## Conjugated Conducting Polymers |

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Page 50

1

Hubbard model , the

0 ) where the

Sect .

1

**Ground**State and Excitation Spectrum Among the many eigenstates of theHubbard model , the

**ground**state and lowlying ... the non - interacting limit ( U =0 ) where the

**ground**state corresponds to a filled Fermi sea , as discussed inSect .

Page 67

world line method can be modified to incorporate quantum phonon effects , so

that relaxed (

already been investigated [ 2 . 161 , 162 , 208 , 217 ] . In principle , similar effects

can ...

world line method can be modified to incorporate quantum phonon effects , so

that relaxed (

**ground**state ) geometries and finite phonon frequencies havealready been investigated [ 2 . 161 , 162 , 208 , 217 ] . In principle , similar effects

can ...

Page 143

In polymers with a non - degenerate

antikink pair is energetically unfavourable , because the isomer between the kink

and antikink usually has a higher energy than the other . Thus , at low doping ...

In polymers with a non - degenerate

**ground**state , a widely separated kink -antikink pair is energetically unfavourable , because the isomer between the kink

and antikink usually has a higher energy than the other . Thus , at low doping ...

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

An Overview of the Theory of rConjugated Polymers | 7 |

References | 114 |

Copyright | |

7 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

absorption addition applied approach approximation atoms band behaviour bipolarons bond bond alternation calculations carriers chain charged chemical concentration conductivity configuration conjugated polymers contribution correlation corresponding Coulomb Coulomb interactions coupling decreases defects density dependence described determined dimerization discussed dopant doping effects electron electron-electron energy excitations expected experimental experiments field finite frequency function give ground Hamiltonian hopping Hubbard important increase indicated interactions interpretation involving lattice leads length Lett limit localized magnetic materials measurements metallic methods modes molecules motion neutral nuclear observed obtained optical pair parameter peak phonon Phys Physics polarons polyacetylene polyenes polymers position properties range relaxation resonance respect samples Sect separation shift shown shows similar single soliton spectra spectrum spin structure studies symmetry Synth temperature theoretical theory trans-(CH transition units valence values whereas