« PreviousContinue »
and put aside some great and conspicuous feature of appear that the available beds exceed thirty feet in natural inclination of the strata subservient to their human nature. This maxim as to praise bears strong thickness at the utmost, while the principal workable purposes-namely, so that mining operations may be marks of being of that character. Praise is confes seams have been averaged, by a competent authority, carried on towards a higher level, and facility be thus sedly a universal object, and has been so from the at twelve feet thick.
afforded for the descent of water, and the ready transit beginning of the world. Why should it be considered The extent of the whole surface of this coal-field it of the coal in the working of the mine. It is always wrong to give that which every body is more or less is not easy to determine ; but, according to the best desirable, for the perfection of ventilation, to sink anxious to receive? There may be something in the approximation, that of Northumberland contains 243 two shafts, one for the entrance, and another for the manner, no doubt ; and yet what can be grosser in square miles, and that of Durham 594 square miles, exit, of the air—the former called a “downcast," and point of taste, when it is seriously reflected on, than making 837 square miles for the two counties. of the latter an “upcast,” shaft. But although extremely to bring a man to a public dinner, plant him
beside this, the portion already excavated is computed at 105 desirable, it is not always practicable, to open two the chairman, open out a cascade of flattery upon square miles ; and from a lengthened calculation, it shafts ; for where the coal lies deep, or difficulties are him, and expect him then to rise up and task his in- has been deduced, that, according to the present issue rife, the sinking of one shaft is an affair of such maggenuity in at once explaining away the attributed of coal from the chief ports in this field, there remains nitude, in point of expense, that few persons enter merits, and seeming sufficiently grateful for the com- enough to satisfy our posterity for 1700 years to come. into it alone : hence, a colliery is commonly the propliment which has been paid to him ?
Professor Buckland, however, in 1830, limited the perty of a company, or of several partners or shareThe true rationale of the question seems to be this : supply, at the existing rate of consumption and waste, holders. The capital required for the establishment With the generality of matures, a moderate use of to 400 years.
of a first-rate sea-sale colliery, including winning, praise, as an incentive to duty and reward for its The ®“ dykes," or "faults,” which traverse the field machinery, houses, waggons, &c., is very large, varying performance, appears to be quite proper. There is a are very numerous. The most important is called the from L.40,000 to L.150,000. The expense of sinking vast class of acts and duties which, though good, are Great Ninety Fathom Dyke, since the beds on the a single shaft, including outfits and machinery, varies not to be accomplished and attended to without labo- north side of it have been thrown down 90 fathoms by from L.10,000 to L,40,000. The expense of opening rious exertion and some degree of self-denial. To its intrusion, and in some instances even 170 fathoms. a colliery upon a scale to work 100,000 Newcastle sustain and carry out one's self in these matters, one's Your non-geological readers may not be aware of the chaldrons annually, from two seams of coal, one lying own approving conscience is all very well; but though nature of a dyke, and it will be desirable for their at forty and the other at seventy fathoms below the a good, it is a solitary and unsocial feeling. Man information to explain, that it is a considerable dislo- surface, inclusive of the machinery, colliery-houses, dearly loves to find that he is of some consequence cation or interruption of the continuity of the seams &c., has been estimated at L.50,000. When, however,
He likes to take men along with him in of coal, sometimes caused by the intrusive interference mining difficulties occur, the expenses are fearfully his own approbation. He feels in their praise the of foreign matter, as basalt. I do not know that a increased. The arch-enemy of coal-winning is water, bond of a common nature press delightfully upon his better illustration of its effects can be given than by and there are some mines from which a much larger heart. How, otherwise, should we see persons in in- supposing some of the printed lines, in which these quantity of water is raised than of coal. One chief dependent circumstances “ shun delights and live sentences are exhibited, to be broken and thrown up use of the large assemblages of steam-power in several laborious days,” only, perhaps, that they may produce or down in the page. By an unlucky crease in the of the northern collieries is for pumping water. The some literary work which will have its little hour of paper, we sometimes observe in the leaf of a book, that occupation assigned, according to ancient mythology, eclat, or possibly only a paper to be read at a meeting when this crease is unfolded, a white space of blank to the fifty truculent daughters of Danaus, was of twenty persons calling themselves a philosophical paper provokingly intervenes, vertically or obliquely, scarcely more interminable than that of many pumpsociety? This cheap means of causing people to do across the printed lines, and thus destroys their conti- ing engines at collieries. In the sinkings at the Great what it is desirable that they should do, surely has its nuity and regularity. Now, this white space may Hetton colliery, there were three principal feeders legitimate place in the arrangements of human society, very well represent the contents of a dyke, and the met with; the first issuing 2000 gallons of water per and is capable of being used without necessarily pro- dislocation of the printed lines will indicate the up minute, the second 1000 gallons, and the third 1600 ducing harm. Perhaps there is not any one feeling and down throw of the strata. If we suppose a dozen gallons per minute. It is generally supposed that of our nature which more effectually binds us toge- long consecutive lines of a broad page in a quarto this water is originally derived from the surface, inther, or figures more largely in the hourly familiar book broken in half a dozen places, and so thrown up asmuch as at great depths the feeders” are much pleasures of life. It is necessary, however, to study and down that a part of the fifth and sixth lines, for less abundant and much less formidable, and the main character very carefully, in order to give due praise example, shall be thrown into juxtaposition with a body of water issues at not more than forty or fifty without doing harm, and even to know how to use part of the second and third, and so on, we shall have fathoms from the surface. It is not, however, by it for the production of positive good. A proud per- some idea of a series of " faults” presented by a sec- percolation that much of the water penetrates to the son requires little or none at any time. Sufficient tion of the strata commencing at Sheriff Hill near mine ; for although the “posts,” or sandstones, are for him is his own self-satisfaction. There are many Newcastle, where they are intersected by five dykes, or porous, and admit the passage of water, yet the shales whom praise would easily corrupt, and to whom it faults, elevating and lowering the strata, in various are compact and impervious to it. The numerous should therefore be sparingly administered, even when degrees, from ten to twenty-five fathoms. There are cavities and fissures in the strata become extensive their acts are most laudable. Others, again, whose several kinds of dykes—as whin-dykes and basaltic- reservoirs for the accumulation either of water or confidence in themselves is infirm, may need the ad- dykes. The marks of fusion near the latter are pre- inflammable gases, and these are often let out unwitministration of an occasional word of approbation to sumed to be clearly indicative of their volcanic origin. tingly by a single blow of a pick. encourage them in their duties, and even to maintain The dislocations resulting from dykes are frequently The water of the coal-pits is frequently much purer the equable flow of their spirits. There is a class of very trifling, and appropriate and significant names, than might be imagined, although it usually holds some such persons, who have the ability and inclination to chiefly local, exist for these interruptions in proportion foreign ingredients in solution, such as sulphate of iron. do all that is good, but are liable to become dispirited to their extent. . “ Dykes” and “faults” are the terms It is a very remarkable fact that some of these waters if they do not now and then receive an encouraging used as expressive of the greater dislocations, and are salt, and, what is still more remarkable, salter word from those about them. For such persons, an “troubles,"*" hitches,” “ slips.” “ baulks,” &c., are the than sea-water. This is sensibly demonstrated, not occasional compliment is an aliment as necessary as technical denominations of the different degrees of only by the taste, but by the smarting occasioned upon daily bread. The world would to them be totally lesser, though often considerable, interruptions. The the falling of any of this water upon any part of the cheerless without it. Here it would evidently be as word'“ dyke” is radically the same as ditch, and is body where the skin is rubbed. At one pit, a feeder fatal to withhold praise altogether, as in other cases more correctly employed to signify the intrusion of was pumped not long since which was estimated to be it would be to give it.
some heterogeneous matter into the coal, sometimes three times salter than the sea. The abundant supply,
without an elevation or depression of the seams. The indeed, of these “brine springs” at three contiguous NORTHERN COLLIERIES.
expression "slip dyke” would be more properly used places, suggested the erection of salt works.
to designate such dykes as actually dislocate and FIRST ARTICLE. *
It has happened in sinking a shaft, where all had raise or lower the strata ; the terms dyke and fault proceeded favourably for many fathoms, that, on comThe coal-field of Northumberland and Durham com- appear to be frequently used as synonymous. These ing to the next fathom, the privacy of some too fertile mences near the mouth of the river Coquet on the disturbers of the order of coal-seams are very impor- feeder has been intruded upon ; and, to complete the north, and extends nearly to the Tees on the south. tant in two opposite points of view. They sometimes successful passage through that one enemy's domains, As far as Shields, the sea is its boundary on the east ; defeat the hopes of the capitalists who engage in sink a pumping engine has been necessary, which, upon from that point it leaves a margin of a few miles be- ing for coal, by throwing it down to an enormous advancing to the next fathom, could be dispensed tween it and the sea, and extends about ten miles depth ; and they also sometimes confirm those hopes, with. It is generally found essential to line the shafts; west from Newcastle. Its greatest length is fifty- by bringing within reach beds of coal which could not and formerly wooden casing, or “tubbing," as it is eight miles, and its greatest breadth about twenty- otherwise have been worked without a largely in called, was employed, but of late years a great and four. Geologically speaking, the coal measures of this creased expenditure. They act, moreover, as coffer necessary improvement has been introduced by the field repose upon the series of strata called millstone dams in stopping the passage of water, and they sepa- adoption of cast-iron tubbing. grit and shale, and in the southern portion, under the rate the coal into districts. They have been the pre The concentration of steam-power for pumping is magnesian limestone, the northernmost point of which servers of many valuable seams of coal, by depressing enormous at some of the pits; as at those of the new is near the mouth of the river Tyne. The beds of them below the action of those causes of waste which winning of the South Hetton Company at Datton, these measures dip towards the east, and crop out have worn away so many outcropping strata, and which is affirmed to be nearly the largest now existing towards the west, the deposit thus assuming the form denuded to so great an extent the surface of our in so small a space. During the progress of the atof a basin. In consequence of this disposition, the globe.
tempted winning of a pit at Haswell, through the sand coal is in some places near the surface, while in the The alteration of level occasioned by these intruders beneath the magnesian limestone, the engine-power neighbourhood of the centre of the basin it lies at is by no means the same at all points of intersection ; erected pumped feeders to the amount of 26,700 tons great depths. In one colliery, Jarrow, situated about
on the contrary, it is extremely irregular. Many of per diem. At Friar's Goose colliery, near Gateshead, five miles from the mouth of the river Tyne, one of them commence with a simple crack in the roof, and the feeders require three columns of pumps, each 164 the thickest and most valuable seams, called the High progressively increase until their “throw” amounts to inches in diameter, raising upwards of 1000 gallons Main, is 960 feet from the surface.
many fathoms, so that the producing cause appears per minute, or above 6000 tons per day, whilst the The beds of these coal-measures are eighty-two in to have acted upon particular points. In mining weight of coals drawn varies from 250 to 300 tons per number, and consist of alternations of coal, sandstone, occupations, the contact of a fault, or dyke, is care- day. Thus it will be seen, that it is not merely and slate clay, forming an aggregate thickness of 1620 fully avoided, as the penetration of this natural barrier during the sinking of the pits, but also very frequently feet. There are numerous obstacles in the way of a would often admit the rush of waters from the other during their future existence as working mines, that determination of the exact number of beds, or seams side, and cause the inundation of the mine. At Gos- pumping power must be employed. Upon the pulsaof coal, but it would seem that the number of work- forth colliery, two or three miles from Newcastle, tions and vibrations of those ever-beating engines able seams is seventeen ; and four or five seams are while standing nearly over the Ninety Fathom Dyke, depend the freedom of the mine and the security of the chief sources of the best coal. The actual quan- the manager informed me, that, about the year 1825, the miners. Engines of 200 horse-power are not tity of coal in the Newcastle coal-field does not amount
a winning was attempted on what turned out to be unusual for this purpose. At the Percy Main pits, to more than 4 per cent. of the whole mass of strata, the wet side of this great dyke, but was speedily aban- which produce that valuable coal known in the market of which mass various kinds of sandstone form about doned in consequence of the inundations. They then by the name of Bewicke and Crastor's, of the 586 36 per cent., and strata in which_siliceous earth pre- crossed the dyke, and sank the present shaft but a horse-power in operation for various purposes, 440 are dominates about 44 per cent. It is probable that few yards from the former one, and were compelled working for pumping, one of these engines rating at more accurate knowledge and investigation would to descend nearly 200 fathoms to reach the coal; which 250 horse-power. At the Eppleton Jane pit, of the establish the identity of several seams now differently they succeeded in doing, without any impediment Hetton Company likewise, the pumping engine is of denominated. After suitable deductions, it does not from water.
250 horse-power. At the new winnings at Seaton
To sink to the seams of coal is called “winning" a col- Delaval, too, are two or three very powerful engines, * The writer of these articles has to acknowledge himself.con- liery; and after having bored and satisfactorily ascer. of beautiful workmanship, which, as far as water is &c.. by J. R. Leifchild, Esq., lately presented to both Houses of tained the presence and depth of coal, the first object of concerned, are perhaps not likely to be " out of work"
the adventurers is so to dispose the shafts as to make the for some time to come.
In addition to steam-engines for pumping water, No mourning weeds, no sound of wail,
cused on account of the poet's occupations and defithere are those for “winding" or raising the coals,
Thy chainless spirit shall annoy;
cient education. The only thing that strikes us
Thy kindred shall thy absence hail which also serve for lowering or raising the men and
Even as thy coming gave them joy.
unfavourably on a perusal of the volume, is the reboys ; occasionally small steam-engines are erected
semblance of one or two of the pieces to well-known under ground for the working of inclined planes, and
No cloud on any brow shall rest,
productions of the British muse--a fact not very easily above ground, for saw-mills and other similar pur.
Of beings like thee, pure and blest,
accounted for, if it be true, as given out, that Reboul poses. At the collieries of the Great Hetton Coal
The latest hour shall be most fair."
does not read English. We must content ourselves Company there are eight shafts and eight winding
The angel shook his snowy wings,
with attempting a version of one further specimen :engines, four of which are each of 100 horse-power.
And through the fields of ether sped,
THE CASTLE OF THE MENDICANT. In the Hetton pit there is a subterranean steam-en Where heaven's eternal music rings
A dun and barten mount there is, upon whose sloping base gine in use of 60 horse-power, calculated to draw a
Mother, alas ! thy son is dead!
Lie heups of ruins over which thorns only meet the gaze, load of 7 tons 4 cwt. up a bank of 570 yards in length. Lamartine was so much moved by the beauty of
Where venomous adders ever creep, and vultures hunt for prey. At the Eppleton pit, which I descended, I was in
A shepherd told me of the place a story yesterday,
With so much carnestness ihat he compell'd me to believe; formed that they drew or raised, upon an average, 50 this poem as to seek out and celebrate the author.
And now, my friend, shall you from me the narrative roceive. score of tubs of coals per diem, or 333 tons 18 cwt., Other literary men of note paid him flattering attenthe winding engine being of 100 horse-power. At tions, and the press poured forth speculations on the
Within that castle lived of yore an avaricious lord,
Who to the beggar's pressing wants would no relief afford, the Ellemore pits, again, they raise 80 score of tubs, incongruity between the condition of the man and Refusing ev'n the petty boon of one poor crust of bread; each weighing 8 cwt. 1 qr. 14 lbs. per diem from each the strain of his verses. Some of the most eminent
And holy friars to those gates accursed never sped, of the two pits. At another pit it is reckoned that
To beg, for blessed charity, the smallest coin or mite,
Wherewith to aid the poor on whom had sunk misfortune's they raise in twenty-four hours 5040 corves up 100 poets of
France, including Chateaubriand, have since
blight. fathoms. The technical mode of estimating the power visited Reboul at his humble abode in Nimes, and or duty of these engines, is to calculate the number of Reboul has himself appeared as a lion in the Parisian
When the long watch of those within, upon tempestuous nights,
Brighten'd the cloister'd windows with the blaze of many pounds lifted one foot high by the expenditure of one salons. Still, he is quite unspoilt, and yet bakes as he lights, ton of coal in the fire-box of the engine ; and at Het has ever baked. The dramatist, Alexander Dumas,
If some poor wanderer from afar, attracted by the glare, ton, this number of pounds was found to be 40,642,560 has described, in a very interesting way, an interview
Hoped fondly from his panting toil to rest and cheer him there, lbs.
No sound came e'er in answer to his supplicating cry,
Save from the court-yard, where fierce ban-dogs howl'd incesThe steam-engines for coal-pits are generally manu- he had with the poet-baker at Nimes, in 1836 :
santly. factured at some of the large engine foundries in “My first thought on arriving at Nimes was-ReNewcastle and its neighbourhood. In a few instances, boul. A young man conducted me to his shop, at
One eve, a being wild and strange carne thither, it is said,
Adown whose drooping back a mass of trailing locks was spread, at the largest collieries, they are made on the premises the corner of a narrow street. I knew that I was to
Like torrent in the winter time from high Mont Blanc outof the company. In these cases there is a large estab
His forehead, ample, bald, and with full many a wrinkle scored, lishment of smiths, wrights, and carpenters kept up; meet one whom I may call a distinguished poet ; but
Appeared to bear on it the marks of age on age impress'd, and a large piece of ground, denominated a "raff I did not know whether I should find him simple and
Like those huge monuments that on the sands of Egypt rest. yard,” is appropriated to the different species of work natural, or the reverse. I went in. "Is it M. Re
“O, Castellane ! be merciful," the hoary wanderer said ; in operation. The raff-yards at Hetton and Seaton boul whom I have the honour of addressing ? Him "Open, for I am aged, and the night is one of dread. Dela val collieries are fitted up with every convenience self: A letter from M. Taylor.' 'Oh! how is he ?!
Bencath the weight of ice and snow the forest groans afar, for the manufacture and repair of all that is needed
And fiercely doth the north-wind breathe from out his rapid for these extensive concerns, and of themselves re- / • Perfectly well ;' and he began to read. In the meansemble engineering establishments. Such is the time, I examined him. He is a man from thirty to
The lake lies sunken gloomily in silence sad and deep,
And o'er my feeble body chill and mortal shiverings creep." amount of wear and tear constantly occurring at the thirty-seven years of age (in reality, he was then
A voice of thunder gave reply—" At such an hour as this, large pits, when in full work, that these raff-yards are forty], rather above the middle height, with a dark Who rashly dares to trouble thus my mansion's peacefulness? generally scenes of active business. African complexion, black shining hair, and beautiful
If from these castle-bounds afar thou be not quickly gone,
One of my serfs, with hammer arm'd, shall be with thee anon, white teeth. When he read my name, he looked at And I shall make him nail, because thou prowlest here so late, GOSSIP RESPECTING SELF-EDUCATED
me once more, and bowed a second time. This look Thy rascal carcass to the wall beside my castle-gate." POETS. was rapid and profound ; and I only then perceived
" Forgive me, if my prayer be rude," then answer'd the
unknown; that he had a splendid pair of eyes, with that oriental
“ But long ere I could reach the skirts of yonder nearest town, The French have latterly come to have their self-expression at once powerful and soft, made to express I should sustain a living death deep in the drifting snow, educated poets of humble life as well as ourselves. love and anger. "Sir,' said he, 'I have indeed many
And my beloved family no more my face should know.
Oh, grant me but a corner in your sheds till break of dayThe fame is great of both Reboul, of Nimes, who is a obligations to M. Taylor, and I don't know how I Or in your kennel!" "No! thou wouldst defile the place; baker, and of Jasmin, of Agen, who is a hair-dresser. shall ever acquit myself of them. I bowed in my turn.
Then all at once the mendicant erectly raised his head, It is remarkable of both of these men, and very much 'But will you permit me,' continued he, 'to act to
From which a beam of wrath divine was by reflection shed: to their credit-perhaps also saying something for the wards you with perfect frankness ?' 'I beg you will.'
• Thou deemest me a beggar--Ho! I AM A Mighty LORD!
And spite of these refusals, I WILL seat me at thy board." good sense of the people amongst whom they dwell— 1: Well
, you are coming to see the poet, and not the that they continue contentedly to pursue their re
" A mighty lord ! whence comes so vain a fantasy as this ? baker, are you not ? Know, then, that from five in
What thy estate ?" " THE EARTH !" “Thy name?" "My spective vocations, each in his original situation, as if from four in the afternoon till midnight, I am poet.
the morning to four in the afternoon, I am baker ; name MISFORTUNE is !" it were never presumed that their literary powers If you want small loaves, remain ; if you want poetry,
And as the screech-owl stretches out its dark and ominous
wings, formed any reason for their being drawn into a sphere come back at five.' While I promised to come back
That it may scatter far and wide the news of fatal things, of life for which, perhaps, they would be unfitted. at the appointed hour, some customers came in ; and
So with his hands the stranger spread abroad his ragged cloak,
And smote with iron foot the earth, which open'd with the Somewhat different are the ideas entertained of as he served them, he remarked to me, . You see we
stroke, humble men of genius in this country, where no could not have a moment.' A man then appeared
And yawningly a fearful cloud of mist gave forth to view,
Amid the gloomy whirls of which away the spirit flew. sooner does any thing unusual in letters appear than and said, Master, the oven is ready.' And the au
Not long thereafter did the lord of that cold lonely tower the question is asked, “What will be made by it ?thor of L'Ange et l'Enfant went away to work at
Behold one child dishonour'd fall within a villain's power Here, the literary talent takes its place amongst the his dough and his oven.
Again, he saw his only son in single combat fall;
When I returned at five, Reboul met me at a door And, passing by, the Jacquerie at length made end of all, ordinary money-making energies : there, it seems in a lane, adjacent to his shop, which was still open, By butchering each living thing within that castle found, more reserved as a grace to an ordinary and useful but confided to the care of others. He had changed
And razing all its lofty walls and turrets to the ground. course of existence. his working-clothes for a suit of great neatness but And ever since, before these dark memorials of the past,
Pale grows each cruel lord whene'er his eye is thither cast; Jean Reboul is the son of a poor man, and was rigid simplicity. Mounting a stair, and passing
Nor can the lapse of time efface the horrors of the scene; reared in poverty by a widowed mother. He enjoyed door of a room, where nothing, he said, but prayer and through amongst some sacks of wheat, we came to the
The shrinking kid declines to browse where these old walls
have been ; no regular education. The death of a wife, to whom poetry ever entered. It was a neat small apartment, And oft belated shepherds see shades bleeding, grim, and he had been only married a few months, first awak- furnished with a bed, a writing table, a few wicker gaunt,
And still they name the place the CASTLE OF THE Mer. ened poetry in his breast. His verses were all of a chairs, a crucifix, and a library consisting of the Bible tender and elevated cast, strikingly different from the and Corneille. I now see,' said I, that yours is a style of his ordinary conversation. He first drew the limbs work while the brain rested, and the limbs friend of"ours paid him a visit two years ago in the
Jasmin, the hair-dresser of Agen, resembles Reboul double life.' He explained that it was well to make in history, circumstances, and personal character. A public attention in 1828 by the publication, in the again rest while the brain worked. But what made Quotidienne (now the well-known Carlist newspaper), you a poet ?'. 'In one word, misfortune. From my him living contentedly, like Reboul, in his little shop,
course of a tour of the south of France, and found of a short piece entitled “ The Angel and the Child,” look round his neat and cheerful apartment, he saw although almost daily visited by distinguished persons, of which our esteemed contemporary, The Athenæum, that I was puzzled. Have you never,' said he, passed who are attracted by the fame of his works." "He is a
over a grave without knowing it?' A tear came into his simple and unpretending man of genius, respecting lately gave a translation so just and beautiful, that eye, and I held out my hand to him. “When a great himself too much, we presume, to be affected for the we gladly spare ourselves the trouble of attempting a sorrow befell me," he said, the commonplace though worse by the flatteries of those who are his superiors version ourselves :
well-meaning people around me endeavoured to give in worldly rank. Our friend purchased several volumes An angel form, with brow of light,
me consolation. This only turned the stream of grief of his poetry, and submitted them to us; but they Watch'd o'er a sleeping infant's dream,
back into my heart. I could find no vent for it but And gazed as though his visage bright in addressing God; and when I did this, I found that French, that we were bafiled in an attempt to read
are composed in a patois so different from classic He there beheld as in a stream.
I was creating poetry. Afterwards came the desola- them. We have been furnished, however, with a ver" Fair child, whose face is like to mine,
tion of the throne and the fall of political and reli-sion of one piece, which may serve as a specimen :Oh, come,” he said, “and fly with me;
gious principles, in which I found new matter for Come forth to happiness divine,
lamentation and for verse. So I may say that my
Now nature all lies free from care,
And all is calm beneath the heaven;
The hawk is calling through the air,
The owl succeeds the bird of even.
Alas! I drain the cup of woe,
I smile no more beneath the sky,
My friend is lost to me below
Now I must droop and die!
Oh! moon of love, droop down the sky,
Thou givest me too great a sorrow;
No gleams of peace from thy fair eye,
No calmness from thy look, I borrow.
Thy gentle smile, so pale and dim,
Recalls to me my misery;
Oh ! moon of love, far, far from him,
My friend, I die, I die!
The nightingale, the flowers, the air,
Announce no more that spring advances ;
THE MITHERLESS BAIRN.
His wee hackit heelies are hard as the airn,
That lo'e na' the locks o' the mitherless bairn !
That God strikes the blow for the mitherless bairn !
extract of a letter from Mr R. Chambers to Mr paying a short visit to the town of Bienne, we pro; wealth to purchase a small piece of ground and cot
The daisy shining soft and fair
superintend the collection and disposal of a fund for town there are some large beneficiary institutions, No more my heart of hearts entrances;
of Mrs Begg, and that already some hand handsomely endowed, which provide relief, on a judiNo more around me Earth has thrown
some tributes have been paid in, affording ground of cious scale, for those whom misfortune has reduced to Her chain-Death is iny reinedy;
hope that a sufficiency will be obtained to procure poverty. Both from the town and neighbourhood My friend has left me all alone I pine, I faint, I die! her a small annuity.
there are considerable experts of wine of a good quaOur readers will remember an article which ap
lity, printed cottons, and lace, all which, indepen
dently of the export of watches, yield considerable peared in the Journal last autumn, entitled, “ A
A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT.
profit, and help largely to support the population. Chapter in the Life of a Poor Man,” being, in fact, a passage in the actual history of William Thom, an
The political position of the canton of Neuchatel is Aberdeenshire weaver, who had attracted some notice From Friburg to Berne was a pleasant afternoon's somewhat peculiar. Although a member of the Swiss by a few poetical effusions of merit. Any who felt ride ; and procuring the proper signature to our pass- republican confederacy, it is at the same time a prointerested in the unfictitious sorrows of this worthy port, we set off in the morning for the most accessible vince under the sovereign rule and protection of individual, will be glad to learn that he is once more part of the French frontiers, by way of Neuchatel. the king of Prussia. Formerly, it was a kind of feusettled in comparative comfort at Inverury, in his ori- This is a route little pursued by tourists ; and, indeed, dal fief or principality belonging to the old French ginal profession as a country weaver.
From a batch such is the discomfort which one is apt to encounter family of Longueville, which, becoming extinet in of his late compositions which he has sent to us, we in travelling through France, that not one in a
1707, the king of Prussia, as nearest heir, was acselect the following as containing, we think, some fine thousand among English tourists in Switzerland re- knowledged as its superior, and his title was confirmed strokes of natural feeling.
turns home by any other path than that by which by the peace of Utrecht. Except for an interval, he reached it—the Rhine, a water-way ever open, during which it was absorbed and half ruined by commodious, and agreeable.
France under Napoleon, it has continued till the When a' ither bairnies are hush'd to their hame,
Having proceeded formerly from Berne to Morat, present day a principality of the king of Prussia, By aunty, or cousin, or frecky grand dame,
and thence to Neuchatel, we now, for the sake of who does not appear to have been a hard master. In Wha'stan's last an’lonely, an' naebody carin'?
variety, adopted the somewhat circuitous route by 1814, the reigning monarch gave it a constitutional "Tis the puir doited loonie--the mítherless bairn! The mitherless bairn gangs till his lane bed,
Aarberg and Bienne, which, however, affords little charter, reserving his own sovereignty and the priviNanc covers his cauld back, or haps his bare head,
scope for description. In this north-western quarter lege of appointing the governor, the mayor, and 45 out of Switzerland the scenery is on the whole dreary of the 75 members composing the grand adıninistraand tame ; but everywhere we see the same orderly
tive council. Under the title of civil list, he also Anenth his cauld brow sican dreams tremble there industry and neatness of arrangement which have draws £3862 per annum, or nearly a fourth part of O'hands that wont kindly to kaime his dark hair ! distinguished more highly favoured districts. As the revenue of the state ; but, as soine equivalent, the But mornin' brings clutches, a' reckless an' stern,
we approach the Jura, inuch of the land is observed trade of the canton with Prussia is placed upon a
to be little better than an extensive morass, spreading liberal footing. In all other respects than those menHer spirit that pass'd in yon hour of his birth,
between the lakes of Neuchatel and Bienne, which, in tioned the canton of Neuchatel is politically indepenStill watches his lone lorn wand'rings on earth,
former times, had evidently been in much closer dent; and since 1814, it has been a member of the Recording in heaven the blessings they earn, union. On the eastern shore of the Lake of Bienne,
Swiss confederacy.* Wha couthiliet deal wi' the mitherless bairn! a sheet of water ten or twelve miles in length, the
With a population of about 60,000 souls, this Oh! speak him na' harshly-he trembles the while,
land is well enclosed and sectioned into the usual small mountain principality may be said to form a little He bends to your bidding, and blesses your smile! In their dark hour o' anguish, the heartless shall learn agricultural possessions, while, on the western bank, world in itself—a perfect model of ingenious indus
the Jura rises from the edge of the water in one long try, prosperity, and good management. The greater Under this head, it may not be amiss to advert to
line of vine gardens, rising one above another to å part of the people are farmers of their own small a notice which has appeared with respect to a surviv. height of several hundred feet. Lately, a road has been possessions, tradesmen, and mechanics ; and here, ing sister of Burns. in of cut along the base of the mountain ; and by this, after as elsewhere in Switzerland, the grand object, ever
is the Thomas Carlyle--as follows:
onward to Neuchatel. No steamer is “ A sister of Burns, the last survivor of his father's
on the lake ; but a number of boats, impelled by oars tage. This universal taste scatters the population in family, still lives. She is now a widow at an advanced general intercourse. The principal feature
of interest consequently prevents that pernicious clustering to
or sails, seem to be employed both for fishing and all directions among the recesses of the Jura, and tonshire, with two unmarried daughters, who endea- tracted the chief attention of tourists—is the Isle of morals. With an unsophisticated state of society, in vour to support her by the exercise of their needles. I lately paid her a visit, and found her a decent St Pierre, or, as it is often named, Rousseau's Island, which all are equally concerned in preserving indivi
from having for a short time (1765) been a place of dual and general independence, the system of public physiognomy, and particularly his fine dark eyes. it with passionate fondness
. In the present day it is looking old person, with a good deal of the poet's retreat for that remarkable enthusiast, who clung to finance and administration is on a footing so primitive
as almost to appear Utopian. The state revenue, drawn twelve years old at the time when he died at Lochlea, prettily wooded, with some open and cultured fields, principally from rents of domains, sinall quit-rents, a broken-spirited man. She was one of the household and may be readily reached from a small port on the tithes, forests, post-office, and turnpikes,
amounted, in at Mossgiel during its occupancy by Robert and Gil- western shore of the lake, at which there appears to be 1834, to L.16,679. This mighty sum was distributed as bert Burns in succession, and she afterwards married
a respectable inn for the accommodation of visitants. follows:— Entire expenses of administration, L.1966 ; a person named Begg, who, for ten years, conducted
The town and Lake of Bienne, with the neighbour- pensions, L.224; justice, L.2394 ; war department, the business of Gilbert's farm of Ďunning, on the ing country, are within the canton of Berne, and L.202; religion, L.836; education, L.445; public works, estate of Sir Charles S. Monteith of Closeburn. Since consequently form part of German Switzerland; but roads, police, expenses of confederation, &c., L.2400 the death of her husband, her sons being all removed on reaching the southern extremity of the lake, we
and civil list of the king of Prussia, as already stated, from her, and unable to assist her, she has been de- pass into the canton, or, properly speaking, the prin L.3862 ; leaving a surplus in the exchequer of L.3500 pendent on her two daughters, who, though active cipality of Neuchatel, whose population uses the Some things here are very deserving of remark. The
French tongue. and most respectable young women, are barely able
A few miles farther on we arrive people are governed without any thing like personal to keep house for themselves and their venerable
at the town of Neuchatel, which occupies a pleasant taxation; and supposing them to directly contribute parent. In short, the Sister of Burns has fallen in the
situation on a flattish piece of ground at the foot of what forms the state revenue, the exaction would course of Providence into poverty, and her last years
the Jura, and close upon the lake to which it has im- amount to no more than 4s. 8d. for each individual are threatened with those distresses, the dread of which parted its name. Basking in the full blaze of the yearly, or about a tenth of the rate per head in Great is the theme of so many of her brother's verses.
summer sun, with such a lake in front, and backed Britain. Justice is administered on a scale of rational much affected on hearing her say that, having in her by the lofty range of the Jura, extending a length economy which would astonish the frequenters of earliest years been witness of the troubles which lowered of at least forty miles in one uninterrupted series of Westminister Hall. A judge of the higher class is over her father's house, having afterwards partaken of vineyards, Neuchatel enjoys one of the finest situa. paid at the rate of 1s. 10d. for a four hours' sitting ; a the hardships at Mossgiel, having passed through a
tions in Switzerland, and is the capital of one of its summons is 7d.; and the expense of a litigation is some
most thriving districts—albeit that that district is, thing under 6s. So far is the cheap and quick admilong married life in circumstances at no time easy: to a certain extent, under the thraldom of a monarchy. nistration of justice from promoting litigiousness, that as if she had walked side by side with Grief from her On entering the town, which numbers about 6000 in the judges are often seen sitting unoccupied for a very childhood. One only alleviation of her fate has habitants, we perceive a striking difference of appear whole day. There are no stamps or patents.t Pro
ance from other Swiss cities. Many of the houses are sprung from the fame of her brother, in the shape of
testant and Roman Catholic clergy are alike paid by the inost trifling annual pittance from the Scottish large and princely in aspect, and the French style of the state, the highest salary of a clergyman being Exchequer. She was lately a candidate for the benefit architecture prevails throughout. Near the lake there L.121 ; but they also depend on voluntary contribuof a fund called the Craig-Crook Mortification (Anglice, of fine whitish sandstone ; and here is situated the tion is well attended to, and the state of public
are some handsome new streets, the structures being tions, and some have small glebes. Religious instrucendowment]; but her application, for the mean time, failed. I am satisfied, from
rigid'inquiries, that Mrs college, an educational institution of no mean reputa- morals is considered to be good. Begg and her two daughters are perfectly worthy per- / tion, and to which M. Agassis, the zealous geological secular, education, it is obligatory on parents to send sons, and that complaint would never have been heard inquirer, is attached as a professor. The Hotel de their children to school
, and no person of middle age from them, if the most self-devoting industry on the Ville, the seat of the civic and cantonal government, is found who cannot both read and write.
Let us now take a view of the country, and the part of the young women were sufficient to keep their is a large and handsome edifice in the Grecian style, mother in comfort. The public is doubtless much
at a short distance from this newer portion of the nature of the people's employment and mode of living. taxed; but, on the other hand, some claims are sacred. less interesting than those in the higher part of the town. The structures in this quarter, however, are Having sufficiently satisfied our curiosity in the town,
we set off on our journey towards the French frontier, The poems of Burns daily give delight to thousands, city. On a prominent knoll, which commands an ex- by a route, which conducted us in a southerly slantand will continue to do so for ages. His productions tensive view of the lake and the town beneath, is ing direction, up the face of the Jura, and through a wax yearly in public esteem, as time passes on and brings no second Burns. The
name of the Ayrshire perched the ancient castle, the acropolis to which the bard has even been associated by some living writers population, in days of feudal strife, crowded for prowith those of which England is proudest. While he strength, including a chapel, and the whole is sur
It consists of a few old edifices of great vourable to the Prussian connexion, their political principles
* I believe that the majority of the inhabitants are not fa. soars so high, to think of one so near and dear to him rounded with a wall. One of the houses is the resi- doubt that, but for the military power of Prussia. ready to be
having a strong leaning to republicanism ; and there is little as a sister sinking into penury-hearing from a cold ingle-cheek the echoes of a nation's acclaim at every
dence of the governor of the province. We saw only called in if necessary, the canton would speedily dismonarchise mention of the name she bears-she, the last of the
one or two soldiers, and the general air of the place itself an effort at rebellion in 1830-31, was quelled by General real members of that group which, as a poetical pic happy idea that the art military was in small request it does seem hard that the fourth part of all the taxes raised
was that of desertion, impressing the visiter with the community. With whatever hereditary claims on the territory, ture, must live for ever in the Cotter's Saturday in the district. Night-in short, the SISTER OF BURNS--to think of
should be handed over to a foreign prince. all this, I say, is more than I can suppose the public the main thoroughfares, approached nearer in point of Dr Bowring to Parliament, le observes, with respect to the
The meaner parts of the town of Neuchatel, behind + I gather the greater part of these particulars from the Report patiently enduring, burdened as it is. Our readers will be glad to learn, that in conseof squalor and dinginess to what one is accustomed to
suitors is small, the cost to the public is no less so. In the disquence of this notice, Sir Charles S. Monteath, Mr thing we had seen in Switzerland ; but we observed no
in some of the large cities in Great Britain than any trict of Valangin, consisting of 6104 souls, the expenses for the Carlyle, and Mr John Wilson, 41 Regent Square, tokens of destitution, and I understand that the num
administration of civil justice for 1834 amounted to 1121 francs of
Neuchatel, or less than five-sixths of a farthing per individual; London, have undertaken to act as a committee to ber of paupers is decreasing with the increasing trade yet there are 122 4 reiside ships of minore reumatico, committed
of the city and canton, and as time effaces the social
canes per annum, the average cost of which to the suitors was 47
gorge among the mountains named the Val Travers. exercised no other trade or profession than those which | Genevese watches will be insured to be delivered in It was a fine autumnal morning as our vehicle slowly ascended this romantic path ; and at every bend round being principally employed in cultivating an ungrate- 10 per cent. As formerly noticed, it is calculated that the vine-clad knolls, we had an opportunity of catch- ful and unproductive soil. Our mountaineers were ing glimpses of the Lake of Neuchatel and a great frequently compelled, before the introduction of the into England. And why do they come by this indi
10,000 watches are thus smuggled yearly from Geneva extent of country beyond, the horizon being bounded above-named industry, to seek for work during the rect and discreditable channel ? Because England has by the rugged line of the Bernese alps burying their white tops in a huge canopy of clouds. At length, ing country. They rejoined their families in the which, being 15 per cent. above the smuggler's pre
summer months among the people of the surround- hitherto imposed a custom-house duty of 25 per cent., the sight of this glorious scene was shut out ; we had winter, being enabled, from their economical savings, mium of insurance, has been paid only to a very taken the last look of Switzerland, and our attention the moderateness of their wants, and the produce limited extent. The late proposition in Parliament to was called to the picturesque valley into which we had of a small portion of land, to supply themselves with reduce the duty to 10 per cent., will in all likelihood now advanced. The Val Travers, as it opened upon us, came with that the entire liberty which they enjoyed, united to ends of increasing the manufacture, benefiting the
the necessaries of life. And it must be remarked, also, open the trade to fair dealers, and serve the important unexpected beauty and grandeur ; so much so, that it the absence of any description of taxation, greatly revenue, and serving the British public with an article was agreed to be one of the finest sights we had seen tended to relieve the hardships of their lot. in our excursion. Let the reader conceive a green
which they require. The question here naturally
For a number of years, those who betook themselves arises, How far the increased introduction of Swiss and romantic valley, winding miles in length, and of to watchmaking were placed at a great disadvantage, watches will injure the home trade? As is well known, great depth, between the bounding mountain steeps ; | by having to import their tools ; but these they in while on its northern side, and at least five hundred time learned to make and greatly to improve upon.
the Swiss watches are small, delicate, and not by any
means durable, and they are purchased only from feet from the bottom, a road, which we are now tra In proportion as men embraced the profession of their great neatness and cheapness. They will, thereversing, is cut out of the side of the hill. On the one watchmaking, the art became more developed ; several fore, as long as they continue of that character, not hand are lofty crags, occasionally overhanging the returned from Paris, where they had gone to perfect supersede the manufacture and use of the higher class pathway, as if about to fall; and on the other is a themselves, and contributed by their knowledge to of English watches. Should the fabricants of Geneva profound valley, down to the bottom of which we look advance the general skill. It is not more than eighty and Neuchatel, however, commence the making of a with dizzy and wondering eyes. The lower parts of or ninety years since a few merchants began to collect substantial species of goods at a correspondingly cheap the vale are green, and beautifully dotted with trees, together small parcels of watches, in order to sell them rate, there can be little doubt of their soon having the bushes, and here and there a cottage or hamlet with in foreign markets. The success which attended these whole watchmaking trade to themselves. They are its mill, turned by a brook, which is seen sparkling in speculations induced and encouraged the population untaxcd, live in a simple manner, possess a finer taste, the sun's rays, Goats are feeding in patches on the of these countries to devote themselves still more to and from their temperateness of living, have a greater hill sides, tended by children from the hamlet ; and the production of articles of ready sale ; so much so, delicacy of hand than the generality of English workin a slip of meadow, by the side of the stream, the that very nearly the whole population has, with a very men; all which advantages give them a pre-eminence scene is enlivened by a cow or a few sheep. The day few exceptions, embraced the watchmaking trade. in a craft depending much on personal qualifications. is fine, and all is impressed with the tranquillity of Meanwhile the population has increased threefold, in All this time our caleche has been moving over a Nature in her mildest mood.
dependently of the great number of workmen who are high moorish district, passing every few minutes the We are now in the heart of the mountains, but established in almost all the towns of Europe, in the cottage of a watchmaker, whose nimble fingers are still rising in our course. The scene is gradually United States of America, and even in the East Indies seen plying his vocation. Jean, our driver, suddenly shifting as it were in a panorama. The country is be- and China. It is from this period, also, that dates the draws up; we are in front of the French custom-house, coming more bleak and pastoral. Still there is no lack change which has taken place in the country of Neu- and what takes place will furnish material for the of inhabitants. Detached cottages are seen at lesser chatel, where, notwithstanding the barrenness of the beginning of our next article. or greater distances on the hill sides, and we pass soil and the severity of the climate, beautiful and wellthrough a small town with its inn, church, and other built villages are everywhere to be seen, connected by tokens of local consequence. At this town we stopped easy communications, together with a very consider
AN EAST INDIAN ANECDOTE. to dine and rest the horses, afterwards proceeding able and industrious population, in the enjoyment, if It may be necessary to inform the reader that the with all the leisure which the nature of the ascent not of great fortunes, at least of a happy and easy drink called today, one of the strongest and most indemanded. Passing the village of Motiers Travers independence.
toxicating liquors in India, consists of the sap of the on our left, in the bottom of the vale, we make a Thus, in defiance of the difficulties which it was cocoa-tree. The process of obtaining the liquor is curve to the right, into what may be called an upper necessary to overcome, in spite of the obstacles which simple. The toddy-collector leaves his dwelling valley with still more precipitous sides, and in which were opposed to the introduction of the produce of after sunset ; and seeking the thickest cocoa woods, the road at one part goes through a tunnel in the enor our industry into other countries, and not withstanding climbs up, and cuts notches in the bark of such trees mous overhanging rock. Deep in the bottom of the the prohibitions which enfeebled its development, it as seem likely to yield the most juice. Under each defile, quietly reposes the ancient village of St Sul- has at length attained a prodigious extension. It may notch he attixes a small jar to receive the liquid, which, pice ; and a little way above it is a very picturesque be further remarked, that, from the upper valleys of if drank instantly, is one of the mildest beverages mill-house, whose wheel is observed to be turned by a Neuchatel, where it originated, it has spread from east possible, but if left during a few days to ferment in stream issuing at a few yards' distance from the side to west into the valleys of the Jura, and into the the sun, becomes the most ardent spirit known. of the mountain.
cantons of Berne and Vaud ; and, further, that all An incident connected with a person who followed On emerging from the summit of the pass above these populations form at present a single and united the profession of a toddy.collector happened whilst St Sulpice, the highest point of the road is attained, manufactory, whose centre and principal focus is in I was in the country, the details of which are and we are now in an open tract of country brown the mountains of Neuchatel.
shortly as follows :- The individual in question had and dismal, but still, as before, in the possession of a If our watches have attained a certain reputation left his cottage, which was situated in a cinnamon people who live, thrive, and are apparently happy, at of superiority, it is in a great measure to be attributed grove in the island of Ceylon, little more than half an the height of three thousand feet above the level of to the independence of our workmen, and to the adhour, when a native pedlar called there to exhibit his the sea, and in the midst of what seems little better vantage which they have derived from a careful and tempting wares, and to solicit a lodging for the night, than a wilderness. Throughout our whole day's studied execution of the several articles intrusted to The collector's wife, whose whole soul was wrapped journey to this point, we saw on all sides evidences of their respective and particular talents. Indeed, on up in the idea of finery, was delighted to let him in. that untiring industry which is the most remarkable the one hand, each artisan working at home, and for Her baugles and juiys, which had hitherto been the feature in the character of the Swiss. At nearly whomsoever pays him the best price, and, on the other, pride of her life, were now eclipsed, and she sighed every window in the humble cots by the wayside, or the merchant having an interest to encourage by with envy as she saw all her former notions of granin the villages, are observed men working at their paying the best prices to those who furnish him with deur fade before the contents of the wanderer's pack. trade of watchmaking, or women busily engaged in the best materials and work, a kind of emulation is Not daring, however, to purchase without her husthe making of lace. In fact, we are now in the chief naturally excited among the workmen to obtain a band's approval, she was glad to allow the pedlar to watchmaking district of Neuchatel, which extends preference and an advantage. Perhaps, also, the spirit rest himself on the bench beneath the door-porchfrom Verviers to Locle and La Chaux de Fonds—all which is generally diffused among the inhabitants of an ornament common to Ceylon cottages—in the hope places near the frontier of France, and therefore very mountainous countries, added to the habits and cus- of her husband's return by the morning. well suited, in point of situation, for supplying mate- toms of our workmen, who are at the same time landed After depositing his valuable knapsack beneath his rials for an active contraband traffic.
proprietors, have not a little contributed to the deve- head, the pedlar fell into a slumber, from which he The existence of a great manufacture in cottages lopment of talent amongst our population. Living was aroused by hearing a door creak--his sleep being, scattered over fifty miles of mountains, covered four simply, and in the bosom of their families, occupied like that of most of his tribe, so light, that the slightest or five months of the year with snows so deep as to im- entirely (with the exception of a few agricultural noise was calculated to disturb it. On opening his eyes, prison the inhabitants in their dwellings, is, I consider, cases) in the labours of their art, and not being ex he beheld his hostess with her head protruding through a singular fact in social economy, and well worthy of posed to those temptations which exist in corrupt large the cottage door, attentively watching her guest. On our notice. M. Houriet, of Locle, presented Dr Bow- societies, it is very natural that they should be more seeing him stir, she made a short apology for thus awakring with an interesting account of the birth and assiduous and more desirous of attaining perfection ing him, and retired. The itinerant vender took it into growth of the watchmaking trade, from which I draw in their art; and the more so still, as they derive a his head, however, that all was not right ; so, after a the following passages :
greater benefit from it ; their reputation and their in- short time, he again affected to sleep, indulging in one “As early as the seventeenth century, some work- terest are equally engaged.”
of those dozes when outward objects are visible, though men had constructed wooden clocks with weights, It is very pleasing to know that the watchmaking indistinctly seen, by the weary watcher. In about an after the model of the parish clock, which was placed trade of Neuchatel continues to prosper, in spite of hour after, by the strong shadow afforded from an in the church of Locle in the year 1630. But no all the restrictions of surrounding states. In 1834, unclouded moon, the poor man saw some object apidea had as yet been conceived of making clocks with the number of watches manufactured annually in the proaching cautiously from the opposite direction. He springs. It was only about the latter end of the same canton was about 120,000, of which 35,000 were of supposed it to be the collector returning to his home; century that an inhabitant of these mountains, having gold, and the rest of silver. When to this we add but, on looking up, to his dismay he perceived returned from a long voyage, brought back with him the watches manufactured in the adjoining canton of the woman stealthily drawing near with a long a watch, an object which was till that time unknown Geneva, an idea may be obtained of the magnitude cocoa-knife in her hand. In an instant he was on in the country. Being obliged to have his watch of this flourishing branch of trade. It is extremely his legs to confront her. She appeared somewhat repaired, he carried it to a mechanic named Richard, probable that not fewer than 300,000 watches are startled, but declared that she had been in the woods who had the reputation of being a skilful workman. exported annually from Geneva and Neuchatel. The seeking her husband, and that the knife she held was
Richard succeeded in repairing the watch; and hav- greater proport are necessarily smuggled out of for the purpose of cutting down some jars left by him ing attentively examined its mechanism, conceived the country, in consequence of the heavy duties or in the vicinity. The suspecting pedlar much doubted the idea of constructing a similar article. By dint of positive prohibitions of France, Austria, and other her story, but affecting to believe it, he saw her labour and perseverance he at length succeeded, though nations, through which they must go to find an quietly re-enter the cottage and shut the door. No pot without having had great difficulties to surmount; outlet to America, England, Turkey, and countries sooner was she within, however, than the traveller and he was compelled to construct all the different still more remote. All attempts to stop this under instantly climbed a tall tree, and took up his abode movements of the watch, and even to manufacture hand traffic have signally failed. At one time, when amidst the branches. Here he had been seated for some ill-finished tools in order to assist him in his the French authorities fell upon the plan of seizing some time, when he beheld the toddy-collector calmly labours. When this undertaking was completed, it every Genevese watch they found in the shops of Paris, returning home laden with his utensils, which he
carried in a small sack over his shoulder. Worn created a great sensation in the country, and excited the manufacturers at Geneva simply eluded their rathe emulation of several men of genius to imitate the pacity by smuggling a part of each watch to Paris to out apparently with his exertions, and tempted by example of their fellow citizen ; and thus, very fortu- be stamped, then smuggling them back again, and the beauty of the night, when he came to his door nately, watchmaking was gradually introduced among finally smuggling them a second time into France he paused for a short time ; and sitting down on the our mountains, the inhabitants of which had hitherto I completed and in a condition for sale. At present, I benchi lately occupied by the native merchant, he
BY A LADY.
REMOVAL TO MELBOURNE.
seemed to fall into a train of deep thought. Presently, The woman, without receiving any previous notice, had lost all the sheep—he could tell nothing about as if disinclined to enter the house, he made a sort of was seized, and the knife suddenly produced before them. Every one, except Agnes and I, went out pillow of his well-filled bag, and covering his face, as her. The sight at once turned the current of her feel immediately to look for them in different directions. is usual throughout the East, with his cummerbund, ings : she fell upon her knees ; confessed the whole ; It came on a dreadful night of rain, thunder, and he fell fast asleep.
declaring that the temptation had been too great for lightning, and was very dark ; the men returned one In less than another hour the door of the cottage her, but that God had determined she should not by one, and no sheep were to be seen. I was sitting was noiselessly opened, and the woman again appeared. escape, since he had brought up the knife from the in, no very comfortable state in the hut, and taking She approached her husband, listened for a few mo bottom of a tank into which she had thrown it; and a look at the door every five minutes, although it was ments to ascertain that he slept, and then stepping all she now prayed for was instant death.
so dark that I could not see a yard before me. Little back a pace, raised her arm, and with her whole force, Two days afterwards she underwent her just sen Agnes was in bed, as I thought fast asleep, but she at one blow drove the knife right through her tence, while the poor pedlar was released from his called to me, and said, if I would allow her to stand at wretched partner's heart. For an instant only she ignominious confinement.
the window she would tell me when they were coming. seemed shocked at what she had done; then recovering
I put her on a seat at the window, where she had not herself, she attempted to withdraw the knife, which,
stood long, listening very attentively, till she told me having gone completely through her victim, had NOTES OF A RESIDENCE IN THE BUSH.
they would soon be here, for she heard them far away. buried its sharp and fine point in the bench. After a
I thought she was talking nonsense, as I could hear severe exertion, she succeeded, but not without break
nothing, neither could any of the men; but Agnes
ANECDOTES OF THE COUNTRY-MODE OF LIVINGing off the point of the cocoa-splitter, which remained
still said she heard them coming, and she was right, fixed in the wood. The woman's anxiety now to ob
for in a few minutes my husband sent to tell me they tain the spoil, for which she had thus periled soul and We were visited one day by a very large party of were all safe in the yards. He and one of the men body, appeared almost infernal. She seemed to grin natives ; I am sure there were a hundred of them. I had found them in a hollow about a mile from home in ecstacy at the deed she had done, and pant for the happened to be alone in the hut. Some of the men
but our next alarm was for James, who was still absent. ill-gotten gain she had thus made her own. Exultingly she dragged what she conceived to be the pack came into it and examined all they saw very atten. My husband fired off several pistols
, that he might
know all were found if he was still looking for them; of jewels from beneath the head of the corpse, when tively, especially the pictures we had hanging on the and we put a light in the window
to guide him. He the movement drew from her victim's face the cloth walls. They were much taken with a likeness of my came in about twelve o'clock, but would scarcely own that had covered it, and the savage murderess beheld mother, and laughed heartily at some black profiles ; he had lost himself, although we knew very well he the well-known lineaments of her own husband's coun- they said they were “ black leubras.” I told them to had; however, we all enjoyed our supper and a good tenance. She gave a sudden scream, and threw down leave the hut, but they would not; and one, a very blazing log fire, and were very thankful we had the the sack ; then, with frantic cries, rushed from the tall fellow, took the liberty of sitting down beside sheep safe. cottage, and sought a shelter in the neighbouring me on the sofa. woods.
We often killed kangaroos ; they are very palatable, I did not much like being alone
particularly the which makes excellent soup, The horror-stricken witness feared to move. If he with these gentry, so I rose to go to the door to call much like what is called hare soup. My friend descended, he might meet the murderess, who would
some one, but my tall friend took hold of my arm and Willy Hamilton declared he never ate better soup at doubtless revenge her dreadful mistake on the un
made me sit down again ; on which I cried out suffi- any dinner party at home. I sometimes made cakes, armed man, or, by possibility, he might become mixed ciently loud to alarm my husband, who was building which were much admired by the visiters at our up in the business ; so he determined not to leave his a hut behind. He came in and turned them all out, hut; and it was a fixed rule always to have a large place of refuge until morning;. He therefore kept his but they still kept hanging about the station for some pudding on Sunday, as we were sure to have some of position, staring, in spite of himself, at the dreadful time. My husband took his gun and shot some white
our neighbours with us to dinner. We had an old object beneath him, in a sort of waking dream, till he parrots, which were flying in an immense flock over
man who made so good a pudding that we had it
every Sunday for six months; and many came to eat panied by several persons (evidently officers of justice), head. Some of the natives ran and picked them up; of this mess, the fame of which had spread far and approach the hut.
and thrust them into some hot ashes, where they had wide. We often gave the receipt for it, but no one They examined the corpse ; they searched the house, lighted a fire, without even taking the feathers off. made it so well as old Williams. and began to take down their notes in writing, when They were soon cooked in this way, and I believe ate My husband or my brother read a sermon on Sunthe pedlar, anxious to seek their protection, by a sud- very well. I had often seen black Tom cook parrots day; indeed, we kept up the form of a religious service den stir of the branches succeeded in attracting their and cockatoos in this manner. The natives will eat as near as we could. Generally all our servants joined attention. any thing that comes in their way. I saw a woman
us; but if they did not feel inclined of themselves to In an instant a gun was pointed at him, and he was commanded to descend. The poor man willingly then begin to eat it, giving her baby a piece of We had many letters from home, which were a great take a piece of sheep-skin, singe the wool off, and come, it was in vain to try to persuade them. I have
sometimes seen our neighbours' servants come in also. clambered down, when, to his horror and he was instantly seized and bound, at the instigation it also ; much to my surprise, they actually ate a large pleasure to us. We had also received a large box, of the woman, who, with frantic' gestures, declared piece of the skin. All these natives left us before sun containing a spinning-wheel and many very useful that she recognised in him the assassin of her adored down, and went to Mr Baillie's, where they were things, from my mother. She would, certainly, have husband.
always allowed to remain as long as they chose. He been pleased had she seen us unpacking it, and exaThe wretched prisoner was immediately brought to was too kind to them, and gave them great encourage- mining every thing in it ; it made me think of days trial, and, despite of his declarations of innocence, con ment in his own hut. We always expected to hear gone by, when we were children at the opening of a demned to deathi, the woman's statement being clear of some mischief there. At last one of them threw New-Year's box. I am sure we were quite as happy. and probable. She affirmed that the pedlar had come a spear at the groom, which stuck in his arm ; it gave We received soon after this a box of preserves, and to their house and sought shelter for the night--a him great pain, and he went to the settlement to con some other articles, from the same kind hand, aud boon her husband had unhesitatingly accorded ; that sult a doctor. In many instances, the undue severities they were highly valued, as we could get nothing of the two men had a severe dispute about the price of of the settlers lead to reprisals from the natives, who that kind at Port Philip. Little or no fruit was yet some trinkets, when her husband, in a fit of passion, are apt to inflict vengeance in a very indiscriminate to be met with in the colony ; but in our garden we thrust the itinerant merchant out of his house, who, manner.
had some young gooseberry, currant, and raspberry it seemed, had not gone far, for soon after, the toddy At this time I had a pleasant visit from Mrs Gibson bushes, from which we hoped soon to have some procollector feeling warın and uncomfortable from the and her brother; they were on their way to a new duce. We had also a row or two of strawberry plants. debate he had held and the liquor he had drunk, had station about fifteen miles beyond us. I was de. On New-Year's Day 1841, some of our neighbours gone to lie down. A slight noise, however, awoke his lighted to have the privilege of talking to a lady came to dine with us. I was very anxious to have wife, who distinctly saw the wicked traveller stab her again ; it was more than a year since I had seen one; either a wild goose or turkey, but none of the shephusband through the heart ; that she then, without and my little girl had not words to express her delight herds could see one to shoot for me, so I had deteruttering any cry, from fear of instant annihilation and astonishment. The sight of a “white leubra,” as mined to have a parrot-pie instead ; but on Newherself, stole from the back-door, and rushed into the she called her, seemed for a time to take away her Year's morning, while we were at breakfast, two town for assistance, and had happily succeeded in speech; but she soon began to question her very turkeys were seen flying over our hut, one of which arresting the assassin before he had time to escape. closely as to where she came from, and whether there was immediately brought down. I must describe our
This account seemed so plausible, that scarcely any were any more like her in her country. I am sure New-Year's dinner, to show what good things we one in the court doubted the prisoner's guilt. In the Agnes dreamed of her all night, for she often spoke of had in the bush. We had kangaroo soup, roasted first place, what motive could the wretched widow, the beautiful lady in her sleep, and the moment she turkey well stuffed, a boiled leg of mutton, a parrotwho was well known to have been warmly attached was dressed in the morning, she went to look again pie, potatoes, and green peas ; next, a plum-pudding to her husband, have to invent a falsehood ? at her. Mrs Gibson was much amused at Agnes's and strawberry-tart, with plenty of cream. We word, a thousand arguments were brought forward to admiration. I did all I could to persuade her to dined at two o'clock, a late dinner for us, as twelve is satisfy the jury of the guilt of the unhappy prisoner. remain some time with us, and allow her brother to the general hour; and at supper or tea, we had cur
Only one person present doubted the whole story; go on, and have some place comfortable for her to go rant-bun, and a large bowl of curds and cream. We and that, fortunately for the innocent man, was the to, but she would not. Some time after this, Mrs spent a very happy day, although it was exceedingly enlightened judge before whom the case was tried. Gibson's courage was well tried. She had occasion to hot; the thermometer was nearly 100 in the shade. He felt assured of the truth of the defendant's state- go a journey on horseback, and not knowing the road, Our friends rode home to their own stations that ment, yet he had no means of upsetting the strong she took a native with her as guide. When they were evening ; it is very pleasant riding at night after a testimony of the woman. The jury returned a ver at some distance from home, the man wanted her to hot day. dict of "guilty” without a moment's hesitation ; but dismount, and, indeed, tried to pull her off her horse. All the stations near us commenced their poultrystill the judge was not satisfied, and afterwards de He did not know she had a pistol with her; but she yards from our stock. We got 12s. and 155. a-pair clared, that one of the most awful moments of his life pulled one out and presented it at him, telling him for hens, which was the Melbourne price. Had we was that when he found himself compelled to pass that unless he walked on before the horse and showed been nearer town, we might have made a great deal sentence of death on the unhappy prisoner. Ile, how, her the proper way to go, she would shoot him. Had by our poultry. Eggs are also very dear in town, ever, had one power, that of reprieve, and he exercised she appeared at all afraid, most likely he would have sometimes 8s. and 10s. a dozen. I was much annoyed it, by delaying the execution of the culprit for fifteen killed her ; but her courage saved her, and she arrived by the hawks carrying off the young chickens. We days. safely at her journey's end.
lost a great many in this way, as we had not a proper The very instant that he left the court, a sudden When all the gentlemen were from home, one of house to put them into ; but the gentlemen always thought struck him. He directly sent for the bench the shepherds came to my hut door to tell me that promised to build one when they had nothing of more on which the murder was said to have taken place, in counting over his sheep, as they came out of the importance to do. They rather slighted the poultry, had it closely examined, and discovered that the point yard, he missed twenty-five. He was a stupid old although they were very glad to get the eggs to break of a sharp instrument was lodged in it. This he had man; so I asked the stock-keeper to get his horse fast, as well as a nice fat fowl to dinner. We never carefully extracted, and found it to be the end of a and ride over the run; but he proposed driving the fed the poultry; they picked up for themselves, excocoa-nut knife, which of course further strengthened sheep over the same ground they had gone the precept when I now and then threw them a little corn the judge's suspicions, and he sent a fresh reprieve vious day, in hope that the lost ones might join the to keep them about the huts. They roosted on a to the prisoner. He then caused the road leading flock. This was done ; and when the sheep were again large tree behind our hut. I was astonished to see from the cottage of the deceased to the town to be put into the yard, they were found all right. We how soon the hen begins to teach her chickens to closely searched and ransacked. His efforts happily had many alarms about losing sheep; but, except the roost. I have seen one take her chickens up to roost succeeded. Close to the edge of a half-dried tank, time they were taken by the natives, we always found in the tree when they were little bigger than sparthe weapon was found : it was rusted with blood, had them. One night it had become dark, and there was rows, and scarcely a feather in their wings. I used lost its point, and bore on its handle the name of the no appearance of the sheep coming home. At last often to admire the hen's patience in teaching her murdered man.
the shepherd arrived in a great fright, and said he family to mount the tree; it took her a long time