An Essay on the Principle of Population: Or, a View of Its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness; with an Inquiry Into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal Or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions, Volume 1
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according agriculture ancient annual marriages appear average births to deaths calculations captain Cook causes Charlevoix checks to population China consequence considerable considered Cook's corn cultivation degree effect emigration encourage England epidemic extraordinary extreme famine foundling hospitals France frequent George Staunton greater number habits increase of population infanticide inhabitants islands labor land laws Lettres Edif live lower classes manner marry means of subsistence misery mode mortality nations nature nearly Nootka Sound Norway number of births number of children observed occasion Otaheite Pallas parish perhaps period Petersburgh polygamy poor positive checks poverty present prevail preventive check principal probably produce proportion of births provinces pulation reason registers respect riages Robertson Russia Russian Empire savage says scarcity Scotland Siberia slaves society soil suppose Sussmilch Sweden Switzerland Tartars Tibet tion Tobolsk towns tribes Vaud villages Volney whole population women
Page 3 - The germs of existence contained in this earth, if they could freely develop themselves, would fill millions of worlds in the course of a few thousand years. Necessity, that imperious, all-pervading law of nature, restrains them within the prescribed bounds.
Page 4 - The effects of this check on man are more complicated. Impelled to the increase of his species by an equally powerful instinct, reason interrupts his career, and asks him whether he may not bring beings into the world, for whom he cannot provide the means of support.
Page 11 - In the next twenty-five years, it is impossible to suppose that the produce could be quadrupled. It would be contrary to all our knowledge of the properties of land.
Page 19 - Promiscuous intercourse, unnatural passions, violations of the marriage bed, and improper arts to conceal the consequences of irregular connections, are preventive checks that clearly come under the head of vice.
Page 2 - Franklin that there is no bound to the prolific nature of plants or animals but what is made by their crowding and interfering with each other's means of subsistence. Were the face of the earth, he says, vacant of other plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one kind only, as for instance with fennel; and were it empty of other inhabitants, it might in a few ages be replenished from one nation only, as for instance...
Page 28 - Population invariably increases where the means of subsistence increase, unless prevented by some very powerful and obvious checks. 3. These checks, and the checks which repress the superior power of population, and keep its effects on a level with the means of subsistence, are all resolvable into moral restraint, vice, and misery.
Page 13 - In the next period, the population would be eighty-eight millions, and the means of subsistence just equal to the support of half that number. And at the conclusion of the first century, the population would be...
Page 21 - ... naturally unhealthy, or subject to a great mortality, from whatever cause it may arise, the preventive check will prevail very little. In those countries on the contrary, which are naturally healthy, and where the preventive check is found to prevail with considerable force, the positive check will prevail very little, or the mortality be very small.
Page 12 - ... might be increased every twentyfive years by a quantity equal to what it at present produces. The most enthusiastic speculator cannot suppose a greater increase than this. In a few centuries it would make every acre of land in the island like a garden.