## X-Ray Diffraction: A Practical ApproachIn this, the only book available to combine both theoretical and practical aspects of x-ray diffraction, the authors emphasize a "hands on" approach through experiments and examples based on actual laboratory data. Part I presents the basics of x-ray diffraction and explains its use in obtaining structural and chemical information. In Part II, eight experimental modules enable the students to gain an appreciation for what information can be obtained by x-ray diffraction and how to interpret it. Examples from all classes of materials -- metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers -- are included. Diffraction patterns and Bragg angles are provided for students without diffractometers. 192 illustrations. |

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Page 5

A part of the electromagnetic spectrum is

electromagnetic radiation, or photon, has an energy, E, which is proportional to

its frequency, v. E = hV (1) The constant of proportionality is Planck's constant h,

which ...

A part of the electromagnetic spectrum is

**shown in Fig**. 1. Each quantum ofelectromagnetic radiation, or photon, has an energy, E, which is proportional to

its frequency, v. E = hV (1) The constant of proportionality is Planck's constant h,

which ...

Page 6

Schematic showing the essential components of a modern x-ray tube. Beryllium

is used for the window ... The sharp peaks, called characteristic lines, are

superimposed on the continuous spectrum, as

characteristic ...

Schematic showing the essential components of a modern x-ray tube. Beryllium

is used for the window ... The sharp peaks, called characteristic lines, are

superimposed on the continuous spectrum, as

**shown in Fig**. 3. It is thesecharacteristic ...

Page 23

This small repeating unit is known as the unit cell of the lattice and is

(a, b, c) of its sides and the interaxial angles (O, B, Y) between them. (O is the ...

This small repeating unit is known as the unit cell of the lattice and is

**shown in****Fig**. 16. A unit cell may be described by the interrelationship between the lengths(a, b, c) of its sides and the interaxial angles (O, B, Y) between them. (O is the ...

Page 41

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### Contents

3 | |

21 | |

Appendix 6 | 45 |

Practical Aspects of XRay Diffraction | 63 |

Cubic Structures | 97 |

Appendix 8 | 104 |

Hexagonal Structures | 125 |

Precise Lattice Parameter Measurements | 153 |

Detection of LongRange Ordering | 193 |

Determination of Crystallite Size and Lattice Strain | 207 |

Quantitative Analysis of Powder Mixtures | 223 |

Identification of an Unknown Specimen | 237 |

Appendixes | 251 |

Summary of Structure Factor Calculations | 256 |

JCPDSICDD Card Numbers for Some Common | 262 |

Phase Diagram Determination | 167 |

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### Common terms and phrases

26 values 6min alloy atoms per unit body-centered cubic Bragg Bragg angle Bragg's law Bravais lattice broadening calculate the lattice components composition copper crystal structure crystal system cubic Bravais lattice determine diamond cubic diamond cubic structure diffraction peaks disordered electron energy equation error example Experimental Module face-centered cubic foc structure grain Hanawalt Search Manual hexagonal hkl a nm identify incident beam integrated intensity lattice parameter lattice parameter(s lattice point lattice strain measured metal Method Material Miller indices mixture obtained ordered condition orthorhombic phase diagram photon planes point lattice positions powder powder diffraction procedure radiation ratio record the x-ray relative intensities shown in Fig silicon simple cubic slits solid solubility solid-state detectors structure factor superlattice reflections Table Theta FIG Titanium titanium nitride two-phase unit cell unknown specimen wave wavelength width x-ray diffraction pattern x-ray diffractometers x-ray photon x-ray source Zinc Zincblende