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above must produce among men: how much bile and bickering they may keep down, which in nine law-suits out of ten arise from want of " a proper understanding." The reader may say that in recommending . those fire - and - water folks, landlords and tenants, and masters and servants, and those half-agreeable persons, lodging-house keepers and lodgers — to purchase such books, we advise every man to act with an attorney at his elbow. We can but reply with Swift :—

"The only fault is w ith maukiml.*

CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.

AvERYlaudable work appears quarterly, entitled " The Voice of Humanity: for the communication and discussion of all subjects relative to the conduct of man towards the inferior animal creation." The number (3) before us, contains a paper on the Abolition of Slaughterhouses, and the substitution of Abattoirs, a point to which we adverted and illustrated in vol. xi. of the Mirror. The Amended Act to prevent the cruel and improper treatment of cattle, follows; and among the other articles is a Table of the Prosecutions of the Society against Cruelty to Animals, from November 1830, to January 1831, drawn up by our occasional correspondent, the benevolent Mr. Lewis Gompertz.

. THE MUSE IN LIVERY.

We have been somewhat amused with the piquancy and humour of the following mtroduction of a Notice of a volume of Poems, " by John Jones, an old servant," which has just appeared under the editorship of Mr. Southey and the Quarterly Review:

Shakspeare has said, "What's in a name ?— a rose, by any other name, would smell as sweet!" But here we have a convincing proof of the necessity of attending strictly to names, as the commonest regard to the fitting attributes of a "John Jones," would have kept the victim of such an appellation quite clear of poetry. It is next to impossible that a John Jones should be a poet;—and some kind friend should nave broken the truth to the butler, before he endeavoured to share unpolished glory with uneducated bards.

An inspired serving-man, in a livery of industry, turned up with morality, is a species of bard which we never excted to find in the service of the uses, or bringing a written character from his last place, and vaunting of his readiness and ability to write epics and

wait at table. The work we should have looked to meet with, emanating from the butler's pantry, was a miscellaneous volume full of religious scraps, essays on dress, receipts for boot-tops, wise cooking cogitations, remedies for bugs, cures for ropy beer, hints for blacking, ingredients for punch, thoughts on tapping ale, early rising and killing fleas. The mischief of the wide dissemination of education is now becoming apparent, for, poor as authors confessedly are, they have generally been gentlemen, even in rags—learned men of some degree, though with exposed elbows—folk only a little lower than the angels! But never until the schoolmaster was so abundantly abroad, distributing his spelling-soup to the poor, did we ever near of a butler writing poetry, and committing it to the press. The order of things is becoming reversed. The garret is beginning to lose its literary celebrity, and the kitchen is taking the matter up. A floor near the sky in Grub-street is no pen-spot now; but down fifty fathoms deep in Portland Place, or Portmon Squore, or some farretired old country house, you shall find the author : his red cuffs turned up over his light blue jacket sleeves, the pen in his hand, and his inspired eye lookmg out upon the area. There doth he correct the brain-work which is to carry his name up above the earth, and keep it there, bright as cleaned plate. In the housekeeper's room, inspiration gives a double knock at his heart. An author in a pantry certainly writes under great disadvantages, for it cannot be said that he is there writing for his bread. In such a place, the loaf is in his eye—the larder is so near, he may almost dip his pen into it by mistake—and positive beef gleams through the veil of the safe, softened to his eye, yet still solider than beef of the imagination. In truth, a man has much to overcome in preparing food for the mind, in the very thick of food for the body ;—for a good authority (no less a man than Mr. Bayes) has strenuously advised that the belly should be empty when the brain is to be unloaded. How can a gentleman's gentleman, with a corpus that banishes his backbone nearly four feet from the table at which he sits, betake himself to his cogitations over a tankard of October, and expect to beat your true thin garrethaunting devil, with an inside like a peashooter, who can scarcely be said to be one remove from the ethereal, and who writes from that best of inspirations—an empty pantry? We shall presently see whether an author from below is better than'one from above—whether it will be more eligible that the Muses should have several more stories to descend, when their nine ladyships are invoked so to do—and that the pen should be taken out of the scraggy hand of a gentleman in rags, and be placed in the plump gripe of a gentleman in tags.

Before we proceed to give an account of the book before us, we must yet take leave to indulge in a few reflections on the effect of this mental explosion in the noddles of John and James and Richard, upon reviewers, publishers, and the world in general. This change of lodging in the author will turn many things topsy-turvy, and conjure the spirit out of much long-estabhshed facetiousness. Pictures of poets in garrets will soon not be understood; bathos will be at a premium! the bard will be known, not by the brownness of his beaver, but by the gold band that encircles it. The historian shall go about in black plush breeches; and the great inspired writers of the age " have a livery more guarded than their fellows." Authors shall soon be, indeed, even more easily known by their dress. How often, too, shall we see Mr. Murray or Mr. Colburn descending " with the nine'' to the hireling scribe, who is correcting the press and locking up the tea-spoons, against his coming; or they may have occasionally to wait below, while their authors are wailing above. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green (almost a batch ot he-muses in themselves), will get a new cookery-book, well done, from a genuine cook,* who divides his time between the spit and the pen; and the firm need not, therefore, set Mrs. Rundell's temper upon the simmer, as they are said to have done in days past. Reviewers too !—will they ever dine together anon ?—surely not. Authors are known to be in the malicious habit of speaking ill of their friends and judges behmd their backs; and at dinner-time they will soon have every opportunity of so doing. How unpleasant to call for beer from the poet you have just set in a foam; or to ask for the carving-knife from the man you have so lately cut up! We reviewers shall then never be able to shoot our severity, without the usual coalman's memento of "take care be

• There is a cookery-book, hy " a Lady," and a cookery-book by a Physician; but Mrs. Rundell and Dr. Kilchiner will soou be warned off the gridiron by the erudite genuine practical cook, who has a right to the kicntn stuff of literature. Mrs. R. must show herself to be what she professes, and take " her chops out of the frying-pan;" and the " good doctor" must " put his tongue into plenty of cold water" to cool its boiling, broiling anlour.

low V One advantage, however, from the new system must be conceded, and that is, that when an author waits in a great man's hall, or stands at his door, he will be pretty sure of being paid for it; which, in the case of your dangling garreteers, has never hitherto happened. Crabbe's story of "The Patron" will become obsolete. ' High Life will, indeed, be below stairs!

There is a lively spirit of banter in these observations, which is extremely amusing. They are from the Atheneeunl of last week, which, by the way, has, more of the intellectual gladiatorship in its columns than any of its critical contemporaries.

STEAM.

A Mr. Joseph Habdaker has sung the praises of this gigantic power in thirty-five stanzas, entitled " the Aeropteron; or, Steam Carriage." If his" lines run not as gKbly as a Liverpool prize engine, they will afford twenty' minutes pleasant reading, and are an illustration of the high and low pressure precocity of the march, of mechanism.

Time's Telescope For 1831 Has appeared in somewhat better style than its predecessors. The paper is of* better quality, the print is in better taste, and there are a few delicate copper-plate engravings. The old plan or chronological arrangement is, however, nearly worn threadbare, and to supply this defect there are in the present' voluine many specimens of contemporary literature. Few of them, however^ are first-rate. The most original portion consists of the Astronomical Occurrences, which extend to 150 pages.

POPULAR CHEMISTRY.

Such is the title of the fifth part or portion of Knowledge for the People: or, the Plain Why arid Because: containing Attraction or Affinity—Crystallization—Heat—Electricity—Light and Flame—C ombustion— Charcoal—Gunpowder and Volcanic Fire. We quote a- few articles from most of the heads:— Why is the science of chemistry so named?

Because of its origin from the Arabic, in which language it signifies "the knowledge of the composition of bodies."

The following definitions of chemistry have been given by some of our best writers :—

"Chemistry is the study of the effects of heat and mixture, with the view of

discovering their general and subordinate lawn, and of improving the useful arts."—Dr. Black.

"Chemistry is that science which examines the constituent parts of bodies, with reference to their nature, proportions, and method of combination."— Bergman.

"Chemistry is that science which treats of those events or changes, in natural bodies, which are not accompanied by sensible motions."—Dr. Thompson.

"Chemistry is a science by which we become acquainted with the intimate and reciprocal action of all the bodies in nature upon each other.''—Fourcroy.

The four preceding definitions are quoted by Mr. Parkes, in his Chemical Catechism.

Dr. Johnson (from Arbuthnot) defines "chymistry " as " philosophy by fire."

Mr. Brande says, "It is the object of chemistry to investigate all changes in the constitution of matter, whether effected by heat, mixture, or other means."—Manual, 3rd edit. 1830.

Dr. Ure says, " Chemistry may be defmed the science which investigates the composition of material substances, and the permanent changes of constitution which their mutual actions produce."—Dictionary, edit. 1830.

Sir Humphry Davy, in his posthumous work, says, "There is nothing more difficult than a good definition of chemistry; for it is scarcely possible to express, in a few words, the abstracted view of an infinite variety of facts. - Dr. Black has defined chemistry to be that science which treats of the changes produced in bodies by motions of their ultimate particles or atoms; but this definition is hypothetical; for the ultimate particles or atoms are mere creations of the imagination. I will give you a definition which will have the merit of novelty, and which is probably general in its application. Chemistry relates to those operations by which the intimate nature of bodies is changed, or by which they acquire new proper* ties. This definition will not only ap-, ply to the effects of mixture, but to the phenomena of electricity, and, in short, to all the changes which do not merely depend upon the motion or division of masses of matter."

Cuvier, in one of a series of lectures, delivered at Paris, in the spring of last year, says, " the name chemistry, itself, comes from the word chim, which was

• C«uolaii«a in Travel; or» toe La»t Days of a Pliuaiopber. 1830.

the ancient name of Egypt;" and he states that minerals were known to the Egyptians "not only by their external characters, but also by what we at the present day call their chemical characters." He also adds, that what was afterwards called the Egyptian science, the Hermetic art, the art of transmuting metals, was a mere reverie of the middle ages, utterly unknown to antiquity. " The pretended books of Hermes are evidently supposititious, and were written by the Greeks of the lower Empire."

Crystallization.

Why are the crystals collected in camphor bottles in druggists' windows always most copious upon the surface exposed to the light?

Because the presence of light considerably influences the process of crystallization. Again, if we place a solution of nitre in a room which has the light admitted only through a small hole in the window-shutter, crystals will form most abundantly upon the side of the basin exposed to the aperture through which tne light enters, and often the whole mass of crystals will turn towards it.—Brande.

Why is sugar-candy crystallized on strings, and verdigris on sticks? .

Because crystallization is acceler<%?d by introducing into the solution a nucleus, or solid body, (like the string or stick) upon which the process begins.

The ornamental alum baskets, whose manufacture was once so favourite n pursuit of lady-chemistry, were made upon this principle; the forms of the baskets being determined by wire framework, to which the crystals readily adhere.

Why is sugar-candy sometimes in large and regular crystals?

Because the concentrated syrup has been kept for several days and nights undisturbed, in a very high temperature; for, if perfect rest and a temperature of from 120" to 190? be not afforded, regular crystals of candy will not be obtained.

The manufacture of barley-sugar is a familiar example of crystallization. The syrup is evaporated over a slow heat, till it has acquired the proper consistence, when it is poured on metal to cool, and when nearly so, cut into lengths with shears, then twisted, and again left to harden.

Heat.

Why does hay, if stacked when damp, take fire? Because the moisture elevates the temperature sufficiently to produce putrefaction, and the ensuing chemical action causes sufficient heat to continue the process; the quantity of matter being also great, the heat is proportional. Why is the air warm in misty or rainy weather?

Because of the liberation of the latent heat from the precipitated vapourWhy is heated air thmner or lighter than cold air?

Because it is a property of heat to expand all bodies; or rather we should say, that we call air hot or cold, according as it naturally is more or less expanded.

Why is a tremulous motion observable over chimney-pots, and slated roofs which have been heated by the sun?

Because the warm air rises, and its refracting power being less than that of the colder air, the currents are rendered visible by the distortion of objects viewed through them.

Within doors, a similar example occurs above the foot-lights of the stage of a theatre; the flame of a candle, or the smoke of a lamp.

Why are the gas chandeliers in our theatres placed under a large funnel?

Because the funnel, by passing through the roof into the outer air, operates as a very powerful ventilator, the heat and smoke passing off with a large proportion of the air of the house.

The ventilation of rooms and buildings can only be perfectly effected, by suffering the heated and foul air to pass off through apertures in the ceiling, while fresh air, of any desired temperature, is admitted from below.— Brande.

Why do heated sea-sand and soda form glass?

Because, by heating the mixture, the cohesion of the particles of each substance to those of its own kind is so diminished, that the mutual attractions of the two substances come into play, melt together, and unite chemically into the beautiful compound called glass.

Why is sand used in glass?

Because it serves for stone; it being said, that all white transparent stones which will not burn to lime are fit to make glass.

Electricity.

Why is an arrangement of several Leyden jars called an electrical battery?

Because by a communication existing between all their interior coatings, their exterior being also united, they may be charged and discharged as one jar.

The discharge of the battery is at

tended by a considerable report, and if it be passed through small animals, it instantly kills them; if through fine metallic wires, they are ignited, melted, and burned; and gunpowder, cotton sprinkled with powdered resin, and a variety of other combustibles, may be inflamed by the same means.

Why is the fireside on unsafe place in a thunder-storm?

Because the carbonaceous matter, or soot, with which the chimney is lined, acts as a conductor for the lightning.

Why is the middle of an apartment the safest place during a thunder-storm .

Because, should a flash of lightning strike a building, or enter at any of the. windows, it will take its direction along the walls, without injuring the centre of the room.

Combustion.

Why does amadou, or German tinder, readily inflame from flint and steel, or from the sudden condensation of air?

Because it consists of a vegetable substance found on old trees, boiled in water to extract its soluble parts, then dried and beat with a mallet, to loosen its texture; and lastly, impregnated with a solution of nitre.— Vre.

Why is a piece of paper lighted, by holding it in the air which rushes out of a common lamp -glass?

Because of the high temperature of the current of air above the flame, the condensation of which is by the chimney of the glass.

We do not quote these specimens in' the precise order in which they occur in the work, or to show the consecutive or connected interest of the several articles. In many cases we select them for their brevity and point of illustration.

%i)t <5atJ)erer.

A snapper up of uucou«ulered trifler.

SaiXSPEASE.

SHIP-BUILDING.

To give an idea of the enormous quantity of timber necessary to construct a ship of war, we may observe that 2,000 tons, or 3,000 loads, are computed to be required for a seventy-four. Now, reckoning fifty oaks to the acre, of 100 years' standing, and the quantity in each tree to be a load and a half, it would require forty acres of oak forest to build one seventy-four; and the quantity increases in a great ratio, for the largest class of line of battle ships. The average duration of these vast machines, when employed, is computed to be four*

teen years. It is supposed, that all the full grown oaks now m Scotland would not build two ships of the line.

Quarterly Journal of Agriculture;

THE SHOWER BATH.

Quoth Dermot, (a lodger of Mrs.

O'Fiynn's), "How- queerly my shower bath feels! "It shocks like a posse of needles and

pins,

"Or a shoal of electrical eels." Quoth Murphy, "then mend itj and I'll

tell you how, "Its all your own fault, my good

fellow;

"I used to be bothered as you are, but now

"I'm wiser—I take my umbrella."

X. Y. Z.

THE TOWER OF LONDON.

Some of the following inscriptions are to be found in the " Beauchamp Tower.'' In the third recess on the left hand is "T. C. I leve in hope, and I gave q credit to mi frinde, in time did stande me most in hande, so wolde I never doe againe, excepte I hade him suer in bande, and to al men wishe I so, unle* ye sussteine the leike lose as I do. -. "Unhappie is that mane whose actetf doth procuer, . ,

The miseri of this house imprison to . induer.

. .»; \ ." 1576, Thomas Clark." Just opposite the same is .

"Hit is the poynt of a wyse man to try and then truste, For Hapy is he who fyndeth one that

is juste. "T,Clarke." In the same part of the room between the two last recesses is this, in old English:

'! An0 Dni ... Men«. A'. 1568 . J.H.S. 23 "No hope is hard or vayne . I That napp doth ous attayriev" And on the wall on the top of the Beauchamp .Tower, are the following lines on a Goldfinch :— "Where Raleigh pined within a prison's gloom,

I chearful sung, nor murmur'd at my doom,

Where heroes bold and patriots firm

could dwell, A Goldfinch in Content his note

might swell; But death more gentle than the law's

. * ; :decree, • Hath paid my ransom from captivity. "Buried June 23rd, 1794, by a fellow-prisoner in the Tower of London."

'' LORD THURLOW.

One day, when Lord Thurlow was very busy at his house in Great Ormondstreet, a poor curate applied to him for a living then vacant, "Don't trouble me," said the chancellor, turning from him with a frowning brow; "don't you see I am busy, and can't listen to you?'' The poor curate lifted up his eyes, and with dejection said, "he had no Lord to recommend him but the Lord of Hosts!" "The Lord of Hosts," replied the chancellor, "The Lord of Hosts ! I believe I have had recommendations from most lords, but do not recollect one from him before, and so do you hear,' young man, you shall have the living;" and accordingly presented him with the same.

THE EAST INDIA COMPANY.

The East India Company was established 1600, their stock then consisting of ,£7@,000, when they fitted out four ships, and meeting with success, they have continued ever since; in 1683, India Stock sold from 360 to 500 per cent. A new company was established in 1698; re-established, and the two united, 1700, agreed to give government {£400,000. per annum, for four years, on condition they might continue unmolested, 1769. In 1773, in great confusion, and applied to parliament for assistance; judges sent from England by government, faithfully to administer the laws there to the company's servants, 1774, April 2nd.

T. Gill. .

A Country paper says, " The Corporation are about to build two free schools, one of which is finished.." \ .

.; , ^

ANNUAL OF SCIENCE.

Early in March will be published, price 5>. ARCANA of SCIENCE, and ANNUAL RK

OISTER of the USEFUL ARTS for 1831. Comprising Popular. Inventions, ImproveMents, and Discoveries Abridged from the Transactions of Public Societies and Scientific Journals of the past year. With several Engravings

"One of the best and cheapest books of tba day.*—Mag. Sat. HUt.

* An annual register of new inventions and improvements, in a popular form like this, can. not foil to be useful Lit. Gaz.

Printing for John Limbird, 143, Strand;—of whom may be had the Volumes for the three preceding years.

Printed and Published by J. LIMBIRD, 143. Strand, (mar Somerset House, j London; sold by ERNEST FLEISCHER, 626, New Market, Leipsic- a. G. BENN1S, 55, Rue Neuve, St. Augustin, Parit; and btt all Semsmen and

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