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It is also used when a word, is divided, and the former part is written or printed at the end of one line, and the latter part at the beginpiog of another. la this case it is placed at the end of the first lide, not at the beginning of the
The Acute Accent, marked ibus ' ; as, Fáncy.' Grave thus“; as, Favour.'
In English, the Accentual marks are chiefly used in spelling books and dictionaries, to mark the syllables, which require à particular stress of the voice is proounciation.
The stress is laid on long and short syllables indiscriminately. In order to distinguish the one from the other, some writers of dictionaries have placed the grave oo the former, and the acute on the latter, io this manner;— Minor, mineral, lively, lived, rival, íver.'
The proper mark to distinguish a long syllable, is this ;-as, ' Rõsy ;' and e short one this ; -as, Fölly. This last mark is called a breve.
A Diæresis, marked thus *, consists of two poiots placed over one of the two vowels, that would otherwise make a diphthong, and parts them into two syllables ;- as, ' Creätor, coadjutor, aërial.'
A Section, marked thus g, is the division of a discourse, or chapter, into less parts or portions.
A Paragraph-T denotes the beginning of a new subject, or a sentence pot congecled with the foregoing. This character is chiefly used in the Old, and in the New Testaments.
A Quotation “". Two inverted commas are generally placed at the begin. ping of a phrase or passage, which is quoted or transcribed from the speaker or author in his own words; and two commas in their direct position, are placed at the conclusion ;-mas,
- The proper study of mankind is mao.” Crotchets or Brackets  serve to enclose a word or sentence, which is to be explained in a pote, or the explanation itself, or a word or a sentence, which is intended to supply some deficiency, or to rectify some mistake.
Ao Index or Hand points out a remarkable passage, or soms thing that 19 requires particular attention. }
, , bave the same rhyme.
Braces are also used to connect a pumber of words with one common term, and are iotroduced to prevent a repetition in writing or printing.
An Asterisk, or little *, directs the reader to some pote in the margio, at the bollow of the page.
Two or three asterisks generally denote tbe omission of some letters in a word, or of some bold or iodelicate expression, or some defect in the manuscript. Au Ellipsis
is also used, when some letters in a word, or some words io a verse are omitted ; as, The K-g,' for the king.'
An Obelisk, which is marked thus t, and Parallels thus ll. together with the letters of the Alphabet, and figures are used as references to the margio, or bot
tom of the page.
Directions respecting the Use of Capital Letters. It was formerly the custom to begin every noun with a capital; but as this practice was troublesome, and gave the writing or printing a crowded and con
appearance, it bas been discontinued. It is, however, very proper to begio with a capital,
1. The first word of every book, chapter, letter, vote, or any other piece of
2. The first word after a period; and, if the two sentences are totally independent, after the note of interrogation or exclamation.
But if a number of interrogative or exclamatory sentences are thrown into one general group; or if the coostruction of the latter sentences depends on the former, all of them, except the first, may begio with a small letter ;-as, • How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity ? and the scorners delight in their scorning ? and fools bate koowledge ? Alas! bow different ! yet bow like the same !'
3. The appellations of the Deity ;--as, 'God, Jehovah, the Almighty, the Supreme Being, the Lord, Providence, the Messiah, the Holy Spirit.'
4. Proper names of persons, places, streets, mountains, rivers, sbips ;-as, George, York, the Strand, the Alps, the Thames, the Seahorse.'
5. Adjectives derived from the proper oames of places ;-a, Greciae, Roman, English, French, and Italiao.'
6. The first word of a quotation, introduced after a semi-colon, or when it is in a direct form ;-as, “ Always remember this ancient maxim ; Know thyself'» “ Our great Lawgiver says, “ Take up thy cross daily and follow me. But when a quotation is brought in obliquely after a coinma, a capital is unnecessary;-as, “ Solomon observes, “ that pride goes before destrnction.' »
The first word of an example may also very properly begio with a capital ; as, ' Temptation proves our virtue.”
7. Every poun and principal word in the titles of books ;-as, “ Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language ; Thomson's Seasons ; Rollin's Ancient History.
8. The first word of every line in poetry.
9. The pronoun, 1, and the interjection 0, are written in capitals ; as, 'I write; Hear, O earth!'
Oiher words, besides the preceding, may begin with capitals, when they are remarkably emphatical, or the principal subject of the composition.
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION,
Note.- For answers to the questions in larger type, see The General View ; for answex! to those in smaller type; sbe The Lectures.
OF GRAMMAR. What is Grammar ?
To which species does English gramE! As a science, what does it unfold ? mar belong, universal or particular ? Of how many species does grammar What is to be considered as the standconsist ?
ard of the English language ? What does universal grammar explain ? Into how many parts is English gradra What does particular grammar teach ?
mar divided ? Op what are the rules, relatiog to any What are they called ?
particular language founded? Of what does each part treat ? What is English grammar ?
Give an example of b; of d ; off of* ; of What does the term, orthography signify ?
ĝ; of h; ofk; of i; of m; of n; of p; What does this part of grammar teach us ?
oft; of s; of ; oft; of ; of y; of ng ; What is a letter ?
of sh ; of th sharp; of th flat ; of sh. *How many letters are there in the Eng. What is the distinction between the nature
Is a consonant a simple or a complex sound? lish language ?
and the name of a consonant ? What are these letters, taken togetber, When are w and y consonants ? called ?
Give an example of them as 'such ? Whar lettere in the English alphabet aro
Frum what does it appear that the an superfluous ?
consonants, wbien Qsed as initials ? What do the letters in the alphabet How are consonants divided ? represent?
What is a mute? What is an articulate sound?
What a semi-vowel ? In the English Alpbabet perfect ?
Which of the semi-vowels are called In what respects is it imperfect ?
liquids ? How are letters divided ?
Why are they so called ? What is a vowel ?
What is a diphthong ? What letters are vowels ?
What is a proper diphthong ? Why are they called vowels ?
What is an improper diphthong? How many simple vowel sounds are there from what does a diphthong derite its in the English langdage ?
name? Dive an example of long å ; of short a ; of What does it properly denote ?
middle a; of broad a. Give an example of long.e ; of short e.
What is a triphthoog ? Give an example of long i; of sbort i.
How many sounds bas a triphthong ? Give an example of long o ; of short o ; of
LECTURĖ II. middie o. Dive an example of long u; of short u;
How many and what sounds ħas the letter
Å? of middle u. When are w aod y vowels ?
How is the diphthong da, generally sounGive an example of w and y, as vowels ?
ded ? How ac ? How ai? How au? What When used as vowels, why do not wo andy How many sounds has B?
exceptions to this sound of au? increase the number of vowel souods i What is a consonant ?
Io what words is it silent ?
How many sounds has C ? How many aod what letters are coos0. When is it sounded like k? nants ?
When soft like s? When like sh? Why are these letters called consonants ? In wbat words is C mate? What is the nomber of consonant sounds in What is the practice of writers with respect Euglish ?
to ending a word with C?
How is ch comraonly sounded ? How in How is T generally sounded ? how before words derived from the Greek ?
w, when the accent precedes ? whes is Th How in those from the French ? How in pronounced like simple t ? arch before a vowel? How in arch before What sounds has U?
How i: V sonnded ? a ron! What sounds has D
What sounds has W, when a consonant ? How many sounds has E ?
What sounds ha. X ? How is the diphthong, ea, generally sound. What sound has Y, when a consonant ? ert ? How eau ? ei? coen ?
What sound has Z ? What sounds bas F?
LECTURE III. Woat sonnds has G? When is G bard? What is a syllable ? when soft p when male ?
What is spelling ? What sơnods bás HP
What is con idered as the best standard of What soands has 1 ? How is the diphthong
orthography in the English language ? in, sounded ? how ie ? how ieu ?
Wbat are words ?
What are ideas?
Have words in general any peculiar fitness mute ? How is le pronounced at the end
to express the ideas sigoified hy them ? of words ?
Are there any exceptions to this rule ? What sounds bas MP
Give an example of such exceptions. What goonde has N P when is N mute ? how
By what role, then, are we to be directed, must the participial ing be pronounced ?
in the use oi words, as the signs of our
ideas? How is O sounded ? how oa? oe ? oi 3 00 ? ou? on?
What are words of one syllable calWhat sounds has P ? when is it-mute ? how led ? is ph sounded?
Of two syllables ? How is Qu sounded ?
of three syllables ? W bat souods has R? how is re, at the end of words, pronounced ?
Of four or more syllables ? What sounds has SP when has it a sharp How are words divided ?
8000d ? when has it the sound of %! when What is a primitive word ?
Wbat a derivative ?
Lecture II.-of the Articles.
How many articles are there ? of what does Etymology treat ?
Why are these called articles ? What does it comprehend?
What is a called ? Why ? In a philosophical point of view, what is When does a become an ?
Etymology and of what does it treat? Why is a converted into an, when the folWhat is the number of real words in the lowing word begios with a vowel or a si English langoage ?
lent h? From what do words derive their meaning? In what instances most a be osed before & What necessary connexion is there between vowel? words and ideas?
Why most a, instead of an, be used in sach If we were to contrive a new language, how instances ?
might we proceed in the application of When must an be used before h, when the h
articolate sounds, as the signs of ideas ? is not silent? But where a language is already formed, What is the signification of the article a?
in what sense mast they, who speak it, What is the called ? Why ? use the words?
What is the signification of the article, the, Why are we upder obligations to ase words
as derived from the Anglo-Saxop ? in the customary sense?
Io what sense is a noun to be taken, Ioto how many sorts,or parls of speech,
without any article before it ? are words divided ?
Before what nouns is the article generally What are these parts of speech called ? omitted ? Which are the oply parts of speech essen- Are the articles ever prefixed to proper tially necessary ?
nouns? Why? Why are these two alone iodispensably re- Are there any exceptions to this rule? quisite ?
Give examples of soch exceptions, and the How may the other parts of speech be re- reason of them?
Is the indefinite article prefixed to nouns in How is the interjection to be considered ? the singular or in the plural number?
What cxception is there to this rule ? What adjectives do pot admit of compari-
What are adjectives, denoting number, calWhat is its effect when so applied ?
led! Is the article ever separated from the ooun, What are those, denoting order, called ?
which it limits, by any intervening Wbat purpose do adjectives answer in comwords?
mon with the articles Wbat is the difference of sigoification be. Give an example.
tween a poun without any article, and
What is a noun ? Give an example ? tween a noun with the indefinite article From wbat is the word, noun, derived ? before it, and the same noun with the dee Why is tbis part of speech called finite article prtfixed to it ?
noun ? Lecture III.-Of Adjectives.
By what other oame is it sometimes
called ? What is an adjective ?
Into how many sorts are pouas divid. Why is this part of speech called the ed ?
What is a proper pouo ? Give an ex.
ample ? E
from a noun ? In the adjective, gold-en, what does the syl- What is a common noun ? Give an
Why is it called proper ? lable, en, denote? Is the syllable, en, always angexed to the example. adjective for this purpose ?
Why is it called common? By what other meaus is the subordination When are proper nouns used as common }
of the adjective to the pouy sometimes ex. How may common nouns be made to sig. pressed?
nily individuals? Most the adjective be of the same gender, Woat are collective nouns? Give an exam.
number, and case with the pouo ? Is the adjective over varied to express this What are abstract nouns? Give ad exame agreement ?
ple. What is the principal variation, which the What are verbal or participial poup: ? Give adjective allmits?
an example. How many degrees of comparison have How many and what distioctions beadjectives?
long to pouns ? What are these degrees called ? Wbat
is the gender of gouds ? What does the positive form express ? How many geoders have couns ? The comparative ? The superla
What nouns are of the masculine geotive ?
der? How are adjectives of one syllable ge. What, of the feminine ? nerally compared ?
What, of the oeuler ? Give an example.
How are nouns, natorally neuter, convert. How are adjectives of two or more
ed into the masculine or feminine geoder? sylables generally compared ?
Give an example ?
To what sort of peuter nouns do we com. Give au example.
monly give the masculine gender, by this What adjectives are irregularly com
figure of speech? pared ?
To what the feminine ? 7 Wha may the termination, ish, be ac.
What three methods has the English lana counted ?
guage of distinguishing the sex? What is the effect of this termination ?
What nouns are used in differently for eith. What is the word, rather, used to express ?
er males or females ? How are dissyllables, ending in y; in le, af.
Of what gender is the noun, parents ? ter a mote; or accented on the last syl.
Of what, the boun, parent ? lable, compared ?
What is number? What adjectives are compared by adding How many numbers bave nouos ? the adverb, most, to the end of them?
What does the singular number exWhen we properly use the comparative
degree, how are i he objects compared to
What the plural ?