## Conjugated Conducting Polymers |

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Page 71

Hubbard model , it is necessary to go to second order in U to see the

enhancement of

167 ] . A real space renormalization group approach [ 2 . 185 ] combines both

analytical ...

Hubbard model , it is necessary to go to second order in U to see the

enhancement of

**dimerization**, since there is no effect of U alone in first order ( 2 .167 ] . A real space renormalization group approach [ 2 . 185 ] combines both

analytical ...

Page 91

126 , 135 , 136 ] . Here the 2A , becomes simply a spin - wave excitation , which

is gapless in the limit of no

must involve a charge excitation , which will be at energy U + 00 ( recall Sect . 2 .

126 , 135 , 136 ] . Here the 2A , becomes simply a spin - wave excitation , which

is gapless in the limit of no

**dimerization**and U + 00 , while the optical ' B , statemust involve a charge excitation , which will be at energy U + 00 ( recall Sect . 2 .

Page 109

One may thus wonder whether the

all . Both numerical and analytical calculations ( 2 . 161 - 163 , 394 – 397 ] show

that the long - range order of the

One may thus wonder whether the

**dimerization**survives quantum fluctuations atall . Both numerical and analytical calculations ( 2 . 161 - 163 , 394 – 397 ] show

that the long - range order of the

**dimerization**does persist . The effect of ...### What people are saying - Write a review

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

An Overview of the Theory of rConjugated Polymers | 7 |

References | 114 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption addition applied approach approximation atoms band behaviour bipolarons bond bond alternation calculations carriers chain charged chemical concentration conductivity configuration conjugated polymers contribution correlation corresponding Coulomb Coulomb interactions coupling decreases defects density dependence described determined dimerization discussed dopant doping effects electron electron-electron energy excitations expected experimental experiments field finite frequency function give ground Hamiltonian hopping Hubbard important increase indicated interactions interpretation involving lattice leads length Lett limit localized magnetic materials measurements metallic methods modes molecules motion neutral nuclear observed obtained optical pair parameter peak phonon Phys Physics polarons polyacetylene polyenes polymers position properties range relaxation resonance respect samples Sect separation shift shown shows similar single soliton spectra spectrum spin structure studies symmetry Synth temperature theoretical theory trans-(CH transition units valence values whereas