## Classical Electrodynamics |

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Page 181

5 Gauge

6 . 34 ) and ( 6 . 35 ) is called a gauge

fields under such

5 Gauge

**Transformations**; Lorentz Gauge ; Coulomb Gauge The**transformation**(6 . 34 ) and ( 6 . 35 ) is called a gauge

**transformation**, and the invariance of thefields under such

**transformations**is called gauge invariance . The relation ( 6 .Page 372

is an invariant under Lorentz

requirement that Lorentz

Euclidean space or , more correctly , are orthogonal

dimensions .

is an invariant under Lorentz

**transformations**. This is then exactly therequirement that Lorentz

**transformations**are rotations in a four - dimensionalEuclidean space or , more correctly , are orthogonal

**transformations**in fourdimensions .

Page 374

Sometimes a graphical display of Lorentz

time variable xy = ct , rather than 24 . This is called a Minkowski diagram and has

the virtue of dealing with real quantities . It has the major disadvantage that the ...

Sometimes a graphical display of Lorentz

**transformations**is made using a realtime variable xy = ct , rather than 24 . This is called a Minkowski diagram and has

the virtue of dealing with real quantities . It has the major disadvantage that the ...

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### Contents

Introduction to Electrostatics | 1 |

BoundaryValue Problems in Electrostatics I | 26 |

RelativisticParticle Kinematics and Dynamics | 391 |

Copyright | |

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acceleration angle angular applied approximation assumed atomic average axis becomes boundary conditions calculate called Chapter charge charged particle classical collisions compared component conducting Consequently consider constant coordinates cross section cylinder defined density dependence derivative determine dielectric dimensions dipole direction discussed distance distribution effects electric field electromagnetic electron electrostatic energy equal equation example expansion expression factor force frame frequency function given gives incident inside integral involved light limit Lorentz loss magnetic magnetic field magnetic induction magnitude mass means modes momentum motion moving multipole normal observation obtain origin parallel particle physical plane plasma polarization position potential problem properties radiation radius region relation relative relativistic result satisfy scalar scattering shown in Fig shows side solution space sphere spherical surface transformation unit vanishes vector velocity volume wave written