Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua
Jorge Ancheyta, James G. Speight
CRC Press, May 8, 2007 - Science - 376 pages
Many oil refineries employ hydroprocessing for removing sulfur and other impurities from petroleum feedstocks. Capable of handling heavier feedstocks than other refining techniques, hydroprocessing enables refineries to produce higher quality products from unconventional — and formerly wasted — sources. Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua illustrates how to obtain maximum yields of high-value products from heavy oils and residue using hydroprocessing technologies.
While most resources on hydroprocessing concentrate ongas oil and lower boiling products, this book details the chemistry involved and the process modifications required for the hydroprocessing of heavy crude oils and residua. Emphasizing the use of effective catalysts to ensure cleaner and more efficient industrial fuel processes, the book presents key principles of heterogeneous catalyst preparation, catalyst loading, and reactor systems. It explains how to evaluate and account for catalysts, reactor type, process variables, feedstock type, and feedstock composition in the design of hydroprocessing operations. The text concludes with examples of commercial processes and discusses methods of hydrogen production.
To meet the growing demand for transportation fuels and fuel oil, modern oil refineries must find ways to produce high quality fuel products from increasingly heavy feedstocks. Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua contains the fundamental concepts, technologies, and process modifications refineries need to adapt current hydroprocessing technologies for processing heavier feedstocks.
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Nevertheless, there are procedures (ASTM, 2006) for the ultimate analysis of
petroleum and petroleum products, but many such methods may have been
designed for other materials. For example, carbon content can be determined by
A variety of tests (ASTM D-1026, ASTM D-1262, ASTM D-1318, ASTM D-1368,
ASTM D-1548, ASTM D-1549, ASTM D-2547, ASTM D-2599, ... and ASTM D-
3605) have been designated for the determination of metals in petroleum
The Saybolt universal viscosity (SUS) (ASTM D-88) is the time in seconds
required for the flow of 60 ml of petroleum from a container, at constant
temperature, through a calibrated orifice. The Saybolt furol viscosity (SFS) (ASTM
D-88) is ...
... the viscosities of the base oil components (Al-Besharah et al., 1989). 2.2.5
CARBON RESIDUE The carbon residue (ASTM D-189 and ASTM D-524) of a
crude oil is a property that can be correlated with several other properties of
Determination of aromatic content of olefin-free gasoline by silica gel adsorption (
ASTM D-936). 2. Separation of aromatic and nonaromatic fractions from high-
boiling oils (ASTM D-2549). 3. Determination of hydrocarbon groups in rubber ...
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Chapter 4 Thermodynamics of Hydroprocessing Reactions
Chapter 5 Reactors for Hydroprocessing
Chapter 6 Characteristics of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts
Chapter 7 Maya Heavy Crude Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts
Chapter 8 Effect of Feedstock Composition on the Performance of Hydroconversion Catalysts
Chapter 9 Hydroprocesses
Chapter 10 Commercial Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking
Chapter 11 Hydrogen Production