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which useful lessons may not be learnt by studying one science or another. The necessity of science to the more liberal professions is self evident; little less manifest is the use to their members of extending their knowledge beyond the branches of study with which their several pursuits are more peculiarly conversant. But the other departments of industry derive hárdly less benefit from the same source. To how many kinds of workmen must a knowledge of Mechanical Philosophy prove useful! To how many others does Chemistry prove almost necessary! Every one must with a glance perceive, that to engineers, watch-makers, instrument makers, bleachers, and dyers, those sciences are most useful, if not necessary. But carpenters and masons are surely likely to do their work better for knowing how to measure, which Practical Mathematics teaches them, and how to estimate the strength of timber, of walls, and of arches, which they learn from Practical Mechanics ; and they who work in various metals are certain to be the more skilful in their trades for knowing the nature of those substances, and their relations to both heat and other metals, and to the airs and liquids they come in contact with. Nay, the farm-servant, or day-labourer, whether in his master's employ, or tending the concerns of his own

cottage, must derive great practical benefit, must be both a better servant, and a more thrifty, and, therefore, comfortable cottager, for knowing something of the nature of soils and manures, which Chemistry teaches, and something of the habits of animals, and the qualities and growth of plants, which he learns from Natural History and Chemistry together. In truth, though a man be neither mechanic nor peasant, but only one, having a pot to boil, he is sure to learn from science lessons which will enable him to cook his morsel better, save his fuel, and both vary his dish and improve it. The art of good and cheap cookery is intimately connected with the principles of chemical philosophy, and has received much, and will yet receive more, improvement from their application. Nor is it enough to say, that philosophers may discover all that is wanted, and may invent practical methods, which it is sufficient for the working man to learn by rote, without knowing the principles. He never will work so well if he is ignorant of the principles; and for a plain reason :-if he only learn his lesson by rote, the least change of circumstances puts him out. Be the method ever so general, cases will always arise in which it must be varied, in order to apply; and if the workman only knows the rule without knowing the reason, he must be at

fault the moment he is required to make any new application of it. This, then, is the first use of learning the principles of science : it makes men more skilful, expert, and useful in the particular kinds of work by which they are to earn their bread, and by which they are to make it


far and taste well when earned. But another use of such knowledge to handicraftsmen, is equally obvious : it gives every man a chance, according to his natural talents, of becoming an improver of the art he works at, and even a discoverer in the sciences connected with it. He is daily handling the tools and materials with which new experiments are to be made; and daily witnessing the operations of nature, whether in the motions and pressures of bodies, or in their chemical actions on each other. All opportunities of making experiments must be unimproved, all appearances must pass unobserved, if he has no knowledge of the principles ; but with this knowledge he is more likely than another person to strike out something new, which may be useful in art, or curious or interesting in science. Very few great discoveries have been made by chance and by ignorant persons, much fewer than is generally supposed. It is commonly told of the steam-engine, that an idle boy being employed to stop and open a valve,


saw that he could save himself the trouble of attending and watching it, by fixing a plug upon a part of the machine which came to the place at the proper times, in consequence of the general movement. This is possible, no doubt; though nothing very certain is known respecting the origin of the story; but improvements of any value are very seldom indeed so easily found out, and hardly another instance can be named of important discoveries so purely accidental. They are generally made by persons of competent knowledge, and who are in search of them. The improvements of the steam-engine, by Watt, resulted from the most learned investigation of mathematical, mechanical, and chemical truths. Arkwright devoted many years, five at the least, to his invention of spinning jennies, and he was a man perfectly conversant in every thing that relates to the construction of machinery: he had minutely examined it, and knew the effects of each part, though he had not received any thing like a scientific education. If he had, we should, in all probability, have been indebted to him for scientific discoveries, as well as practical improvements. The most beautiful and useful invention of late times, the Safety-lamp, was the reward of a series of philosophical experiments, made by one thoroughly skilled in every branch

of chemical science. The new process of Refining Sugar, by which more money has been made in a shorter time, and with less risk and trouble, than was ever, perhaps, gained from an invention, was discovered by a most accomplished chemist, * and was the fruit of a long course of experiments, in the progress of which, known philosophical principles were constantly applied, and one or two new principles ascertained. But in so far as chance has any thing to do with discovery, surely it is worth the while of those who are constantly working in particular employments to obtain the knowledge required, because their chances are greater than other people's of so applying that knowledge as to hit upon new and useful ideas : they are always in the way of perceiving what is wanting, or what is amiss in the old methods; and they have a better chance of making the improvements. In a word, to use a common expression, they are in the way of good luck; and if they possess the requisite information, they can take advantage of it when it comes to them. This, then, is the second great use of learning the sciences, it enables men to make improvements in the arts, and discoveries in philosophy, which may directly benefit themselves and mankind. Edward Howard, brother of the Duke of Norfolk.

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