## Proceedings of the ... International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Volume 16, Part 4American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1997 - Arctic regions |

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Page 266

( a ) initial

the flakes form in cascades and that for a nonsymmetric wedge , the flakes form

from the less steep side . Therefore , the process can sustain itself . An example

of ...

( a ) initial

**crack**tip forced displacement p = 60 20b * 30h E , v ( b ) process is thatthe flakes form in cascades and that for a nonsymmetric wedge , the flakes form

from the less steep side . Therefore , the process can sustain itself . An example

of ...

Page 267

Figure 10 shows the variations of K , and Ky as functions of the

the three cases . For all the three

decrease . These calculations suggest that Ky reaches a maximum at the point

where ...

Figure 10 shows the variations of K , and Ky as functions of the

**crack**length forthe three cases . For all the three

**cracks**, K , first increases and then starts todecrease . These calculations suggest that Ky reaches a maximum at the point

where ...

Page 324

From the exponents of the above expressions , it can be seen that crushing ice

results in a much faster acceleration of

exponent usually called Paris exponent , compared to bending ice . the last and

high ...

From the exponents of the above expressions , it can be seen that crushing ice

results in a much faster acceleration of

**cracks**for the higher value of theexponent usually called Paris exponent , compared to bending ice . the last and

high ...

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### Contents

KEYNOTE LECTURES | 1 |

RUSSIAN ARCTIC | 4 |

SHIPS AND NAVIGATION IN | 33 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

analysis angle approach Arctic average blade calculated characteristics coefficient compared comparison components compressive concentration considered crack depends determined developed direction distribution dynamic effect Engineering equation estimated experiments factor failure field Figure floe force frame hull ice conditions ice cover ice floes ice force ice load ice sheet ice thickness icebreaking included increase interaction International length level ice maximum mean measured mechanism method mode model tests mooring motion navigation Northern observed obtained offshore operating parameters peak performance plate predicted present pressure propeller range ratio region Report Research resistance response ridge salinity samples scale sea ice segment shape ship shown shows simulation speed strength stress structure surface Table tank tanker Technology temperature tests transportation values vessel width zone