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intellects, who, instead of looking at the justice of a cause, suffer themselves to be carried away by the event, and these men may despond; but men of wisdom regard its merits more than its temporary success—they resolve to exert themselves for it with confidence in the issue—they ask only, does it deserve to succeed ; and then leave the event to Providence, looking for the reward of their exertions in their own breasts, and careless of what passes without. The short sighted and fickle men, who are the sport of events, unable to bear good fortune with moderation, cannot support adversity with firmness, but are as timid and dejected by the one, as they are domineering and insolent in the other. While the sky was overcast, while the day was in suspense, while the danger existed, they durst not declare themselves—they sailed under false ensigns—they were afraid to show their colours -they hid themselves in holes and corners, and you might be in the presence of a multitude of them, without being able to see, hear, or feel them ; while they shrunk from observation; conscious that they were not respected, and that they ought to be despised ; but when the storm was over, when they saw that the danger was passed, and that their safety was secured; then they came forth as has been seen to day from their hiding places, like swarms of despi

cable vermin; scattering about their filth, and slime; and the face of the earth was, I cannot say peopled, but bespattered with the venomous reptiles. Then their cowardly voices were raised, to utter the cry of short-sighted insolence, and to hail not a final triumph, but a short respite from the fate that awaits them. Such a cry, it is the duty of you, the independent Freeholders, to despise, like the croaking of a reptile-to despise them as they deserve to be despised, and as they despise themselves : but you ought to go one step further—these reptiles are contemptible; but you should bear in mind, that they are likewise noxious, and steps should be taken, wbich, in any future struggle, must secure the independence of the county against their efforts.






8vo. 1818.

I TAKE it to be a principle which will admit of no contradiction, that the existence of any permanent fund for the support of the poor-the appropriation of any revenue, however raised, which must peremptorily be expended in maintaining such, as have no other means of subsistence—has, upon the whole, a direct tendency to increase their numbers. It produces this effect in two ways—by discouraging industry, foresight, economy—and by encouraging improvident marriages; nor is the former operation more certain than the latter. It is equally clear that this increase will always exceed the proportion which the revenues in question can maintain. *

To the class of funds directly pro* “ Languescet industria, intendetur socordia, si nullus ex

se metus aut spes, et securi omnes aliena subsidia expec“ tabunt, sibi ignavi, nobis graves.” -- Tacit.

ductive of paupers, belong all revenues of alms houses, hospitals, and schools, where children are supported, as well as educated ; all yearly sums to be given away to mendicants, or poor families; regular donations of religious houses in Catholic countries; the portion of the tythes in this country which went to maintain the

poor before the statutory provision was made; and, finally, and above all, that provision itself.* But charitable funds will prove harmless, (and may be, moreover, beneficial), exactly in proportion as their application is limited to combinations of circumstances out of the ordinary course of calculation, and not likely to be taken into account by the labouring classes, in the estimate which they form of their future means of gaining a livelihood. Thus, they may safely be appropriated to the support of persons disabled from working, by accident, or incurable malady, as the blind and the maimed ; and we may even extend the rule to hospitals generally, for the cure of diseases ; nor can orphan hospitals be excepted, upon the whole ; for although, certainly, the dread of leaving a family

* The Poor Rates come clearly within this description as now raised and applied ; for though they do not exist previously to the demand on the part of the persons claiming relief, the mode of calling them into existence, and the right to do so, is known, and that has the same effect.

in want, is one check to improvident marriages; yet the loss of both parents is not an event likely to be contemplated. In like manner, although the existence of a certain provision for old age, independent of individual saving, comes within the description of the mischief; it is, nevertheless, far less detrimental than the existence of an equal fund, for maintaining young persons, and, more especially, for supporting children. Keeping these remarks in our view, let us add to them the consideration, that, as the Poor Laws have been administered, the character of the labouring classes has suffered a material injury, from which it ought by all means to be restored ; and we shall come to the conclusion, that the application of charitable funds, to purposes of education merely, will be the best means of expending them on a large scale; and that, next to this, such donations are to be preferred, as directly encourage independence; for example, a provision for the old age of persons who never received alms in any shape; and for defraying the first cost of erecting Saving Banks. The employment of these resources in helping industry by the supply of tools, is a more doubtful application of them, but far more harmless than the methods generally in use. Perhaps, after the uses now mentioned, no expenditure of eleemosynary revenues

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