In vitro biological systems
In vitro methods have provided a valuable tool for toxicological research over the years. Historically, these methods have made significant contributions to our understanding of toxic mechanisms of action and xenobiotic metabolism and, in this context, have provided an indispensable resource for investigative toxicology. More recently, the value of in vitro systems as toxicity tests for chemical safety and hazard evaluation has been recognized and explored. Whether the in vitro approach is employed as a model system for investigative research or as a toxicity test for risk assessment, a critical component is the biological system. Selection and successful culturing of the appropriate cell, tissue or organ for a particular scientific purpose is essential for a satisfactory outcome. The objective of this volume is to provide both beginning and established researchers with basic techniques employed by widely recognized scientists to prepare and maintain the biological components of in vitro model systems. The compilation is not intended to be exhaustive but to provide a set of pivotal methods of value to researchers in the field of toxicology. The methods have been organized by organ systems for easy reference.
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In Vitro Biological Systems: Methods in Toxicology, Volume 1
Charles A. Tyson,John M. Frazier
Limited preview - 2016
1993 by Academic Academic Press acid activity aliquots animals assay basal beaker Biochem Biol bovine serum buffer calcium cannula catecholamine cell cultures cell suspension cellular centrifuge tube chemical chromaffin cells Clara cells collagenase concentration containing cornea cortical coverslips culture medium density digestion dissecting dissociation endothelial cells enzyme epithelial cells explants fetal filter flask forceps gentamicin GIBCO glucose gradient growth growth medium hepatocytes HEPES incubated inhibits isolated kidneys Kupffer cells laboratory layer lipocytes liver macrophages membrane metabolism METHODS IN TOXICOLOGY mg/ml microscope monolayer mouse neurochemical neurons obtained Pasteur pipette pellet Percoll perfusion petri dish Pharmacol pipette plastic plates preparation procedure protein proximal tubule rabbit REAGENTS reaggregates removed renal resuspended scissors segments Sigma skin slices sodium specific sterile stock solution studies supernatant tion tissue culture toxicity Toxicol trypan blue trypsin type II cells vessel viability vitro vivo washed