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than one from above-whether it will be low!'* One advantage, however, from more eligible that the Muses should the new system must be conceded, and have several more stories to descend, that is, that when an author waits' in a when their nine ladyships are invoked great man's hall, or stands at his door, so to do—and that the pen should be he will be pretty sure of being paid for taken out of the scraggy hand of a gen- it; which, in the case of your dangling tleman in rags, and be placed in the garreteers, has never hitherto happenplump gripe of a gentleman in tags. ed. Crabbe's story of “The Patron”?

Before we proceed to give an account will become obsolete. High Life will, of the book before us, we must yet take indeed, be below stairs ! leave to indulge in a few reflections on

There is a lively spirit of banter in the effect of this mental explosion in the these observations, which is extremely noddles of John and James and Richard, amusing. They are from the Athenæum upon reviewers, publishers, and the of last week, which, by the way, has world in general. This change of lodg- more of the intellectual gladiatorship in ing in the author will turn many things its columns than any of its critical contopsy-turvy, and conjure the spirit out temporaries. of much long-established facetiousness. Pictures of poets in garrets will soon not be understood; bathos will be at a A MR. JOSEPH HARDAKER has sung premium ! the bard will be known, not the praises of this gigantic power in by the brownness of his beaver, but by thirty-five stanzas, entitled “ the Aeropthe gold band that encircles it. The teron; or, Steam Carriage.". If his historian shall go about in black plush lines run not as ghibly as a Liverpool breeches; and the great inspired writers prize engine, they will afford twenty of the age “have a livery more guarded minutes pleasant reading, and are an than their fellows." Authors shall soon illustration of the high and low presbe, indeed, even more easily known by suțe precocity of the march, of metheir dress. How often, too, shall we chanism. see Mr. Murray or Mr. Colburn descending “with the nine' to the hire- TIME'S TELESCOPE FOR 183) ling scribe, who is correcting the press Has appeared in somewhat better style and locking up the tea-spoons, against than its predecessors. The paper is of his coming; or they may have occa- better quality, the print is in better sionally to wait below, while their au- taste, and there are a few delicate cop-, thors are waiting above. Longman, per-plate engravings.' The old plan or Rees, Orme, Brown and Green (almost chronological arrangement is, however, a batch of he-muses in themselves), nearly worn threadbare, and to supply will get a new cookery-book, well done, this defect there are in the present from a genuine cook," who divides his volume many specimens of contempotime between the spit and the pen; and rary literature. Few of them, however, the firm need not, therefore, set Mrs. are first-rate. The most original porRundell's temper upon the simmer, as tion consists of the Astronomical Occurthey are said to have done in days past. rences, which extend to 150 pages. Reviewers too !- will they ever dine together anon ?---surely not. Authors are known to be in the malicious habit Such is the title of the fifth part or of speaking ill of their friends and judges portion of Knowledge for the People : behind their backs; and at dinner-time or, the Plain Why and Because : conthey will soon have every opportunity of taining Attraction or Affinity_Crystalso doing. How unpleasant to call for lization-Heat-Electricity-Light and beer from the poet you have just set in Flame — Combustion-Charcoal-Guna foam ; or to ask for the carving-knife powder and Volcanic Fire. We quote from the man you have so lately cut up! a few articles from most of the heads :We reviewers shall then never be able Why is the science of chemistry so to shoot our severity, without the usual named ? coalman's memento of “take care be- Because of its origin from the Ara

There is a cookery-book, hy “ a Lady," and bic, in which language it signifies the a cookery-book by a Physician; but Mrs. Run- knowledge of the composition of bodell and Dr. Kitchiner will soon be warned off dies." the gridiron by the erudite genuine practical cook, who has a right to the kichen stufe of lite- The following definitions of chemis

Mrs. R. must show herself to be what try have been given by some of our best she professes, and take “her chops out of the writers :frying-pan;" and the "good doctor" must put his tongue into plenty of cold water” to cool its “ Chemistry is the study of the effects boiling, broiling ardour.om

of heat and mixture, with the view of

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POPULAR CHEMISTRY.

son.

as

discovering their general and subordi- the ancient name of Egypt;" and he nute laws, and of improving the useful states that minerals were known to the arts."-Dr. Black.

Egyptians “not only by their external “ Chemistry is that science which ex- characters, but also by what we at the amines the constituent parts of bodies, present day call their chemical characwith reference to their nature, propor- ters.

He also adds, that what was tions, and method of combination.' afterwards called the Egyptian science, Bergman.

the Hermetic art, the art of transmut“ Chemistry is that science which ing metals, was a mere reverie of the treats of those events or changes, in middle ages, utterly unknown to antinatural bodies, which are not accompa- quity.“ The pretended books of Hermes nied by sensible motions.”—Dr. Thomp- are evidently supposititious, and were

written by the Greeks of the lower EmChemistry is a science by which we pire." become acquainted with the intimate and reciprocal action of all the bodies

Crystallization. in nature upon each other.”-- Fourcroy.

Why are the crystals collected in camThe four preceding definitions are phor bottles in druggists' windows alquoted by Mr. Parkes, in his Chemical ways most copious upon the surface exCatechism.

posed to the light ? Dr. Johnson (from Arbuthnot) de

Because the presence of light consifines “ chymistry philosophy by

derably influences the process of crysfire."

tallization. Again, if we place a soluMr. Brande says, “ It is the object tion of nitre in a room which has the of chemistry to investigate all changes light admitted only through a small hole in the constitution of matter, whether in the window-shutter, crystals will form effected by heat, mixture, or other post abundantly upon the side of the means.'— Manual, 3rd edit. 1830. basin exposed to the aperture through

Dr. Ure says, “ Chemistry may be which the light enters, and often the defined the science which investigates whole mass of crystals will turn towards the composition of material substances,

it.-Brande. and the permanent changes of constitu- Why is sugar-candy crystallized on tion which their mutual actions pro- strings, and verdigris on sticks ? duce.”Dictionary, edit, 1830.

Because crystallization is accelerated Sir Humphry Davy, in his posthu- by introducing into the solution a numous work, says, “ There is nothing cleus, or solid body, (like the string or more difficult than a good definition of stick) upon which the process begins. chemistry; for it is scarcely possible to

The ornamental alum baskets, whose express, in a few words, the abstracted manufacture was once so favourite a view of an infinite variety of facts. Dr. pursuit of lady-chemistry, were made Black has defined chemistry to be that upon this principle; the forms of the science which treats of the changes pro- baskets being determined by wire frameduced in bodies by motions of their ul. work, to which the crystals readily adtimate particles or atoms; but this.

here. definition is hypothetical ; for the ulti- Why is sugar-candy sometimes in mate particles or atoms are mere crea- large and regular crystals ? tions of the imagination. I will give

Because the concentrated syrup

has you a definition which will have the been kept for several days and nights merit of novelty, and which is probably undisturbed, in a very high temperageneral in its application. Chemistry ture; for, if perfect rest and a temperelates to those operations by which the rature of from 1200 to 1909 be not afintimate nature of bodies is changed, forded, regular crystals of candy will or by which they acquire new proper.

not be obtained. ties. This definition will not only ap-,

The manufacture of barley-sugar is a ply to the effects of mixture, but to the familiar example of crystallization. The phenomena of electricity, and, in short, syrup is evaporated over a slow heat, to all the changes which do not merely

till it has acquired the proper consisdepend upon the motion or division of tence, when it is poured on metal to masses of matter."

cool, and when nearly so, cut into Cuvier, in one of a series of lectures, lengths with shears, then twisted, and delivered at Paris, in the spring of last again left to harden. year, says, “ the name chemistry, itself, comes from the word chim, which was, Why does hay, if stacked when damp, * Consolations in Travel; or, the Last Days

take fire ? of a Philosopber, 1830,

Because the moisture elevates the

7

Heat.

temperature sufficiently to produce pu. tended by a considerable report, and if trefaction, and the ensuing chemical ac, it be passed through small animals, it tion causes sufficient heat to continue instantly kills them; if through fine the process; the quantity of matter be- metallic wires, they are ignited, melted, ing also great, the heat is proportional, and burned; and gunpowder, cotton

Why is the air warm in misty or rainy sprinkled with powdered resin, and a weather?

variety of other combustibles, may be Because of the liberation of the la- inflamed by the same means. tent heat from the precipitated vapour. Why is the fireside an unsafe place in

Why is heated air thinner or lighter a thunder-storm ? than cold air ?

Because the carbonaceous matter, or Because it is a property of heat to soot, with which the chimney is lined, expand all bodies; or rather we should acts as a conductor for the lightning. say, that we call air hot or cold, accor- Why is the middle of an apartment ding as it naturally is more or less ex- the safest place during a thunder-storm? panded.

Because, should a flash of lightning Why is a tremulous motion observ- strike a building, or enter at any of the able over chimney-pots, and slated roofs windows, it will take its direction along which have been heated by the sun ? the walls, without injuring the centre

Because the warm air rises, and its of the room. refracting power being less than that of

Combustion. the colder air, the currents are rendered

Why does amadou, or German tinder, visible by the distortion of objects view- readily inflame from flint and steel, or ed through them.

from the sudden condensation of air ? Within doors, a similar example oce

Because it consists of a vegetable subeurs above the foot-lights of the stage stance found on old trees, boiled in of a theatre; the flame of a candle, or the smoke of a lamp.

water to extract its soluble parts, then

dried and beat with a mallet, to loosen Why are the gas chandeliers in our its texture ; and lastly, impregnated theatres placed under a large funnel ?

with a solution of nitre.Ure. Because the funnel, by passing through

Why is a piece of paper lighted, by the roof into the outer air, operates as holding it in the air which rushes out of a very powerful ventilator, the heat and

a common lamp.glass ? smoke passing off with a large propor. Because of the high temperature of tion of the air of the house. The ventilation of rooms and build condensation of which is by the chim

the current of air above the flame, the ings can only be perfectly effected, by

ney

of the glass. suffering the heated and foul air to pass off through apertures in the ceiling,

We do not quote these specimens in while fresh air, of any desired tem- the precise order in which they occur in perature, is admitted from below. the work, or to show the consecutive Brande.

or connected interest of the several arWhy do heated sea-sand and soda ticles. In many cases we select them form glass ?

for their brevity and point of illustraBecause, by heating the mixture, the tion. cohesion of the particles of each substance to those of its own kind is so di- The Gatherer. minished, that the mutual attractions of

A snapper up of uncousidered trifles. the two substances come into play, melt together, and unite chemically into the beautiful compound called glass, Why is sand used in glass?

To give an idea of the enormous quanBecause it serves for stone; it being tity of timber necessary to construct a said, that all white transparent stones ship of war, we may observe that 2,000 which will not burn to lime are fit to tons, or 3,000 loads, are computed to make glass.

be required for a seventy-four. Now,

reekoning fifty oaks to the acre, of 100 Electricity,

years' standing, and the quantity in Why is an arrangement of several each tree to be a load and a half, it Leyden jars called an electrical battery ? would require forty acres of oak forest

Because by a communication existing to build one seventy-four ; and the quanbetween all their interior coatings, their tity increases in a great ratio, for the exterior being also united, they may be largest class of line of battle ships. The charged and discharged as one jar. average duration of these vast machines,

The discharge of the battery is at when employed, is computed to be four

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SAAKSPEARE.

SHIP-BUILDING,

THE SHOWER BATH.

teen years. It is supposed, that all the

LORD THÜRLOW. full grown oaks now in Scotland would One day, when Lord Thurlow was very not build two ships of the line.

busy at his house in Great OrmondQuarterly Journal of Agriculture. street, a poor curate applied to him for

a living then vacant, « Don't trouble

me," said the chancellor, turning from QUOTH Dermot, (a lodger of Mrs. him with a frowning brow; “ don't you

O'Flynn's), “ Howt queerly my shower bath feels! The poor curate lifted up his eyes, and

see I am busy, and can't listen to you?': “ It shocks like a posse of needles and with dejection said, " he had no Lord to pins,

recommend him but the Lord of Hosts !" « Or a shoal of electrical eels."

« The Lord of Hosts,” replied the Quoth Murphy, “then mend it, and I'll chancellor, “ The Lord of Hosts ! I betell you how,

lieve I have had recommendations from “ Its all your own fault, my good most lords, but do not recollect one from fellow;

him before, and so do you hear; young “ I used to be bothered as you are, but man, you shall have the living ;' and

accordingly presented him with the I'm wiser-I take my umbrella."

X. Y. Z.

now

same.

THE EAST INDIA COMPANY.

THE TOWER OF LONDON.

doth procuer:

Some of the following inscriptions are The East India Company was established to be found in the “Beauchamp Tower.' 1600, their stock then consisting of

In the third recess on the left hand is £72,000, when they fitted out four

“T. C. I leve in hope, and I gave q ships, and meeting with success, they credit to mi frinde, in time did stande have continued ever since ;; in 1683, inme most in hande, so wolde I never doe dia Stock sold from 360 to 500 per cent. againe, excepte I hade him suer in A new company was established in 1698; bande, and to al men wishe I so, unles re-established, and the two united, 1700, ye' sussteine the leike lose as I do.". agreed to give government £400,000. « Unhappie is that mane whose actes per annum, for four years, on condition

they might continue unmolested, 1769. The miseri of this house imprison to In 1773, in great confusion, and applied induer.

to parliament for assistance; judges sent “ 1576, Thomas Clark." from England by government, faithfully

to administer the laws there to the comJust opposite the same is “ Hit is the poynt of a wyse man to try pany's servants, 1774, April 2nd. and then truste,

T. GILL. For Hapy is he who fyndeth one that is juste. 6. T. Clarke.!'

A COUNTRY paper says, “ The Corpo. In the same part of the room between ration are about to build two free schools,

one of which is finished."!! the two last recesses is this, in old Eng. lish: « Ano Dni

Mens. As.

ANNUAL OF SCIENCE. 1568 J.H.S.

23 « No hope is hard or vayne

Early in March will be published, price 5s. That happ doth ous attayne!". ARCANA of SCIENCE, and ANNUAL REAnd on the wall on the top of the

GISTER of the USEFUL ARTS for 1831. Beauchamp Tower, are the following comprising POPULAR INVENTIONS, IMPROVE

Abridged from the lines on a Goldfinch :

Transactions of Public Societies and Scientific

With several Eu“Where Raleigh pined within a prison's Journals of the past year. gloom,

* One of the best and cheapest bouks of the I chearful sung, nor murmur'd at my day."- Mag. Nat. Hist. doom,

" An annual register of new inventions and

improvements, in a popular form like this, canWhere heroes bold and patriots firm not fail to be useful. --Lit. Gaz. could dwell,

Printing for JUAN LIMBIRD, 143, Strand :-of A Goldfinch in Content his note whom may be had the Volumes for the three

preceding years. might swell; But death more gentle than the law's 1 decree,

Printed and Published by J. LIMBIRD, 143,

Strand, (near Somerset House,) London; sold Hath paid my ransom from captivity. by ERNEST FLEISCHER, 626, New Varket,

“Buried June 23rd, 1794, by a fel. Leipsic: G. G. BENNIS, 55, Rue Neuve, st. low-prisoner in the Tower of London.". Augustin, Paris; and by all Newsmen and

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