Ceramography: Preparation and Analysis of Ceramic Microstructures

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Wiley, Sep 28, 2002 - Science - 214 pages
Preface p. viii About the Author p. x List of Subroutines p. xi Chapter 1 Introduction p. 1 Ceramography in Materials Science p. 1 Crystallography p. 2 Laboratory Safety p. 3 Ceramographic Laboratory Design p. 5 Chapter 2 Ceramic Fabrication p. 9 Ceramics p. 9 Commerical Fabrication of Ceramics p. 11 Laboratory Fabrication of Ceramics p. 13 Chapter 3 Sawing and Mounting p. 19 Sawing p. 19 Mounting p. 22 Edge Retention p. 30 Beveled Edge p. 31 Ceramographic Mounting Resins p. 31 Chapter 4 Grinding and Polishing p. 35 Automatic Grinding p. 35 Automatic Polishing p. 36 Manual Grinding p. 39 Manual Polishing p. 40 Grinding and Polishing Accessories p. 40 Chapter 5 Etching p. 45 Thermal Etching p. 45 Chemical Etching p. 54 Electrolytic Etching p. 56 Other Etching Methods p. 58 Overetched Ceramics p. 67 Chapter 6 Petrographic Thin-Section Preparation p. 69 Sawing p. 69 Mounting p. 70 Grinding p. 71 Chapter 7 Optics and Microscopy p. 75 The Microscope p. 75 Kohler Illumination p. 79 Magnification and Resolution p. 81 Depth of Field p. 84 Differential Interference Contrast p. 85 Dark-Field Illumination p. 86 Oil Immersion p. 87 Stereomicroscopy p. 88 Crystal Optics p. 88 Petrography--Transmitted Light and Thin Sections p. 92 Replication and Field Ceramography p. 95 Sputter Coating p. 97 Scanning Electron Microscopy p. 99 Other Microscope Types p. 103 As-Fired Surface p. 105 Stereo Pairs p. 105 Acoustic Microscopy p. 106 Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy p. 111 Micrography p. 112 Chapter 8 Atlas of Ceramic Microstructures p. 117 Alumina p. 117 Borides p. 130 Carbides p. 130 Composites p. 132 Metallized Ceramics p. 134 Nitrides p. 136 Oxides p. 137 Silicon Carbide p. 139 Spinel p. 141 Zirconia p. 142 Chapter 9 Quantitative Ceramography p. 145 Stereology p. 145 Grain Size p. 145 Grain Shape p. 155 Porosity and Second-Phase Content p. 157 Microindentation Hardness p. 160 Toughness p. 168 Chapter 10 Qualitative Ceramography p. 177 Morphology p. 177 Phase Determination p. 178 Preferred Orientation p. 180 Fractography p. 181 Artifacts p. 185 Chapter 11 Image Analysis p. 189 Algorithm p. 190 Critical Aspects p. 193 Measurements p. 197 Digital Images p. 198 Appendix A ASTM Procedures Applicable to Ceramography p. 201 Headings in the ASTM Subject Index p. 202 Appendix B Ceramographic Equipment Manufacturers p. 203 Appendix C Abrasive Size Equivalents p. 209 Index p. 211.

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Contents

Preface viji
11
Ceramic Fabrication
11
Sawing and Mounting
19
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Richard E. Chinn is the author of Ceramography: Preparation and Analysis of Ceramic Microstructures, published by Wiley.

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