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gory, in which the metaphorical fiction mour, more sad and melancholy, more is sustained with all the minuteness of a rude, and of a heavier wit also, who real story. In Dr. Patrick's the same crossed their way on the right-hand.' plan is generally announced as arising He also (representing, doubtless, the from the earrest longing of a traveller, Presbyterians or Sectaries) pressed them whom he calls Philotheus or Theophilus, with eagerness to accept his guidance, whose desires are fixed on journeying and did little less than menace them with to Jerusalem as a pilgrim. After much total destruction if they should reject it. distressing uncertainty, caused by the A dagger and a pocket-pistol, though contentions of pretended guides, who less openly and ostentatiously disposed recommend different routes, he is at than the arms of the first cavalier, seem length recommended to a safe and intel- ready for the same purposes ; and he, ligent one. Theophilus hastens to put therefore, is repulsed, as well as his himself under his pilotage, and the good neighbour. These are the only pasman gives forth his instructions for the sages in which the church dignitary way, and in abundant detail, so that all might be thought to have caught for a the dangers of error and indifferent com- moment the spirit of the tinker of Bed. pany may be securely avoided'; but in ford. Through the rest of his parable, all this, very little care is taken even to which fills a well-sized quarto volume, preserve the appearance of the allegory: the dean no doubt evinces considerable in a word, you have, almost in plain learning, but, compared to Bunyan, may terms, the moral and religious precepts rank with the dullest of all possible doc. necessary to be observed in the actual tors; "a worthy neighbour, indeed, and course of a moral and religious life. a marvellous good bowler--but for Alex. The pilgrim, indeed, sets out upon his ander, you see how 'tis.' Yet Dr. journey, but'it is only in order again to Patrick had the applause of his own meet with his guide, who launches fur- time. The first edition of his Parable ther into whole chapters of instructions, appeared, as has been mentioned, in with scarcely a reply from the passive 1678; and the sixth, which now lies pupil. It is needless to point out the before us, is dated 1687. 1 extreme difference between this strain Mr. Southey introduces the followof continued didactics, rather encumber- ing just eulogium on our classic of the ed than enlivened by a starting meta- common people : phor, which, generally quite lost sight “ Bunyan was confident in his own of, the author recollects every now and powers of expression ; he says then, as if by accident--and the tho

thine only way roughly life-like manner in which John Before them all, is to say out thy say

In thine own native language, which no man Bunyan puts the adventures of his pil

Now useth, nor with ease dissenible can. grim before us. Two circumstances And he might well be confident in it. alone strike us as trenching somewhat His is a homespun style, not a manufac, on the manner of him of Elstow : the tured one; and what a difference is there one is where the guide awakens some between its homeliness, and the flippant sluggish pilgrims, whom he finds sleep

vulgarity of the Roger L'Estrange and ing by the way;* the other is where

Tom Brown school ! If it is not a well their way is crossed by two horsemen, of English undefiled to which the poet who insist upon assuming office of

as well as the philologist must repair, if guide. “The one is a pleasing talker, they would drink of the living waters, it excellent company by reason of his plea- is a clear stream of current English-the sant humour, and of a carriage very vernacular speech of his age, sometimes pleasant and inviting ; but they observed indeed in its rusticity and coarseness, he had a sword by his side, and a pair of pistols before him, together with an- strength. To this natural style Bunyan

but always in its plainness and its other instrument hanging at his belt, is in some degree beholden for his genewhich was formed for pulling out of ral popularity ;-his language is every eyes.'+ The pilgrims suspected this where level to the must ignorant reader, well-armed cavalier to be one of that and to the meanest capacity: there is brood who will force others into their homely reality about it; a nursery tale own path, and then put out their eyes in is not more intelligible, in its manner of case they should forsake it. They huve narration, to a child. Another cause of not got rid of their dangerous companion, by whom the Romish church is in

The Poet Laureate may, perhaps, like to

hear that Dr. Patrick introduces into bis parable dicated, when they are accosted by a a very tolerable edition of that legend of the man of a quite different shape and hu- roasted fowls recalled to life by St. James of

Compostella, of which he himself has recently Parable of the Pilgrim, chapter XXX. given us so lively and amusing a metrical vertIbidem, cbapter xxxiv.



his popularity is, that he taxes the ima- of attraction, and adds to the original gination as little as the understanding. impression. The pilgrimage of ChrisThe vividness of his own, which, as his tiana, her friend Mercy, and her chilhistory shows, sometimes could not dis- dren, commands sympathy at least as tinguish ideal impressions from actual powerful as that of Christian himself, ones, occasioned this. He saw the things and it materially adds to the interest of which he was writing as distinctly which we have taken in the progress with his mind's eye as if they were in- of the husband, to trace the effects prodeed passing before him in a dream. duced by similar events in the case of And the reader perhaps sees them more women and children. satisfactorily to himself, because the out- “ There is a pleasure,” says the line only of the picture is presented to learned editor, “in travelling with anhim; and the author having made no other companion the same ground-a attempt to fill up the details, every reader pleasure of reminiscence, neither in. supplies them according to the measure ferior in kind nor degree to that which and scope of his own intellectual and is derived from a first impression. The imaginative powers,

characters are judiciously marked: that Mr. Southey, observing with what of Mercy, particularly, is sketched with general accuracy this apostle of the peo- an admirable grace and simplicity; nor ple writes the English language, not- do we read of any with equal interest, withstanding all the disadvantages under excepting that of Ruth in Scripture, so which his youth must have been passed, beautifully, on all occasions, does the pauses to notice one gross and repeated Mercy of John Bunyan unfold modest

• The vulgarism alluded to,' says humility regarding her own merits, and the laureate, consists in the almost uni- tender veneration for the matron Chrisform use of a for have--never marked as tiana." a contraction, e.g. might a made me take « The distinctions between the first heed—like to a been smothered.'. Under and second part of the Pilgrim's Progress favour, however, this is a sin against or- are such as circumstances render approthography rather than grammar: the priate; and as John Bunyan's strong tinker of Elstow only spelt according mother wit enabled him to seize upon to the pronunciation of the verb to have, correctly. Christian, for example, a then common in his class ; and the same man, and a bold one, is represented as form appears a hundred times in Shak- enduring his fatigues, trials, and comspeare. We must not here omit to men- bats, by his own stout courage, under tion the skill with which Mr. Southey the blessing of heaven : but to express has restored much of Bunyan's mascu- that species of inspired heroism by which line and idiomatic English, which had women are supported in the path of been gradually dropped

out of successive duty, notwithstanding the natural feebleimpressions by careless, or unfaithful, ness and timidity of their nature, Chrisor what is as bad, conceited correctors tiana and Mercy obtain from the inter

preter their guide, called Great-heart, The speedy popularity of the Pil- by whose strength and valour their lack grim's Progress had the natural effect of of both is supplied, and the dangers and inducing Bunyan again to indulge the distresses of the way repelled and overvein of allegory in which his warm imagination and clear and forcible expres- The author hints, at the end of the sion had procured him such success. second part, as if it might be his lot Under this impression, he produced the to go this way again;' nor was his mind second part of his Pilgrim's Progress; that light species of soil which could be and well says Mr. Southey, that none exhausted by two crops. But he left but those who have acquired the ill habit to another and very inferior hand the of always reading critically, can feel it task of composing a third part, containas a clog upon the first. The first part ing the adventures of one Tender Conis, indeed, one of those delightfully sim- science, far unworthy to be bound up, ple and captivating tales which, as soon as it sometimes is, with John Bunyan's as finished, we are not unwilling to begin matchless parable.' again. Even the adult becomes himself like the child who cannot be satisfied 'Tis necessary a writing critic should with the repetition of a favourite tale, understand how to write. And though but harasses the story-telling aunt or every writer is not bound to show himnurse, to know more of the incidents self in the capacity of critic, every and characters. In this respect Bunyan writing critic is bound to show himself has contrived a contrast, which, far from capable of being a writer. exhausting his subject, opens new sources

Shaftesbury Criticism.

of the press.



dotes of a Reader. preciate the affection which exists in

such and such places, and understand,

with an almost magical power, the value (From Maxwell. By Theodore Huok.) together.

of the links by which society is held Professional People,

Middle Life. None of our fellow-creatures enjoy life more than the successful member of one the mind in the uneven paths of middling

There is more healthful exercise for of the learned professions. There is, it life, than there is on the Macadamized is true, constant toil; but there are road of fortune. Were the year all sumconstant excitement, activity, and enthusiasm ; at least, where there is not leaves and the bright sunshine--as, in

mer, how tiresome would be the green enthusiasm in a profession, success will deed, those will admit, who have lived never come—and as to the affairs of the in climates where vegetation is always at world in general, the divine, the lawyer,

work. and the medical man, are more con

Unwelcome Truth. versant and mixed up with them, than any other human beings---cabinet minis

Plain speaking was Mousetrap's disters themselves, not excepted.

tinctive characteristic ; his conversation The divine, by the sacred nature of abounded in blunt truisms, founded upon his calling, and the higher character of

a course of thinking somewhat peculiar his duties, is, perhaps, farther removed

to himself, but which, when tried by the from an immediate contact with society; test of human vice and human folly, his labours are of a more exalted order, proved very frequently to be a great deal and the results of those labours not open

more accurate than agreeable. to ordinary observation ; but the lawyer

Stockbrokers. in full practice knows the designs and devices of half our acquaintance; it is

“ I know some of them brokering boys

are worth a million on Monday, and true, professional decorum seals his lips, but he has them all before him in threepence on Thursday—all in high his “mind's eye,” —all their litigations feather one week, and poor waddling and littlenesses, -all their cuttings, and

creturs the next." carvings, and contrivings. He knows

Mercantile Life. why a family, who hate the French with

A dark hole of a counting-house, with all the fervour of British prejudice, visits Paris, and remains there for a year or long-legged stools, writing out letters

a couple of clerk chaps, cocked up upon two; he can give a good reason why a man who delights in a well preserved stuck full of dirty papers, hanging

a .smoky fireplace-two or three files, property in a sporting country, with a

against the wall-an almanack, and a house well built and beautifully situated, high-railed desk, with a slit in a panel, consents to “ spare it," at a reduced

with “bills for acceptance" painted price, to a man for whom he cares

over it.” They are the chaps a wot" nothing upon earth : and looks at the world fully alive to the motives, and per. for thousands, having nothing in the

makes time - bargains - they speculate fectly aware of the circumstances, of world—and then at the wind-up of a three-fourths of the unconscious actors week or two, pay each other what they by whom he is surrounded.

call the difference : that is to say, the The eminent medical man stands, if change between what they cannot get, not upon higher ground, at least in a

and what they have not got. more interesting position. As he mingles with the gay assembly, or visits the

The Secret Spring. crowded ball, he knows the latent ills,

There are with all great affairs smaller the hidden, yet incurable disorders of affairs connected, so that in the watchthe laughing throng by which he is en

work of society, the most skilful artist circled; he sees premature death lurk. is sometimes puzzled to fix upon the ing under the hectic flush on the cheek very little wheel by which the greater of the lovely Fanny, and trembles for the wheels are worked. fate of the kind-hearted Emily, as he beholds her mirthfully joining in the

Bad Company." mazy dance. He, too, by witnessing The subject under discussion was the the frequently recurring scenes of death, great advantages likely to arise from the beholds the genuine sorrow of the be- establishment of the North Shields Sawreaved wife, or the devoted husband dust Consolidation Company, in which and can, by the constant unpremeditated Apperton told Maxwell there were still exhibitions of fondness and feeling, ap- seventy-four shares to be purchased : ing of.

they were hundred pound shares, and were such as, in the case of any prdia were actually down at eighty-nine, nary person, could not be considered would be at fifteen premium on the fol- otherwise than disastrous and humililowing Saturday, and must eventually ating. He had, in the course of one rise to two hundred and thirty, for rea- short year, gone through every variety sons which he gave in the most plausible of domestic misery; -had seen his manner, and which were in themselves hearth ten times profaned by the visitaperfectly satisfactory, as he said, to the tions of the law, and been only saved # meanest capacity;' a saying with from a prison by the privileges of his which it might have been perfectly safe rank. He had alienated (if, indeed, to agree.

they had ever been his) the affections of Love.

his wife; and now, rejected by her, and What does Sterne say? That love is no condemned by the world, was betaking more made by talking of it, than a black himself to an exile which had not even pudding would be. Habit, association, the dignity of appearing voluntary, as assimilation of tastes, communion of the excommunicating voice of society thought, kindness without pretension, seemed to leave him no other resource. solicitude without effort, a tacit agree. Had he been of that class of unfeeling ment and a silent sympathy; these are and self- satisfied natures from whose the excitements and stimulants of the hard surface the reproaches of others only sort of love that is worth think- fall pointless, he might have found in

insensibility a sure refuge against reBrighton.

proach ; but, on the contrary, the same Brighton will be as good a residence sensitiveness that kept him so awake to as any other; there's nobody there the applauses of mankind rendered him, knows much of either of you ; and the in a still more intense degree, alive to

their censure. place has got so big, that you may be as

Even the strange, persnug as you please ; a large town and verse pleasures which he felt in painta large party, are the best possible shel- ing himself unamiably to the world did ters for love matters. Ay, go to Brigh- not prevent him from being both startled ton-- the prawns for breakfast, the and pained when the world took him at Wheatears (as the Cockneys delicately his word; and, like a child in a mask call them, without knowing what they before a looking-glass, the dark semare talking about) for dinner, and the blance which he had half in sport, put lobsters for supper, with a cigar, and a

on, when reflected back upon him from little ginnums and water, whiffing the the mirror of public opinion, shocked wind, and sniffing the briny out of one of even himself. the bow-window balconies-that's it

« Thus surrounded by vexations, and Brighton's the place, against the world. thus deeply feeling them, it is not toa

much to say, that any other spirit but Murder,

his own would have sunk under the A gentleman criminal is too rich a struggle, and lost, perhaps, irrecovertreat to be overlooked; and a murder in ably, that level of self-esteem which good society forms a tale of middling alone affords a stand against the shocks life, much too interesting to be passed of fortune. But in him, -furnished as over in a hurry.

his mind was with reserves of strength, A Love Errand.

waiting to be called out,—the very in He went to look for something which tensity of the pressure brought relief he had not "left there, and whither she by the proportionate reaction which it followed him, to assist in a pursuit which frailties been visited with no more than

produced. Had his transgressions and she knew went for nothing.

their due portion of punishment, there

can be little doubt that a very different MOORE'S LIFE OF BYRON, VOL. II.

résult would have ensued.

Not only

would such an excitement have been in The publication of this work, bona fide, sufficient to waken up the new energies has not yet taken place; but we are

still dormant in him, but that consciousenabled by the aid of the Athenæum to

ness of his own errors, which was for quote a page.

ever livelily present in his mind, would, The volume commences with the fol. under such circumstances, have been lowing powerful review of Lord Byron's left, undisturbed by any unjust provomind and fortune at the time he left cation, to work its usual softening and, England :

perhaps, humbling influences on his The circumstances under which spirit. But,-luckily, as it proved, for Lord Byron now took leave of England the further triumphs of his genius,


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no such moderation was exercised. The ture and by history, the no less durable,
storm of invective raised around him, associations of undying song.”'
so utterly out of proportion with his
offences, and the base calumnies that
were everywhere heaped upon his name,

The Gatherer.
left to his wounded pride no other re- A sDapper up of unconsidered trifles,
source than in the same summoning up
of strength, the same instinct of resis-
tance to injustice, which had first forced

out the energies of his youthful genius, Towards the close of his lise, was so
and was now destined to give him a still thoroughly convinced of the superior
bolder and loftier range of its powers.

value of the Holy Scriptures, as to de-, clare that the 11th, i2th, 13th, and

14th verses of the second chapter of St. “But the greatest of his trials, as Paul's Epistle to Titus, afforded him well as triumphs, was yet to come.

more solid satisfaction than all he had The last stage of this painful, though ever read.

H. B. A glorious, course, in which fresh power was, at every step, wrung from out of

FULL-BOTTOMED WIGS. his soul, was that at which we are now The full-bottomed wigs which unfortu, arrived, his marriage and its results, – nately envelope and cloud some of the without which, dear as was the price most distinguished portraits of former paid by him in peace and character, days, were in fashion during the reigns his career would have been incomplete, of our William and Mary. Lord Boand the world still left in ignorance of lingbroke was one of the first that tied the full compass of his genius. It is them up, with which the queen was indeed worthy of remark, that it was much offended, and said to a by-stander, not till his domestic circumstances be- . he would soon come to court in his gan to darken around him that his night-cap.”. Soon after, tie wigs, infancy, which had long been idle, again stead of being an undress, became the arose upon the wing,-both the Siege high court dress.

H. B. A. of Corinth and Parisina having been produced but a short time before the separation. How conscious he was, too, that the turmoil which followed When the Palace of Trianon was buildwas the true element of his restlessing for Louis XIV. at the end of Verspirit may be collected from several sailles' Park, that monarch went to inpassages of his letters, at that period, spect it, accompanied by Louvois, sein one of which he even mentions that cretary of war, and superintendent of his health had become all the better for the building. Whilst walking arm in the conflict :- It is odd,' he says, ' but the windows was out of shape, and

arm with him, he remarked that one of agitation or contest of any kind gives a rebound to my spirits, and sets me up nied, and asserted that he could not

smaller than the rest-this Louvois defor the time.' “ This buoyancy it was- this irre- perceive the least difference.

Louis pressible spring of mind,—that now en

XIV. having had it measured, and findabled him to bear up not only against ing that he had judged rightly, treated

Louvois in a contumelious manner before the assaults of others, but what was still more difficult, against his own

his whole court. This conduct so inthoughts and feelings. The muster of censed the minister, that when he arall his mental resources to which, in rived home he was heard to say, that he self-defence, he had been driven, but would find better employment for a mo. opened to him the yet undreamed ex

narch than that of insulting his favourtent and capacity of his powers, and ites : he was as good as his word, for inspired him with a proud confidence, by his insolence and haughtiness he inthat he should yet shine down these ca

sulted the other powers, and occasioned lumnious mists, convert censure to won

the bloody war of 1688.
der, and compel even those who could
not approve
to admire.

IN 1306, Bruce having taken shelter in « The route which he now took, the Isle of Arran, sent a trusty person through Flanders and by the Rhine, is into Carrick, to learn how his vassals best traced in his own matchless verses, stood affected to his cause; with inwhich leave a portion of their glory on structions, that, if he found them disall that they touch, and lend to scenes, posed to assist him he should make a already clothed with immortality by na- signal at a time appointed, by lighting


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