Paleogene Fossil Birds
In the present book the Paleogene fossil record of birds is detailed for the first time on a worldwide scale. I have developed the idea for such a project for several years, and think that it is an appropriate moment to present a summary of our c- rent knowledge of the early evolution of modern birds. Meanwhile not only is there a confusing diversity of fossil taxa, but also significant progress has been made concerning an understanding of the higher-level phylogeny of extant birds. Hypotheses which were not considered even a decade ago are now well supported by independent analyses of different data. In several cases these group together morphologically very different avian groups and allow a better understanding of the mosaic character distribution found in Paleogene fossil birds. The book aims at bringing some of this information together, and many of the following data are based on first-hand examination of fossil specimens.
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Accipitridae Alvarenga Anatidae Anseriformes Apodiformes assigned Aves avifaunas beak belong BMNH bones Cariamidae carpometacarpus Charadriiformes clade clade including coracoid Cracraft crown group deposits described distal tarsometatarsus distal tibiotarsus earliest early Oligocene early Paleogene Eocene Eocene of Messel Ericson Europe exhibits extant Feduccia flightless foramen fourth toe fragmentary furcula Galliformes Gastornithidae Germany Green River Formation Harrison and Walker Harrison CJO holotype Houde humerus hypotarsus known Kurochkin late Cretaceous late Oligocene late Paleocene Lithornithidae London Clay Mayr G middle Eocene Milne-Edwards Miocene Mlíkovský 2002 molecular morphology Mourer-Chauviré North America Northern Hemisphere Oligocene Olson Paleogene Paleogene fossil record Pelagornithidae penguins phalanges Phoenicopteriformes Phorusrhacidae Photo by Sven phylogenetic affinities Piciformes plesiomorphic postcranial Presbyornithidae Procellariiformes Psittaciformes Quercy Quercy fissure fillings Rallidae ratites Sect Senckenberg similar sister group relationship sister taxon skeleton skull species specimens Sphenisciformes stem group stem group representatives sternal sternum Strigiformes Sven Tränkner tarsometatarsus taxa tibiotarsus trochlea ulna Wetmore whereas