The Welfare of Cattle
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 8, 2007 - Science - 310 pages
Animal welfare is attracting increasing interest worldwide, but particularly from those in developed countries, who now have the knowledge and resources to be able to offer the best management systems for their farm animals, as well as potentially being able to offer plentiful resources for companion, zoo and laboratory animals. The increased attention given to farm animal welfare in the West derives largely from the fact that the relentless pursuit of financial reward and efficiency has led to the development of intensive animal production systems that challenge the conscience of many consumers in those countries. In developing countries, human survival is still a daily uncertainty, so that provision for animal welfare has to be balanced against human welfare. Welfare is usually provided for only if it supports the output of the animal, be it food, work, clothing, sport or companionship. In re- ity, there are resources for all if they are properly husbanded in both developing and developed countries. The inequitable division of the world’s riches creates physical and psychological poverty for humans and animals alike in many parts of the world. Livestock are the world’s biggest land user (FAO, 2002) and the population is increasing rapidly to meet the need of an expanding human population. Populations of farm animals managed by humans are therefore increasing worldwide, and there is the tendency to allocate fewer resources to each animal.
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ACTH Animal Behaviour Science Animal Health Animal Science animal welfare animal’s Applied Animal Behaviour assess animal welfare associated aversive handling bedding beef cattle calf castration changes Chapter colostrum corticosteroids cortisol concentrations dairy calves dairy cattle dairy cows dairy farms Dairy Science dehorning disease effects example factors farm animals farmers fear feed bunk feed intake feedlots Figure ﬂooring free stalls glucocorticoids group housing heat stress heifers Hemsworth herds hoof housing systems HPA activity HPA axis immune system important incidence increased individual housing inﬂuence injuries interactions Journal of Animal Journal of Dairy Journal ofDairy Science ketosis lactating lameness lesions lying mastitis measures metabolic milk production milk yield mortality motivation occur oxytocin pain Passillé pens physiological plasma cortisol procedures rates reduced reﬂect risk Rushen social stockmanship stockpeople stockperson stressors studies sucking surfaces teat veal veal calves vocalizations weaning Weary welfare problems young calves
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