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to speak of navigation), may turn thrir carving a variety of small things, such as eyes on Holland. A great portion of the little boses, spoons, and other kitchen most valuable and populous tract of this !!tensili. I purchased a very handsome country lies much below the level of the Sout-box from one of them, which had sea, and is only preserved from inundaiion been cut with a hatchet commonly tised by the maintenance of embankinents. for felling timber. In the province of Thongh these soffice to keep ont the ab. Masovia they are still better exercised in rupt influx of the ocean, they cannot op. The ait of rendering the axe universally pose,tbat law of nature, by whicli duids, in available. I have been assured by several seeking their level, insinuate theinselves persons whose testimony I could not through the pores and subierraneous chan- doubl, that they have themselves seeu pea. nels of a loose sandy suil, and keep the sants, who wore their nair lung, go and country in a constant state of infiitration place themselves against the trunks of from below upwards. To connteract this trees, raising their hair as much above tendency, as well as to get rid of the rain their heads as it would reach, while others water, which has no nainral outlet, pumps would take aim at a certain distance, and worked by windmills are established in ting their batchets with so much dexterity great pumbers, on the dams and embank- as to cut the hair in two parts, avd be ments, which pour out the water as froin driven deep into the trunk of the tree ! a leaky ship, and in effect preserve the Journal of u Nobleman. country from submersion, by taking aile Cowpiratire nutritire Property of differvantage of every wind that blows. To enl Kinds of Food.-The fuilowing is the drain the Haarlem lake would seem a quantity of nutritious matter contained hopeless project to any speculators but in one hundred pounds of each of the subthose who had the steam-engine at their stances named: bread, eighty pounds; command, or had learnt in Holland what butcher's ineat, thirty-tive pounds; broad might be accomplished by the constant beans, eighty-nine pounds; lentils, ninelyagency of the desultory but u wearied four pounds; greens and turnips, eight powers of wind. But the Dutch enpounds; carrois, fourteen pounds; and gineer measures bis surface, calculates the potatoes, twenty-five pounds.-Scientific number of his pumps, and, trus:ing to Guzetle. time, and his experience of ide operation Un'rholesnme Butler.—The writer of a of the winds for the success of his modern paper, contained in the transactions of taking, boldly forms his plans to lay dry The Birth and West of England Society the bed of an inland sea, of which whose for the Promotion of Agriculture, &c. for who stand on one shore cannot see tiie 1795, notices,-Tirat many eminent phyothier.-Herschel's Natural Philosophy. siciaris lave observed that butter is very
Powers of Fuel.-The annual cunstimp. in wholesome, and that others equally tion of coal in London is estimated at one celebrated have considered it not only as million five hundred the and chaldrons, innocent, but as a good asssistant to digesThe effort of this quantity would sudlice to tion.-- Vlay not this have been founded raise a cubical block of marble, two thou- non observations of its purity, or accisand two hundred feet in the side, through dental or mischievous contaviinations cola space equal to its own lieight, or to pile lected from vessels iised in the process of one such mountain opon another. The making it? in almost all the great dairies Monte Nuovo, near Pozzuoli (which was it is notorious, that the milk is suffered 10 erupted in a single niglit hy volcanic fire), stand in lear, copper, or brass vesels, to might have been raised by such an effort tirow up the cream. In thiese vesseis, a from a depth of forty thousand feet, or larger quantity of cream is thrown up about eight miles. It will be observed, than in either wooden or eartlien pans, that, in the above statement, the inherent both of which are occasionally made lise power of fuel is, of necessity, greatly un- of. Milk, it is well known, is liable to exider-rated. It is not pretended by en. dise, aud then to dissolve these pietals, gineers that the economy of fuel is yet and so must, undoubtedly, communicate pusbed to its utmost limit, or that the pernicious qualities to the butter which is wbole effective power is obtained in any maile from it. As the dairyman obtains application of fire yet devised; so that additional profit in proportion to the were we to say one bundred millions in- quantity of cream wbich is thrown up, stead of seventy, we should probably be so it is to his interest to keep it in these nearer the truth. - Ibid.
vessels as long as he can, iniil the whole Dexterity of the Ukrainian Peasants with of the cream be thrown up. By this ad. the #xc.-Not only do the Ukranian pea- ditional standing it often gets sour, and sants employ the axe in the construction will consequently dissolve the metal with of their houses, their boats, their carriages, the greater facility.-lbiil. and their household furniture, but also iu
THE SOUTH SEA ISLANDERS. that termed by M. Lesson The Oceanian. In
the features of this race our naturalist con,
ceives that something of the grace, deliPICTURES of savage life, when drawn with
cacy, softness, and pleasing effemivacy of ability, have, in general, a very remark
the Hindoo style of countenance may be able charm for uations which have attained detected; and this resemblance, which a state of high intellectnal and moral cul.
appears to be not altogetber fanciful, tivation; in like manner as pictures of
constitutes, in his opinion, a sufficient infancy and boyhood delight the full grown ground for deriving these voluptuous individual. For this reason fit has been
savages, from the Caucasian or Japetic deemed worth while to pass the labours of
stock, though he by no means pretends to M. Lesson through our critical alembic,
lembic, explain how, passing the Polynesian isles and, having extracted their quintessence, without leaving any permanent marks of the residuum may remain for those who
ho their migration, they could have projected happen to have a taste for it.
themselves as it were to so vast a distance Though terming his work the “ Naturali
from their parent country as the Pornootoo History of Man,' M. Lessou is very far islands, one bandred and fifty degrees, of from intending that it should be regarded longitude east of Cape Comorin. as a general history of the species ; it be. However this may be, the Oceanians ing, in reality, little inore than a collection
are, as has been already observed, suof the observations inade upon the man
perior in beauty of form and features, tı ners and customs of the South Sea Island
ihe other races inhabiting the South Sea ers, during the stay of the Coquille in the
islands. Their stature is in general lofty, Pacific, on its voyage round the world.
their muscles finely rounded, their head of • Without inquiring how, when, or by
a peculiar structure, but handsomely what races of inen the varions archipela
formed, their countenance, expressive of goes of the great Pacific Ocean were ori
mildness, blended with energy, althoug! ginally peopled, which demand the exhi
sometimes the traces of warlike ferocity are bition of a great deal of learning and in
discoverable. The eyes, though large, are genuity to very little purpose, we coine at
not prominent, and the eye-brows are thick once to the islands as they are-habitable
and bushy, like those of Mrs. Radcliffe's aud inhabited by men in different stages of ill-famed beroes. The complexion is bright civilization. The soil, climate, produc- yellow darker amougst those exposed to tions, &c. we shall mention only incidenle the action of the sun's rays, and lighter ally. Our business is solely with the in
among the snperior classes, and among habitants.
the women. So far the resemblance beThe first thing which presents itself to tween these people and the Hindoos is not the thought, or to the eye, when a new 'remarkably striking, for the latter have race of men are under consideration, is neither bushy eye-brows nor yel!ow comthe beauty or ugliness which their torm plexions; and as we proceed, the traces and features exhibit. When we have of similitude become more and more faint. formed to onrselves something like a notion The Oceanians, since the truth must be of their style of countenance, of the colour told, have flat noses, large nostrils, wide of their eyes and hair, of the make of their
months, and thick lips; but, on the other nose, montli, chin, &c. we appear to be hand, their teeth are singularly white and somewhat contented, and can go ou to beautiful, and their ears delicately small. other matters, generally proportioning the
The inhabitants of the islands of Mendoco interest we feel in their concerns, however, and Rotouma are considered the most to the measure of their personal attrac- beautiful of all the Oceanian race; next tions. Not that we can at all explain why to these are ranked the Tahitians; then the affairs of ugly people should be a mat- the natives of the Sandwich Islands; then ter of more indifference to ns than those those of the archipelago of Touga; and, of more favourite mortals, unless in my last of all, taking the women as the stand* uincle Toby's way, the matter is cut short, ard, the inliabitants of New Zealand; by saying " it is God's will it should be
uld be while the men, on the contrary, possess 80;" which may, perhaps, be as philoso
finer and more robust forms than any other phical a mode ot explaining the thing as branch of the wliole race. any other.
Thongh second to the natives of MenOf the various races into which the popnie doca and Rotouma in beauty, the Tahia lation of the innumerable islands scat
tians, or (taheitans are considered by M.
tian tered through the vast extent of the Pacific Lesson to be the type of the Oceanian Ocean have been divided, the first, as well
race, notwithstanding that some writers in personal beauty as in civilization, is
have imagined the chiefs and the body of + Abridged from the Westminster Review.- the people to be descended from two difNo. xxvít., of-M. Lesson's Histoire Naturelle ferent stocks. The same idea has been de l'Homme. Paris, 1828-1830.
started with respect to the Brahmins, and being, according to some philosophers, to the inferior castes of Hindoos; but the eat, dress, and amuse himself, it is highly Bedouin Sbeiklis, whom no one has ever important, in examining the pretensions siispected to be of any other race tlian of any people to civilization and refinethat of Ismael, differ no less in stature ment, to observe the mode in which they and appearance from the common Arabs, cook their dinners, and, if we may borrow than the Brahmins from the ordinary a word from the Shandean vocabulary, Hindoos, or the chiefs of Otaheite 'front manufacture and make their breeches. the people. But the differences observable M. Lesson himself appears to belong to may very rationally be accounted for by ihat sect of philosophers vulyarly termed the difference in their food, and their gourmunds, for, like Homer, he is never so greater or less exposure to the sui. Be well pleased as when enlarging upon the this as it may, the men of O tahéite are savoury viands and delicious potations said to be handsome, alinóst without ex with which his heroes regale themselves; ception, with limba robust but well formed, and remarks, that of all the arts to whichi tail of stature, their countenance expreso civilization gives birth, that of cooking is sive of mildness and good nature, their the inost important. Not wishing to con. hair black and coarse, their skin peculiarly trovert M. Lesson's opinion, we shall leave sniooth and soft to the touch." Whether our friends without their bonnets and owing to some peculiarity in their diet or breeches, and attend for a moment to not, their skin emits, however, a powerful their dinners. odour, which even their daily practice of Among all the intertropical islanders of bathing fails to remove. All nations wlrich the South Sea, the same domestic practices consume much animal food possesses more prevail. They all, without exception, or less of this offensive odour, as the Pata make use of subierrapean ovens, in which, govians of South America, who surpass by the aid of tiot siones, they bake their pole-cats in stink;' while the rice-eating meat deliciously; employ the leaves of Hindoo,' accistomed moreover to cost trees for various domestic uses; convert tinual ablutions, smells like a 'nosegay, the bread-fruit and the cocoa-nut into Both men and women wear the bair of soup or pottage, and extract from the the head short; but neitlier sex practise's juice of a species of pepper-tree a liquor, depilation, though the men are in the babit denominated kird, which enables them to of plucking ont their beard by the roots, enjoy the sweet oblivion produced by leaving only a snall mustachio on the npper iutoxication. The natives of Otabeite lip. Owirig, perhaps, to the indolence of make but three regular meals in the day; their character, wlich equally disinclines but having no new novels or poems, and them to manly exercises and to labour, but few balls or parties, to aid them in their gait is tottering, and unsteady, and killing time, they devote their numerons whatever force or energy they exhibit is leisure hours to eating. It is, in fact, a of short duration. From this general inj- rare thing to meet with one of these assiputation must be excepted that portion of duous disciples of Comus, without a fresh the youth, who are actuated by a passion cocoa-put or a piece of bread-frnit in his for swimming, and who float and sport hand, which, like Lord Peter, in the Tale about for hours úvtired, in those sparkling of a Tub, they appear to imagine contains waters which flow among the coral reef's the quintessence of beet, mutton, veal, that surround and protect the coasts of the plum-pudding, and cnstard. Their system island. These barbarians possess the senses of cookery, bowever, is not, as yet, very of sight and hearing in extraordinary pero recondite, nor are the materials extremely fection, and discover a bird concealed in pumerous or far-fetched. For seved or the foliage of a distant tree, or a small eight months in the year loaves, ready for lizard rustling under a stone, when no the oven, drop apon their heads from the European could see or hear either the one mayore-tree; when these fail, the cocoa or or the other. But this superior perfection the tarii, scarcely inferior in putritiveness, in tlie organs of sense they possess in com- 'supply their place; and, in addition to mon with all other nations in similar these, they have the iguama, or root of stages of civilization. It is a circumstance the tacca pinnatifida. For the sake of perfectly uuaccountable that, contrary to variety, and to provide, as the old proverb • what is fonud to be the case among all has it, against a rainy day,” they preother uncivilized people, there should be pare a beautiful flour, knoun among the found a greater number of liàmp-backed Gods by the name of arrow-root, but the persons among the Tahitian's, wlio,like the name by which it is distinguished aniong Thersiteses of all other countries, arë re. mortals we forget; besides which they markable for their gay, witty, and sa- manufacture a species of pudding from tirical humour. ;
bread-fruit and cocoa-nuts, and a sort of • The sole business of man in this life disli, which, says M. Lesson, is incontestably the king of all dishes, composed of columns from small openings left for the bread-truit and mountain or wild bananas purpose. A stratum of bread-fruit is baked together.
frequently placed over the hog, and the Since the arrival of Christian mission- wliole being closely covered over, a great aries among them, or rather, since those mis- tire is kept up for about half a day. sionaries have acquired power over their When the process is thought to be nearly minds, they have, we know not why, completed, a thick covering of earth.is contracted the habit of putting their sube heaped upon the oven, which, by concenterranean ovenz in operation only once in trating the heat, gives the finishing stroke seven days, on Saturday) when, rigid to the operation. The stones of these Methodists, they cook victuals enough not islands, volcanic in their origin, and conmerely for the Sunday, but for the whole sequently very porous, are extreinely well week, Even when the provisions thus precalculated to receive and distribute heat, pared run short, they seldom, except on The ovens are opened just as the dinner ihe eve of some festival or holiday, have is to be served op: and the meat thus recourse to their ovens; but kindling a cooked exhales a delicions perfume, and few charcoals before the doors of their possesses a nutritive quality which, achouses, roast a few roots, or a little bread. cording to M. Lesson, the vulgar cookery fruit, and, like Death in “ Paradise Lost,” of civilized nations might in vain ensnuff the savour of Sunday across the deavour to produce. abyss of hait a week. To those who are Being by no means Jewish in their deeply read in South Sea voyages, the tastes, they prefer pork to all other kinds subterranean ovens to which we have of meat; but as they appear to take alluded, and, indeed, whatever else we no care of the breeding and fattening of have to mention, must of course be fa- hogs, the mass of the population are but miliar; but for the interests of authorship, seldom enabled to taste this luxury. there are still in the world some dozen or Formerly the flesh of dogs was esteemed a two of people, who do not know every dainty ; but this, somehow or other, has thing, and it is for these that we would be latterly fallen into discredit.' Accordsupposed to write. Besides, as the French ing to our author, they are guilty of the Government thought it worth while to absurdity of rearing poultry, and gathersend the Coquille round the world ex- ing eggs in the thickets, and yet make no .pressly to obtain an exact account of these use of them; but we imagine there must curious instruments of cookery, and be some mistake in this. Even savages
similar things, in order, perlaps, that are generally gifted with too much wit to · when driven out of France, Charles X. labour for any length of time in vain. and his ministers might know where to find 'They are particularly fond of fish; but, the next best Elysium of glutions; the contrary to the practice of all other least thing we can do is to pause a nioment ichihyophagi, ancient aud modern, we in admiration of this chef d'auvre of bárbare believe, these barbarian A picii devour ism, from which M. Lesson tears himself a their dolphin and porpoise raw, as we do way with regret, and not without casting oysters. many“ a longing, lingering look bebind." The real bases of the food of the Ocean
This method, sad our author, is so jans, however, are the bread-fruit and the admirably adapted for giving an exquisite cocoa-nut. The stream of population, inflavour to rņeat, and at the same time so deed, is said to follow religiously in the extraordinarily simple, that it is impossible track of the latter over the vast archito pass it over without describing it, at pelagoes of the Pacific, where, as soon least briefly. This is most true. At a as, the cocoa springs up and yields little distance from their dwellings, the fruit upon a new island, man instantly ap
Oceanians dig a large round shallow pit, years, and takes possession of the soil. . the bottom of which they cover with Surrounded by groves of these siseful trees,
stones. They then kindle a large fire in it, man may sit down at his ease, and bid . and, in order to prevent the heat from defiance to famine; and if high intellec. escaping, cover over the whole with a qual cultivation and poetical feeling were layer of earth. When the heat is sup-compatible with idleness and inactivity, posed to be sufficiently intense, the oven the fables of the Golden Age might be is opened, a layer of banana leaves is realized upon these fertile and beautiful spread upon the hot stones, and a whole islands. The rima, or bread-fruit, is not pig, the belly of which, is also filled eaten raw ; but for eight months in the with hot stones, is placed upon the year, the tree produces plentifully, and leaves, and covered with another layer the fruit is gathered as it is wanted. of similar stones, upon wbich a new During the months of November, Defire is kindled with the dry bark of the cember, Javuary, and February, when cocoa-tree. The smoke ascends in thick this splendid tree ceases to be covered with bread, the natives eat a kind of paste, which are laid up against inclement wea. formed from its pulp, of a slightly acid ther, as well as to provide against the taste, together with bananas dried in the chances of being besieged in their abodes son, and squeezed by powerful ligatures. by ininical tribes. Nature pot producing Our sailors greatly admire this latter pre. spontaneously a great variety of alimentary paration, which they take as an excellent substances, and the natives being by no anti-scorbutic. A very agreeable and re. means inclined to supply, by the efforts of fresbing drink is made by steeping the industry, the niggardly contributions of pith of the bread-fruit tree in water. nature, the food of the New Zealanders is
The cocoa-nut tree is to these islanders extremely simple, consisting chiefly of the what the date-tree is to the Arabs, or root of a species of fero, which grows wheat to us; they could not subsist with- in profusion on the plains, of potatoes in. ont it. While fresh, its nats are their troduced into the country by Europeans, favourite meat and drink. The kernel is radishes, shell-fish, and the flesh of pigs eaten as it is gathered, and they sip with and dogs. delight the rich milk contained in its Though acknowledging that they devour centre. The tender young fruit, or rather with extraordinary pleasure the flesh of the buds yet uoformed in the husk, are the enemies they kill in battle, M. Lesson regarded as a great delicacy; and when attributes their cannibal babits, not to ripe and dry, the kernel is reduced to hunger bot to superstition. Superstition, a kind of paste, which is made up into however, has enongh to an«wer for, witba balls to be eaten like bread, or used in the out being saddled with the horrors to 'cooking of other articles of food.
which hunger alone has prompted, as our : "Among the principal fruits of these anthor might, without any extraordinary conntries, must be enumerated tbe vy, degree of sagacity, have inferred from the or fruit of the spondias dulcis, which, if circumstance that, in proportion as other eaten with the skin, is at first unpleasant, 'food becomes more plentiful and accessi. on account of a sort of resinous taste ble, savages lose the habit of preying upon which this part of the fruit possesses ; bụt 'their fellow-creatures. Their anthropowhen peeled like an orange, is truly ex "phagy, says M. Lesson, the effect of their qoisite. · When ripe, it melts upon the religious prejudices, has disappeared from lips ; but, as it cannot be preserved in various islands in which food is abundant, 'tliis state, it is gathered while green, in though the practice remains in full force order to be shipped in that state, and wherever the rigour of the climate, and allowed to ripen on board.
the poverty of the soil cause the necessity .. The ordinary drink of the Otalieitans, of substantial nourishinent to be felt. Herė, is pure water. Before the arrival of the without the aid of" religious prejudices," *missionaries, however, an intoxicating we have the whole theory of cannibalism, liquor was obtained front the root of the Men, tortured by insufferable hunger, cast piper methysticum, which at first pro- **** wolfish eyes" upon each other, and by duced profound sleep, then violent per. degrees, conquering the strong repugnance spiration, and lastly, the most furious which all animals feel to prey upon their paroxysms of diunkenness. This tre- own species, learn to kill and devour * mendous spirit is now chiefly used as their fellows, exactly trom the same medicine; and so far, whatever M. Lesson 'cause which impelled the African hyænas, may say to the contrary, the Missionaries mentioned, by Bruce, to eat their com, · have been useful, whether they be ex- panions, or the Cape Spider, imprisoned artisans or not. That branch of the by Le Vaillant, to sop upon his own legs. Oceanian race which inhabits New Zea. There is no nation, however, so openly - land, and has been compelled, by tbe and disgustingly addicted to anthropop
rigours of the climate, and other circum- hagy as the New Zealanders. stances, to adopt a system of manners In consequence of these abominable almost diametričally opposite to that pre- customs, says M. Lesson, these people · vailing among the Tahitians, has ventured have acquired a decided preference for to eke out its scanty list of edible matérials 'human flesh, and reckon among the with human flesh. Attacked by intensewlite days of their lives those solemn
cold, and buffeited by forious winds, these festivals, in which they can eat their till * savages have gradually assimilated their of this favourite food. A chief of the
character to that of their climate, and be- village of Kaojiri, on the island of Oamo. · come rude, fierce, boisterons, and unpity- ton-arobin,' confessed' to the French
ing. Their country producing little or officers that lie experienced extraordinary Lothing during the winter months, they gratification in devouring a corpse, and · are forced, during summer, when tista 'is informed them that the brain was the abundant, and easily caught upon their most delic'are' bit, though the haunches coasts, to smoke® and dry vast quantities, were the most snbstantial. Observing