Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua
Jorge Ancheyta, James G. Speight
CRC Press, May 8, 2007 - Science - 376 pages
Many oil refineries employ hydroprocessing for removing sulfur and other impurities from petroleum feedstocks. Capable of handling heavier feedstocks than other refining techniques, hydroprocessing enables refineries to produce higher quality products from unconventional — and formerly wasted — sources. Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua illustrates how to obtain maximum yields of high-value products from heavy oils and residue using hydroprocessing technologies.
While most resources on hydroprocessing concentrate ongas oil and lower boiling products, this book details the chemistry involved and the process modifications required for the hydroprocessing of heavy crude oils and residua. Emphasizing the use of effective catalysts to ensure cleaner and more efficient industrial fuel processes, the book presents key principles of heterogeneous catalyst preparation, catalyst loading, and reactor systems. It explains how to evaluate and account for catalysts, reactor type, process variables, feedstock type, and feedstock composition in the design of hydroprocessing operations. The text concludes with examples of commercial processes and discusses methods of hydrogen production.
To meet the growing demand for transportation fuels and fuel oil, modern oil refineries must find ways to produce high quality fuel products from increasingly heavy feedstocks. Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oils and Residua contains the fundamental concepts, technologies, and process modifications refineries need to adapt current hydroprocessing technologies for processing heavier feedstocks.
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... 1.4 Tar Sand Bitumen........................................................................................6 1.5 ...
With the necessity of processing heavy oil, bitumen, and residua to obtain more
gasoline and other liquid fuels, there has been the recognition that knowledge of
the constituents of these higher-boiling feedstocks is also of some importance.
Bitumen from tar sand deposits is often called extra-heavy oil. Venezuela has 47
to 76 billion barrels of proven reserves, according to oil industry/Department of
Energy (DOE) estimates. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) puts Venezuelan ...
It is incorrect to refer to bitumen as tar or pitch. Although the word tar is somewhat
descriptive of the black bituminous material, its use is best avoided with respect
to natural materials. More correctly, the name tar is usually applied to the heavy ...
Bitumen recovery requires the prior application of reservoir fracturing procedures
before the introduction of thermal recovery methods. Currently, commercial
operations in Canada use mining techniques for bitumen recovery. Because of
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Chapter 4 Thermodynamics of Hydroprocessing Reactions
Chapter 5 Reactors for Hydroprocessing
Chapter 6 Characteristics of Heavy Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts
Chapter 7 Maya Heavy Crude Oil Hydroprocessing Catalysts
Chapter 8 Effect of Feedstock Composition on the Performance of Hydroconversion Catalysts
Chapter 9 Hydroprocesses
Chapter 10 Commercial Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking
Chapter 11 Hydrogen Production