a kuigut was

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