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A

B

* A. 11.

then AD coincides with BG, because
the angle CAD is equal to the angle
FBG: and because the inclination of
the plane CAE to the plane CAD is
equal * to the inclination of the plane Ć

F Η
FBH to the plane FBG, the plane
CAE coincides with the plane FBH, because the
planes CAD, FBG coincide with one another: and
because the straight lines AC, BF coincide, and that
the angle CAE is equal to the angle FBH; therefore
AE coincides with BH: and AD coincides with BG;
wherefore the plane EAD coincides with the plane

HBG: therefore the solid angle A coincides with the * 8 Ax. 1. solid angle B, and consequently they are equal * to

one another.

Q. E. D.

PROP. C. THEOR.

See N.

Solid figures which are contained by the same number of

equal and similar planes alike situated, and having none of their solid angles contained by more than three plane angles, are equal and similar to one another.

Let AG, KQ be two solid figures contained by the same nuniber of similar and equal planes, alike situated, viz. let the plane AC be similar and equal to the plane KM; the plane AF to KP; BG to LQ; GD to QN; DE to NO; and, lastly, FH similar and equal to PR: the solid figure AG shall be equal and similar to the solid figure KQ.

Because the solid angle at A is contained by the three plane angles BAD, BAE, EAD, which, by the hypothesis, are equal to the plane angles LKN, LKO, OKN, which contain the solid angle at K, each to each; therefore the solid angle at A is equal * to the solid angle at K. In the same manner, the other solid angles of the figures are equal to one another. Let then the solid figure AG be applied to the solid figure KQ: first, the plane figure AC being applied to the plane figure KM, so that the

N straight line AB may coincide with KL, the figure AC must coincide with the figure KM, because they are equal and similar: therefore the straight lines AD, DC, CB, coincide with KN, NM, ML, each with each; and

* B. 11.

R

Q

H
E

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K

the points, A, D, C, B, with the points K, N, M, L: and the solid angle at A coincides with * the solid * B. 11. angle at K; wherefore the plane AF coincides with the plane KP, and the figure AF with the figure KP, because they are equal and similar to one another : therefore the straight lines AE, EF, FB, coincide with KO, OP, PL; and the points E, F, with the points O, P. In the same manner, the figure AH coincides with the figure KR, and the straight line DH, with NR, and the point H with the point R. And because the solid angle at B is equal to the solid angle at L, it may be proved, in the same manner, that the figure BĞ coincides with the figure LQ, and the straight line CG with MQ, and the point G with the point Q. Therefore since all the planes and sides of the solid figure AG coincide with the planes and sides of the solid figure KQ, AG is equal and similar to KQ. And in the same manner, any other solid figures whatever contained by the same number of equal and similar planes, alike situated, and having none of their solid angles contained by more than three plane angles, may be proved to be equal and similar to one another.

Q. E. D.

PROP. XXIV. THEOR.

If a solid be contained by six planes, two and two of See N.

which are parallel ; the opposite planes are similar and equal parallelograms.

Let the solid CDGH be contained by the parallel planes AC, GF; BG, CE; FB, AE: its opposite planes shall be similar and equal parallelograms.

Because the two parallel planes BG, CE, are cut by the plane AC, their common sections AB, CD*, are 16. 11. parallel: again, because the two parallel planes BF, AE are cut by the plane AC, their common sections AD, BC* are parallel: and AB is parallel to CD; *16.11. therefore AC is a parallelogram. In like manner, it may be proved that each of the figures CE, FG, GB, BF, AE, is a parallelogram. Join AH, DF; and because

A AB is parallel to DC, and BH to CF; the two straight lines AB, BH, which meet one another, are parallel to DC and CF, which meet one another, and are not in the

B

F

10. 11.

* 4. 1.

* 34. 1.

same plane with the other two: wherefore they contain * equal angles; therefore the angle ABH is equal to the angle DCF: and because AB, BH, are equal to DC, CF, each to each, and the angle ABH equal to the angle DCF; therefore the base AH is equal * to the base DF, and the triangle_ABH to the triangle DCF: but the parallelogram BG is double * of the triangle ABH, and the parallelogram CE double of the triangle DCF; therefore the parallelogram BG is equal and similar to the parallelogram CE. In the same manner it may be proved, that the parallelogram AC is equal and similar to the parallelogram GF, and the parallelogram AE to BF. Therefore, if a solid, &c. 'Q. E. D.

PROP. XXV. THEOR.

See N.

If a solid parallelopiped be cut by a plane parallel to two

of its opposite planes; it divides the whole into two solids, the base of one of which shall be to the base of the other, as the one solid is to the other.

Let the solid parallelopiped ABCD be cut by the plane EV, which is parallel to the opposite planes AR, HD, and divides the whole into the two solids ABFV, EGCD: as the base AEFY of the first is to the base EHCF of the other, so shall the solid ABFV be to the solid EGCD.

Produce AH both ways, and take any number of
straight lines HM, MN, each equal to ÉH, and any
number AK, KL, each equal to EA, and complete the
parallelograms LO, KY, HQ, MS, and the solids
LP, KR, HU, MT. Then, because the straight lines
LK, KA, AE, are all equal,
the parallelograms LO, KY,

B G
AF, are * equal; and like-
wise the parallelograms KX,

ELHLMN
KB, AG: also * the paral-

F CQ lelograms LZ, KP, AŘ, are equal, because they are opposite planes: for the same reason, the parallelograms EC, HQ, MS, are equal and the parallelograms HG, HI, IN: as also * HD, MU, NT: therefore three planes of the solid LP are equal and similar to three planes of the solid KR, as also to three planes of the solid AV; but the three planes opposite to these three are equal and similar *

* 36. 1.

* 24. 11.

36. 1.

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* 24. 11.

* 24. 11.

to them in the several solids, and none of their solid angles are contained by more than three plane angles ; therefore the three solids LP, KR, AV are equal * to * C. 11. one another: for the same reason the three solids ED, HU, MT, are equal to one another: therefore what multiple soever the base LF is of the base AF, the same multiple is the solid LV of the solid AV; and whatever multiple the base NF is of the base HF, the same multiple is the solid NV of the solid ED: and if the base LF be equal to the base NF, the solid LV is equal * to the solid NV; and if the base LF be greater * C. 11. than the base NF, the solid LV is greater ihan the solid NV; and if less, less. Since then there are four magnitudes, viz, the two bases AF, FH, and the two solids AV, ED; and that of the base AF and solid AV,

L

E HIMLN the base LF and solid LV

ICQS are any equimultiples whatever; and of the base FH and solid ED, the base FN and solid NV are any equimultiples whatever; and since it has been proved, that if the base LF is greater than the base FN the solid LV is greater than the solid NV; and if equal, equal; and if less, less; therefore the base AF is to the base FH, so is the solid * 5 Def. 5. AV to the solid ED. Wherefore, if a solid, &c. Q. E. D.

BG
R

ZI

K

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as

PROB. XXVI. PROB.

At a given point in a given straight line, to make a solid See N.

angle equal to a given solid angle contained by three plane angles.

Let AB be a given straight line, A a given point in it, and D a given solid angle contained by the three plane angles EDC, EDF, FDC: it is required to make at the point A in the straight line AB a solid angle equal to the solid angle D.

In the straight line DF take any point F, from which draw * FG perpendicular to the plane EDC, meeting that plane in G, and join DG: at the point A, in the straight line AB, make* the angle BAL * 25. 1. equal to the angle EDC, and in the plane BAL make the angle BAK equal to the angle EDG; then make AK equal to DG, and from the point K erect * KH at * 12. 11. right angles to the plane BAL, and make KH equal

* 11. 11.

7.4. 1.

4. 1.

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to GF, and join AH. The solid angle at A which is contained by the three plane angles BAL, BAH, HAL, shall be equal to the solid angle at D contained by the three plane angles EDC, EDF, FDC.

Take the equal straight lines AB, DE, and join HB,

KB, FE, GE. And because FG is perpendicular to * 3 Def. 11. the plane EDC, it makes right angles * with every straight line meeting it in that plane:

therefore each of the angles FGD, FGE is a right angle. For the same reason HKA, HKB, are right angles. And because KA, AB are equal to GD, DE, each to each, and that they contain equal angles, therefore the base BK is

equal * to the base EG; and KH is equal t to GF, + Constr. and HKB, FGE are right angles, therefore HB is

equal* to FE. Again, because AK, KH, are equal to DG, GF, each to each, and contain right angles, the base AH is equal to the base DF; and AB is equal to DE; therefore, HA, AB, are equal to FD, DE, each to each; and the base HB is equal to the base FE; therefore the angle BAH is equal* to the angle EDF. For the same reason the angle HAL is equal o the angle FDC: because if AL and DC be made L'qual, and KL, HL, GC, FC, be joined; since the whole angle BAL is equal to the whole EDC, and the parts of them BAK, ÉDG are, by the construction, equal; therefore the remaining angle KAL is equal to the remaining angle GDC: and because KA, AL are equal to GD, DC, each to each, and contain equal angles, the base KL is equal * to the base GC; and

KĚ is equal to GF; so that LK, KH are equal to + 3 Def.11. CG, GF, each to each; and they contain right +

angles; therefore the base HL is † 4. 1. equal t to the base FC: again,

because HA, AL are equal to
FD, DC, each to each, and the
base HL to the base FC, the
angle HAL is equal* to the angle
FDC. Therefore, because the
three plane angles BAL, BAH, HAL, which contain
the solid angle at A, are equal to the three plane angles
EDC, EDF, FDC, which contain the solid angle at
D, each to each, and are situated in the same order,
the solid angle at A is equal * to the solid angle at D.
Therefore at a given point in a given straight line a
solid angle has been made equal to a given solid angle

* 4. 1.

A

D

J. ES

B
K

H

* 8.1.

the B. 11.

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