## Strength of Materials |

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Page 93

Model of

thin metal wire or foil is folded back and forth several times, as in Fig. 4-20a. The

wire is glued to the material whose deformation is to be measured (Fig. 4-20b).

Model of

**strain gage**. The basic idea of the**strain gage**is illustrated in Fig. 4-20. Athin metal wire or foil is folded back and forth several times, as in Fig. 4-20a. The

wire is glued to the material whose deformation is to be measured (Fig. 4-20b).

Page 94

can be measured. The problem is that it is very difficult to measure shear

...

**gages**. When the directions of the principal stresses are not known, any unknown**strains**at a point can be calculated if values of f x, fy, and y „. at the same pointcan be measured. The problem is that it is very difficult to measure shear

**strains**;...

Page 95

The strains in these directions are related according to Eq. 2-4 as follows: fa = - ^

cos 20c - ^ sin 20c In these equations fx, fy, and yxr are the unknown ... Further

simplification results if the

.

The strains in these directions are related according to Eq. 2-4 as follows: fa = - ^

cos 20c - ^ sin 20c In these equations fx, fy, and yxr are the unknown ... Further

simplification results if the

**strain gages**are mounted in regular geometric patterns.

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angle applied Assume axial beam bending brittle buckling calculated caused column compressive stress concrete Consider constant crack cross section cross-sectional area curvature cyclic cylindrical deflection Determine diameter ductile elastic strain element elongation equations equilibrium EXAMPLE extensometer external load factors of safety failure fatigue fibers fracture free-body diagram ft-lb given GPa Fig hardening horizontal implant increase inertia magnitude maximum shear stress maximum stress metal minimum modulus Mohr's circle neutral axis normal stress notch plane plastic deformation plate plot pole pressure Prob problems psi Fig radius residual stresses rivets shaft shear force shear strain shear strength shown in Fig softening Solution specimen static steel strain gages strength of materials stress and strain stress distribution stress-strain curve temperature tensile stress tension thickness torque torsion tube vertical weight weld wire yield strength zero