Butterflies and Climate Change
Butterflies are particularly sensitive to climate and are important bio-indicators of climatic change. This book not only explores how butterflies adapt to climatic gradients and weather patterns, but also shows how their biogeography and evolution have responded to climate change in the past, and how they are likely to respond in the future as the enhanced greenhouse effect increasingly alters the world's climate.
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activity adaptations adult altitude aposematic areas atmospheric baskers basking behaviour biological Brakefield British butterflies butterfly biology butterfly populations butterfly species cent climatic change Coenonympha tullia Colias colonization colour correlations crypsis Dennis & Shreeve depends Devensian diapause distribution diversity dorsal drought Ecology effects Entomologist's Gazette environmental environments evolution evolutionary extinction factors fauna fecundity flight forest global gradients habitats heat hindwing Holocene hostplants increased influence insects Journal Kingsolver larvae Lasiommata megera latitude Lepidoptera life-history Lycaenidae macroevolution male Maniola jurtina melanization migration morphology nectar northern Nylin Nymphalidae occur Oecologia overwintering oviposition Papilio Papilionidae Pararge aegeria parasitoids phenotype Pieridae Pieris Pivnick & McNeil Pollard Polygonia c-album Polyommatus icarus polyphenism potential predators Pullin range rates regional Satyrinae seasonal selection Shapiro southern Britain species e.g. substrate summer surface taxa temperatures thermal thermoregulation trends tropical univoltine variables variation ventral voltinism weather Wickman wing pattern