Paradoxes of Gender
Yale University Press, 1994 - 424 頁
In this pathbreaking book, a well-known feminist and sociologist--who is also the Founding Editor of Gender & Society--challenges our most basic assumptions about gender. Judith Lorber views gender as wholly a product of socialization subject to human agency, organization, and interpretation. In her new paradigm, gender is an institution comparable to the economy, the family, and religion in its significance and consequences.
Drawing on many schools of feminist scholarship and on research from anthropology, history, sociology, social psychology, sociolinguistics, and cultural studies, Lorber explores different paradoxes of gender:
--why we speak of only two "opposite sexes" when there is such a variety of sexual behaviors and relationships;
--why transvestites, transsexuals, and hermaphrodites do not affect the conceptualization of two genders and two sexes in Western societies;
--why most of our cultural images of women are the way men see them and not the way women see themselves;
--why all women in modern society are expected to have children and be the primary caretaker;
--why domestic work is almost always the sole responsibility of wives, even when they earn more than half the family income;
--why there are so few women in positions of authority, when women can be found in substantial numbers in many occupations and professions;
--why women have not benefited from major social revolutions.
Lorber argues that the whole point of the gender system today is to maintain structured gender inequality--to produce a subordinate class (women) that can be exploited as workers, sexual partners, childbearers, and emotional nurturers. Calling into question the inevitability and necessity of gender, she envisions a society structured for equality, where no gender, racial ethnic, or social class group is allowed to monopolize economic, educational, and cultural resources or the positions of power.
讀者評論 - 撰寫評論
The Social Construction of Gender 1
Biology as Ideology
How Many Opposites? Gendered Sexuality
Cultural Images of Gender
The Social Evolution of Gender
Gender and Domestic Labor
Acker adult African-American Anita Hill argues behavior berdache biological birth bisexual body boys career child clothing cross-dressing daughters divorce domestic labor dominant dress earnings economic emotional employers exploitation fathers female feminine feminism feminist fertility gender equality gender identity gender inequality gender statuses gendered division genitalia girls heterosexual hijras homosexual household housework human husbands ideology individual industrialized infant kinship lesbian less live Lorber male marriage masculine matrilocal menstruation middle-class modern mommy track mothers nineteenth century norms nurses occupations organizations paid parents patriarchy patrilineal patterns percent physical policies political positions practices pregnant prestige procreative production professional race racial ethnic groups rape relationships responsibility revolution roles sexual harassment social construction social institution status structure subordinate symbolic thev tion transsexuals transvestism transvestite United wages Western societies wife wives woman women workers working-class workplace xaniths