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him any course of action. But even his children know of building a strong wall was as follows. After bring. The result of this addition of the quick-lime, sur that he may nevertheless be made to do anything, or ing the work to the surface, they had recourse to prising as at first sight it may seem, is notwithstandtake a particular view of any question, if only the idea planks made to fit into each other, successively ex ing so easily explained and accounted for, that it seems be made to appear as proceeding from or somehow tending them in length and in height, and binding the somewhat strange that M. Loriot should be the first originating in himself. The gratification thus given to opposite ones at such a distance from each other, as to to suspect and discover it. In fact, what can be his predominant feeling awakens benevolence, and form the thickness of the wall, and, withal, with suffi- plainer, than that the sudden setting and consolidating he becomes as pliable as could be wished. Some do cient strength not to deviate ever so little from the of these two substances, when thus united, must necesnot scruple to apply direct flattery, for the purpose perpendicular on either side. It was thus that they sarily arise from the quick-lime being carried, by a of softening down impracticability, and it is of course formed, as it were in a mould, these enormously massy perfect amalgamation or admixture, into the utmost generally successful, for where there is so high an in- walls, composed, as we have already seen, of every recesses of the slaked lime, saturating itself with the herent opinion of self, it only looks natural that the species of pebbles, and other small stones, which our moisture it there meets with, and thereby effecting opinion of others should be high also. And thus the modern architects know not what to do with for want that instantaneous and absolute desiccation, which, gods have sometimes presented to them the most of a mortar qualified to constitute with them one solid because we are so well accustomed to it, we so little ludicrous of all spectacles—an obstinate, self-willed compact body.

mind in the use of gypses and plasters. man, thinking himself a ruler and lawgiver amongst We may easily conceive at what a great rate even But the most valuable of all the extraordinary quahis fellow-creatures, strutting, chin-elated, genial to a small number of hands, if well supplied with mate- lities in this composition is its not being liable to any others only through the gratification of his own selfish rials, must have been able by this means to push cracks or flaws, when the ingredients are in the exact feelings, all the time that two or three persons whom on any building work. For this purpose, nothing proportion they ought to be, or to give way, in any he thinks insignificant are deliberately playing upon more was requisite than to have in readiness a suffi- sense, either by shrinking or swelling, or, in short, him, and secretly enjoying the intense ridiculousness cient number of troughs full of the proper mortar ever undergo the least alteration from that state in to which they are subjecting him.

-throw in, at random, the pebbles and other small which its fixing left it—a phenomenon we may The handles of peculiar people are the most liable stones and then saturate the latter with the former account for on the same principles with the foregoing. to remark; but the fact is, there is more or less of a -all which might be perfectly well done, by the Whereas mortar, or common cement, never dries but handle attached to all persons, good, bad, and indiffe- smallest degree of attention to get as much stones as by the evaporation of its moisture, M. Loriot's cement rent. The predominant feeling, taste, or prejudice, possible into the cassoon, and then make the mortar becomes perfectly solid without the least evaporation ; usually presents the handle by which individuals of fill up all the interstices between them; and with its moisture continues in and makes part of it ; thé all kinds are to be managed. It is a large part of the regard to vaulting and arching, they had their centres desiccation is altogether intestine ; and as the mass business of Tact in society, to discover this leading as well as the moderns. When they had an aqueduct continues the same, and, moreover, the component tendency, and to appeal to it. A thorough courtier to build, then, as the interior surfaces of its channel parts of it are brought so near each other, it is imposlooks for the handle of the epicure in the region of required a coating of that peculiar cement, which is sible any cracks or flaws should ensue ; for cracks and the stomach : in the amateur, author, draughtsman, still observable in them to a certain thickness, and flaws can arise from nothing but the evaporation of a and musician, he knows that it lies in the praise of which we have already taken notice of, they began by superfluous moisture, and the approach to each other his productions and performances : with the invidious, laying it on the planks of the interior casing and the of those parts which that moisture had till then kept ho takes care to express dislike of, and detraction centres, previous to the throwing in of the coarser asunder. M. Loriot had likewise the satisfaction to from, a sufficiency of estimable people : with the materials; and thus formed a crust which effectually see that his composition was endued with the surprisbigot, he is loud in condemning opposite systems. kept the water from any stones of a spongy nature ing quality of being and continuing impenetrable to With a lady, to admire her clergyman or her child that would otherwise have imbibed it. Without this water. For this purpose he made new trials; he dren, and be sceptical about the complexion of the method of casing, they would never have been able to formed with his cement some vessels of a form proper lady who lives opposite, is a pretty sure card. Be it construct either walls of so prodigious a thickness or to hold water, weighed them, filled them, and after remarked that, in all human beings, whatever other channels of so surprising a thinness. In a word, the the water had stood in them a considerable time, bandles there may be, there is sure to be one in that effect of this cement must have been very quick, to emptied them, when, on weighing them a second time, part of the cerebral system where lie the organs of coalesce and set as readily as our gypses and plasters, he could not find that they weighed either more or self-esteem and love of approbation. Offend these and directly resist the pressure of the other materials less than before he filled them. faculties, however slightly, and the favour of that laid upon it. In fact, the least shrinking or swelling After several repetitions of these trials, and always person is utterly lost : soothe them, however slightly, must have proved fatal to works of this kind, not one with the same success, it now only remained to find and it is retained and increased. Half the bad blood of whose parts, perhaps, yielded a solid and horizontal out what effects, if any, time, or rather the vicissitudes which exists in the world is produced by trivial basis to any other.

of the weather, might have on this mixture of the two offences to these feelings. It is consonant with the This fixedness and perseverance within the same kinds of lime, as well as on several other compositions, strictest morals, at least to be cautious against giving volume constitute another important quality, which in which M. Loriot had made it up, with other mateunnecessary offence to these feelings; nor would a the slenderest observation must convince us the Ro- rials, fit for mortar; but, after making for this purpose benevolent code condemn a little effort being made man cement is endued with; and being the last as yet a great number of new experiments, all the conclusion now and then to gratify them, since the gratification discovered, we may proceed to sum up all the excel- he could draw from them was, that not only the oritends to sweeten men so much towards each other. lencies peculiar to this extraordinary composition. In ginal mixture of the two kinds of lime, but every other

As to the genuine men of handles, the peculiar peo- the first place, then, this cement, from a liquid, turned to which he added it, instead of giving way to the ple, the difficult and impracticable men, of course it very quickly to a solid state, and hardened with time greatest dryness or moisture, heat or cold, in the air, is impossible to commend the practice of seeking such as plaster does. Secondly, it acquired a surprising increased with age in solidity and compactness." means of managing them. A bold honesty rather degree of tenacity, and laid such hold of the smallest The mixing, then, of powdered quick-lime with any dictates that we should go the straight way to work, stones it came in contact with, as scarce to bear being kind of mortar or cement made with slaked lime, was although with little hope of a successful result. But parted from them. Thirdly, it was impenetrable to the operation which M. Loriot conceived to be necesmen are only men, and it will probably continue water. Fourthly, it continued always of the same sary for the production of a building-cement such as till the end of the world to be more or less the volume or bulk, without either swelling or shrinking the Romans used, and possessing all the advantages penalty imposed on a troublesome and disagreeable One would imagine, that so many extraordinary quali- which architects could desire. It is of course not to temper, that it shall expose its owner to be a standing ties should have secured this composition from the be expected from us that we should positively assert subject of petty deception to his fellow-creatures. If effects of violence and time, and kept the secret of it the practical utility of M. Loriot's discovery. From any one who can make himself conscious of being so alive to the latest posterity. Yet, it may safely be his account, however, the cement referred to appears characterised, dislikes the penalty, let him endeavour affirmed, that this valuable secret has been lost, to all to possess the following qualities. The close union to remedy the fault.

intents and purposes; and that, notwithstanding the formed by the two kinds of lime employed, enables continued and hearty sighs and researches of all them also to seize and consolidate all small bodies that

Europe, nothing like it till now has been discovered may be mixed with them. Sand and brick-dust are ANCIENT CEMENTS.*

by the moderns. For if in some parts the buildings the bodies most suitable for this purpose... In forming

are more solid than others, it is merely owing to the NOTWITHSTANDING the great degree of perfection to

a cement, therefore, M. Loriot desires builders to take which the useful arts have attained within these few extraordinary goodness of the lime, sand, and other “any quantity of very fine brick-dust, and twice as

materials employed in them. centuries, it cannot be denied that there are some

much fine river sand, the former well sifted, and the things in which we were excelled by the ancients, and its properties, became a subject of deep attention to slaked lime to form, with water, an amalgam as usual,

The re-discovery of this cement, so marvellous in latter well screened, with a sufficient quantity of old in none more so than the art of building. The moderns are adepts in the process of cutting, fashioning, of France. This gentleman, in the course of the in- lime equal to one-fourth of the brick-dust and sand

Monsieur Loriot, Master of Mechanics to the King but withal wet enough to slake a quantity of quickand laying blocks of stone one above another ; and in quiries carried on by him in the year 1770, had the taken

together ; then add the quick-lime in powder to these respects, therefore, there is nothing to complain satisfaction to discover a kind of mystery in nature, the brick-dust and sand ; incorporate them well

, with. of. The point upon which they are deficient is giving which threw light on the subject under his considera- out loss of time, and use them directly, as the least their buildings an imperishable degree of strength by

tion. ineans of proper cements or mortar. In modern house- time slaked, out of a pit covered with boards, and å

“ Taking some lime, which had been a long delay may render the use of them defective or impos

sible. A coating of this mixture applied to the bottom building, the making of mortar appears always to be considerable quantity of earth over them again, by and sides of a canal basin, or any other kind of builda second-rate consideration, being, as usually committed to the hands of the least instructed freshness, be made two parts of it, and plashed and

We believe, which means the lime had preserved all its original ing which is to contain or stand over water, has the class of labourers.

most extraordinary effects, though laid on ever so thin. The Romans-following, as may be presumed, the beat them both perfectly well. He then put one of what wonders, therefore, might we not expect from practice of the Greeks, with some improvements of

these parts, without any addition, into a glazed earthen this cement, were such buildings to be originally contheir own-were particularly careful in the making pot, and in that condition set it to dry of itself in the structed with it. of their mortar, which they applied in a very peculiar evaporation, it cracked and split in every direction, the same materials, in a quantity equal to that of the

The dust of charcoal incorporates very kindly with manner. On examination, some of their most stupen: parted from the sides of the pot, and crumbled into a quick-lime ; and though the lead colour, which arises dous architectural structures are found to exhibit thousand pieces, all of them equally friable with the from this addition, makes no essential part of the enormous masses of masonry, consisting of pebbles and bits of lime dried up by the sun, which we usually mixture, it may still have its uses on certain occasions. other small stones, apparently thrown together at random, and bound by a kind of mortar which has been thin the other part, M. Loriot just added to it one-third of tained in the charcoal ; since this substance cannot

meet on the banks of our lime pits. With regard to But it is otherwise with regard to the bitumen conenough to penetrate the smallest interstices, and thus its quantity of powdered quick-lime, and then had the but form a rampart extraordinary against the water, form a solid whole throughout. The strength of this whole well kneaded, in order to make the two kinds mortar, after a lapse of two thousand years, is surpris- of lime perfectly incorporate with each other. This with which it is made up.

no way inferior to that afforded by the other materials been found, and bids defiance equally to the erosions earthen pot, as he had done the first; when, behold, to the common mortar, consisting of slaked lime and

If all we want is a strong coating, then, by adding of time and the heaviest blows of the hammer. An. it soon began to heat, and in the space of a few sand, one-fourth its quantity of quick-lime, we shall other of the extraordinary qualities of this cement minutes acquired a degree of consistence equal to that have one which, within four-and-twenty hours, acconsists in its impenetrability to water. The aque- of the best plaster when prepared in the best manner. quires a greater degree of consistence than the com, duets of the Romans prove this most satisfactorily; In short, it set and consolidated almost as readily as being coated with no resinous substance whatever, but merely with this same cement, made a little thinner metals in fusion when taken from the fire, and turned lime, one of sifted plaster, and a fourth of quick-lime, on the inside than on the outside. The Roman mode completely within a very small space of time, and that, mon mortar, afford a coating no less fit for the inside

out a kind of instantaneous lapidification, having dried made up into an amalgam of the consistence of com* We gather the materials of this article from a paper in the

too, without the least crack or tiaw. Nay, it adhered of buildings than tenacious and incapable of cracking Annual Register for the year 1774, itself founded on an essay by

80 strongly to the sides of the pot, as not to be parted or flawing.” Monsieur Loriot, Master of Mechanics to the King of France. from them without breaking it.

Dry freestone, or other stones, pounded and sifted,

It may

divine ;


is full.

are also pointed out by M. Loriot as likely to be useful mon Prayer, probably expresses the limited view of saint of nailsmiths ; St Sebastian became that of piningredients in such cements, and he advises small the subject which is entertained in the Church of Eng: makers, from his having been stuck over with arrows; quantities of these to be made at a time when they land, when he says, that “ the feast of St Michael and and St Anthony necessarily was adopted by swineare to be used. The directions of M. Loriot are All Angels is observed that the people may know what herds, in consequence of the legend about his pigs. It so pointed that they may be given here, even at the blessings are derived from the ministry of angels.” is not easy, however, to see how St Nicholas came to risk of repeating part of what has been said. There Amongst Catholics, Michael, or, as he has been named, be the presiding genius of parish-clerks, or how the are two ways of making the cement. “The first is, St Michael, is invoked as "a most glorious and war innocent and useful fraternity of potters obtained so to mix up very well, with water and slaked lime, the like prince," " chief officer of paradise," " captain of alarming a saint as “St Gore with a pot in his hand, sand, brick-dust, or other materials you choose to em- God's hosts," " receiver of souls," " the vanquisher of and the devil on his shoulder.” ploy for the purpose, to the consistence already pre-evil spirits,” and “the admirable general."

The medicating saints are enumerated in the folscribed, that is, somewhat thinner than usual, then also be remarked, that in the Sarum missal, there is lowing passage from a whimsical satire of the sixteenth sprinkle into the mixture your powdered quick-lime; a mass to St Raphael, as the protector of pilgrims and century :and, lastly, incorporate the whole well together to be travellers, and a skilful worker with medicine ; like to every saint they also do his office here assign, used directly. The second way is to mix up the sand, wise an office for the continual intercession of St And fourteen do they couut, of whom thou may'st have aid brick-dust, and powdered quick-lime by themselves in Gabriel and all the heavenly militia. Protestant the proportion prescribed ; then adding to them, just writers trace a connexion between the ancient notion among the which Our Lady still doth hold the chiefest place, as fast as you want your cement, the proper quantity of tutelar genii and the Catholic doctrine respecting St Barbara Smks that none without the body of Christ doth die; of slaked lime and water, work the whole up well with angels, the one being, they say, engrafted on the other. St Cath'rine favours learned men and gives them wisdom high, the trowel . In this way, the sand, brick-dust, and As to the soundness of this view

we do not give any And teacheth to resolve the doubts, and always giveth aid powdered quick-lime, may be kept ready made up in opinion, but it seems certain that in early ages there Unto the scolding sophister, to inake his reason staid.

St Apolin the rotten teeth doth help when sore they ache; sacks, large enough to fill one or two troughs, so as was a prevalent notion that the affairs of men were

bleared scarce to leave the workmen any room to fail in the much under the direction of angels, good and bad, and Rovke healeth scubs and mangins, with pocks, and scurs, and operation, let them be ever so ignorant or careless men prayed to angels both to obtain good and to avoid about it."

evil. Every human being was supposed to have one and cooleth raging carbuncles, and boils, and botches all. The permanency and stability given to buildings by of these spiritual existences watching over him, aim

There is a saint, whose name in verse cannot declared be,* this cement were proved in France by many trials; ing at his good, and ready to hear his call when he St Valentine, beside, to such as do his power despise

He serves against the plague and cach infective malady. and if the facts be as stated, the attention of archi- was in affliction. And however we may judge this The falling sickness sends, and helps the man that to him cries, tects may yet be most usefully directed to this subject to be a delusion, we must certainly own that, as esta The raging mind of furious folk doth Vilus pacify, In the case of vaults, arches, aqueducts, canal basins, blishing a connexion between the children of earth And doth restore them to their wit, being called on speedily, and other structures peculiarly exposed to water and and something above and beyond the earth, as leading And Laurence from the back and from the shoulder sickness puts.

Erasmus heals the colic and the griping of the guts, weather, the cement of M. Loriot appears to have men's minds away from the grossness of worldly pur Blaise drives away the quinsy quite with water sanctified, proved most effective. “Every kind of subterraneous suits and feelings into the regions of the beautiful From every Christian creature here, and every beast beside. construction, whether civil or military, may, by means and the infinite, it is one of by no means the worst

But Leonard of the prisoners doth the bands asunder pull, of this cement, be rendered not only habitable, but tendency. We must be prepared, however, to find

And breaks the prison doors and chains, wherewith his church even infinitely more healthy than they generally are, simplicity amidst all the more aspiring ideas of our

The quartan ague, and the rest doth Pernel take away, and that, too, though surrounded by water ; so that forefathors.

And John preserves the worshippers from prison every day; our cellars, especially those under court-yards, and In time, the sainted spirits of pious persons came Which force to Bennet eke they give, that help enough may be, other open places, as likewise our necessaries—all now to stand in the place of the generally nameless By saints in every place. What dost thou omitted sce? so subject, the former to be deluged on every rising of angels, and each place and person had one of these

From dreadful unprovided death doth Mark deliver his,

Who of more force than death himself, and more of value is. the neighbouring rivers, &c., the latter to convey in- as a special guardian and protector. Not only had St Anne gives wealth and living great to such as love her most, fection to a great distance by their contents oozing each country its particular patron or tutelar saint, and is a perfect finder out of things that have been lost; through the adjacent earth-all these works, I say, but there was one for almost every town and church. Which virtue likewise they ascribe unto another man, may be easily cured by means of this cement, equally Even trades and corporations had their special saints.

St Vincent ; what he is I cannot tell, nor whence he came. proper to keep water in or out. In short, what is it we And there was one more specially to be invoked for Against reproach and infamy on Susan do they call;

Romanus driveth sprites away and wicked devils all. may not make of, or with the assistance of, this proteus each particular ail that could afflict humanity. It The bishop Wolfgang heals the gout, St Wendlin keeps the sheep, matter, and that at one cast! Watering-troughs, will be curious here to descend a little into particulars. With shepherds and the oxen fat, as he was wont to keep. ponds for stable and poultry yards, reservoirs against First, as to countries, England had St George ; Scot

The bristled hoge doth Anthony preserve and cherish well,

Who in his lifetime always did in woods and forests dwell. fire, wholesome cisterns in fortified and other places, land, St Andrew ; Ireland, St Patrick; Wales, St

St Gertrude rids the house of mice, and killeth all the rats; where no running or well water is to be bad.” David ; France, St Dennis and (in a less degree) St And like doth Bishop Hullrick with his two earth-passing cats.

The cement described may be also effectively cast, Michael; Spain, St James (Jago); Portugal, St Se St Gregory looks to little boys, to teach their a, b, c, according to the accounts given, into pilasters and the bastian ; Italy, St Anthony ; Sardinia, St Mary ;

And makes them for to love their books, and scholars good to be. like for the support of buildings. There are few archi- Switzerland, St Gall and the Virgin Mary; Germany, That beaten are with boisterous waves, and toss'u in dreadful seas.

and tectural purposes, indeed, to which a little ingenuity St Martin, St Boniface, and St George Cataphractus ; | Great

Christopher that painted is with body big and tall, may not apply it. The end which it seemingly an- Hungary, St Mary of Aquisgrana and St Lewis ; Bo Doth even the same, who doth preserve and keep his servants all swers is one of the most important kind. The stability hemia, St Winceslaus ; Austria, St Colman and St From fearful terrors of the night, and makes them well to rest, nre matters which cannot be overrated ; and a com- Denmark, St Anscharius and St Canute; Sweden, But when it burns, in armour all doth Florian quench the same. and durability of our habitations and public erections Leopold; Flanders, St Peter; Holland, St Mary; By whom they also all their life with diverse joys are blest. parison of old with modern buildings in these parti- St Anscharius, St Eric, and St John ; Norway, St culars throws a reproach on the increased resources Olaus and St Anscharius ; Poland, St Stanislaus and

It will be learned, with some surprise, that these of our times, which it would be well to wipe away. St Hederiga ; Prussia, St Andrew and St Albert; notions of presiding angels and saints are what have

Russia, St Nicholas, St Mary, and St Andrew. Then led to the custom of choosing magistracies on the 29th

as to cities, Edinburgh had St Giles, Aberdeen St Ni- of September. The history of the middle ages is full POPULAR ENGLISH FESTIVALS. cholas, and Glasgow St Mungo ; Oxford had St Frides- of curious illogical relations, and this is one of them. MICHAELMAS DAY

wide ; Paris, St Genevieve; Rome, St Peter and St Local rulers were esteemed as in some respects analo

Paul ; Venice, St Mark; Naples, St Januarius and gous to tutelar angels, in as far as they presided over MICHAELMAS DAY, the 29th of September, properly St Thomas Aquinas ; Lisbon, St Vincent ; Brussels, and protected the people. It was therefore thought named the day of St Michael and all Angels, is a St Mary and St Gudula ; Vienna, St Stephen ; Co- proper to choose them on the day of St Michael and great festival of the Church of Rome, and also ob- logne, the three kings, with St Ursula with the eleven All Angels. The idea must have been extensively preserved as a feast by the Church of England. In Eng- thousand virgins.

valent, for the custom of electing magistrates on this land, it is one of the four quarterly terms, or quarter St Agatha presides over nurses. St Catherine and day is very extensive. days, on which rents are paid, and in that and other St Gregory are the patrons of literati and studious September, when by custom (right divine divisions of the United Kingdom, as well as perhaps persons ; St Catherine also presides over the arts. Getse are ordained to bleed at Michael's shrinein other countries, it is the day on which burgal ma- St Christopher and St Nicholas preside over mariners. says Churchill. This is also an ancient practice, and gistracies and councils are re-elected. The only St Cecilia is the patroness of musicians. St Cosmas still generally kept up, as the appearance of the stageother remarkable thing connected with the day is a and St Damian are the patrons of physicians and sur coaches on their way to large towns at this season of widely prevalent custom of marking it with a goose at geons, also of philosophers. St Dismas and St Nicho- the year amply testifies. In Blounts Tenures, it is dinner.

las preside over thieves ; St Eustace and St Hubert noted in the tenth year of Edward IV., that John de Michael is regarded in the Christian world as the over hunters ; St Felicitas over young children. St la Hay was bound to pay to William Barnaby, lord chief of angels, or archangel. His history is obscure. Julian is thé patron of pilgrims. St Leonard and of Lastres, in the county of Hereford, for a parcel of In Scripture he is mentioned five times, and always St Barbara protect captives. St Luke is the patron the demesne lands, one goose fit for the lord's dinner, on in a warlike character; namely, thrice by Daniel as of painters.' St Martin and St Urban preside over the feast of St Michael the archangel. Queen Elizafighting for the Jewish church against Persia ; once tipsy people, to save them from falling into the kennel. beth is said to have been eating ber Michaelmas goose by St Jude as fighting with the devil about the body Fools have a tutelar saint in St Mathurin, archers when she received the joyful tidings of the defeat of of Moses ; and once by St John as fighting at the head in St Sebastian, divines in St Thomas, and lovers in the Spanish Armada. "The custom appears to have of his angelic troops against the dragon and his host. St Valentine. St Thomas Becket presided over blind originated in a practice among the rural tenantry of Probably on the hint thus given by St John, the men, eunuchs, and sinners, St Winifred over virgins, bringing a good stubble goose at Michaelmas to the Romish church taught at an early period that Michael and St Yves over lawyers and civilians. St Æthelbert landlord, when paying their rent, with a view to was employed, in eommand of the loyal angels of God, and St Ælian were invoked against thieves.

making him lenient. In the poems of George Gasto overthrow and consign to the pit of perdition Luci Generally, the connexion of these saints with the coigne, 1575, is the following passage :fer and his rebellious associates-a legend which was classes of persons enumerated took its rise in some at length embalmed in the sublimest poetry by Mil- incident of their lives, and in the manner of their They bring some fowl at Midsummer, a dish of fish in Lent,

And when the tenants come to pay their quarter's rent, ton. Sometimes Michael is represented as the sole deaths ; for instance, Śt Nicholas was once in danger At Christmas a capon, at Michaclmus a gouse, archangel, sometimes as only the head of a fraternity at sea, and St Sebastian was killed by arrows. Pro And somewhat else at New Year's tide, for fear their lease fly of archangels, which includes likewise Gabriel, Rá- bably, for like reasons, St Agatha presided over val. phael, and some others. He is usually represented in leys, St Anne over riches, St Barbara over hills, and we may suppose that the selection of a goose for a coat armour, with a glory round his head, and a dart si Florian over fire ; while St Silvester protected present to the landlord at Michaelmas would be ruled in his hand, trampling on the fallen Lucifer. He has wood, St Urban wine and vineyards, and St Osyth by the bird being then at its perfection, in consequence even been furnished, like the human warriors of the was invoked by women to guard their keys, and st of the benefit derived from stubble' feeding. It is middle ages, with a heraldic ensign, namely, a banner Anne as the restorer of lost things; Generally, the easy to see how a general custom of having a goose for hanging from a cross. We obtain a curious idea of patron saints of trades were, on similar grounds, per- dinner on Michaelmas day might arise from the multhe religious notions of those ages, when we learn that sons who had themselves exercised them, or were sup- titude of these presents, as landlords would of course, the red velvet-covered buckler worn by. Michael in his posed to have done so. Thus, St Joseph naturally in most cases, have a few to spare for their friends. war with Lucifer used to be shown in a church in presided over carpenters, St Peter over fishmongers, | It seems at length to have become a superstition, that Normandy down to 1607, when the bishop of Avran- and St Crispin over shoemakers. St Arnold was the eating of goose at Michaelmas insured easy circumches at length forbade its being any longer exhi-patron of millers, St Clement of tanners, St Eloy of stances for the ensuing year. In the British bited.

smiths, St Goodman of tailors, St Florian of mercers, Apollo," 1709, the following piece of dialogue occurs : Angels are held by the Church of Ronce as capable St John Port-Latin of booksellers, St Louis of periof interceding for men ; wherefore it is that prayers wig-makers, St Severus of fullers, St Wilfred of bakers,

Q:-Yet my wife would persuade me (as I am a sinner)

To have a fat goose on St Michael for dinner : are addressed to them and a festival appointed in their St William of hatters, and St Windeline of shepherds. honour. Wheatley, an expositor of the Book of Com- | The name of St Cloud obviously made him the patron

* Probably St Roque.


And then all the year round, I pray you would mind it, under the direction of the late Sirdar Shir Dil Khan. Pashto, which he was continually urging me to speak. I shall not want money-oh, grant I may find it !

Its situation is convenient, as it is on no side com. During this time, my worthy host, the master of tho Now several there are that believe this is true,

manded ; and it has five gates, one of which opening tent, encouraged and abetted my despoiler, and reYet the reason of this is desired from you.

upon the id-gah, and leading into the citadel, is gene- ceived some pais which were in a pocket of my upper 4.-We think you're so far from the having of more, That the price of the goose you have less than before :

rally closed up. The citadel occupies the north-west garment. The clothes were detained by the other The custom came up from the tenants presenting

quarter of the city, and is said to have been built by ruffian, who, after a while, conducted me to his tent, Their landlords with geese, to incline their relenting Shahzada Kamran, who formerly held the government one much smaller, and of mean appearance. He bado On following payments.

of the city and country. The principal bazaars are me sit down by the fire and warm myself, and in due

wide and spacious, and had originally avenues of trees time spread fests on the ground by the fireside, which MASSON ON AFFGHANISTAN.*

and canals leading along either side of them, but they were to serve me for a bed, and informed me I might

are not now well preserved. No city can be better repose myself ; cautioning me, as I understood him, BEFORE us lies another new work on the subject of supplied with water, which is brought by large canals not to attempt to escape during the night, for I should Affghanistan and the adjacent countries on the Indus, from the Arghassan river, and then distributed by so be certainly seized by the dogs. I stretched myself so lately treated of by the ill-fated Burnes, and by many minor ones, that there is perhaps no house on my sorrowful bed, and ruminated on my deplorable other writers of whose works we have taken notice. which has not one of them passing through its yard. situation-consoling myself, however, that it did not The subject is one, however, of which the interest is There are also many wells, and the

water is considered appear the intention of my friend to despoil me of my not easily exhausted under present circumstances, and preferable to that of the canals as a beverage.

perjamas, in the web-cord of which was my small stock the three volumes now in our hands contain, besides, Of the area included within the city walls, so much of money ; and calculating on certainly reaching the a very considerable amount of fresh matter. The is spread over with ruinous and deserted houses, ex- kafila the next day, if allowed to depart in the mornwriter, Mr Masson, spent a number of years in the tensive courts, gardens, and ranges of stabling, that it ing, and if I should be able to repair my deficiency of districts which he describes, in what capacity we can- is probable there are not above five thousand inhabited raiment. Still my situation was sufficiently wretched; not precisely learn from the preface. The writer, we houses, by which estimate the population would be yet, from the fatigue of the day's march, the power may observe by the way, shows himself in his least from twenty-five to thirty thousand souls. Notwith of a naturally strong constitution, and the presence of agreeable phase in his prefatory address, and throws standing, the city is acknowledged to be the takht, or the fire, I shortly fell asleep, and enjoyed uninterout remarks, defensive and offensive, upon the late metropolis, of the Duranis. The public mosques, and rupted repose during the night, awaking only in the managers of British affairs on the Indus, which the other buildings, are by no means handsome, arising morning when kicked by my host, who called me a general reader must deem out of place, to say the principally, perhaps, from a deficiency of materials; kafr, or infidel, for not rising to say prayers, which he least of it, in such a work.

and this evil has been detrimental to the substantial presently repeated in the very clothes of which he Nevertheless, as has been said, there is good matter erection of the city generally, the houses being almost had despoiled me the preceding evening. I was now in the volumes of Mr Masson. He starts at once, and universally built of unburnt bricks, and covered with led into the tent in which I had been originally enterwithout circumlocution, with an account of his stay in domes, there being no fuel to burn bricks, and no tained, where several other men were assembled. Here Bahawalpur, a town on the Sutlege, one of the chief timber to make flat roofs.

I was beat with sticks and cords, and had some large feeders of the Indus. It is impossible, however, for The residences of the sirdars, while large and suffi- stones thrown at me. I made no doubt but it was us to follow him in his movements from place to place, ciently commodious, display no architectural taste or intended to destroy me; I therefore collected my or to discriminate between the numerous khans and beauty; the balconies of their balla khanas, or upper spirits, and resolved to meet my fate with firmness, rajahs with whom he comes in contact. We must rooms, are, indeed, curiously carved in wood, and con and betray no marks of weakness or dejection. merely take snatches here and there ; and, firstly, we stitute their chief ornamental appendages. The arg, While a stone is within reach, the Patans of these may give a portrait of one of the small despots of these or citadel, being constructed of kiln-burnt bricks, ap- countries are never at a loss for offensive weapons. I regions, who, when not engaged in war, live solely for pears to advantage from the exterior, and the entrance have seen severe wounds inflicted by these missiles. sensual pleasure. “The Nawab Shir Mahomed Khan is somewhat imposing: Within, the palaces of the They assert that Cain killed Abel with stones, which is about thirty-five years of age. Although believed former kings, with their painted chambers, are deso- appears to have established a precedent for their use. to feel keenly his dependent situation on the Sikhs, late, or occupied by the menials of the present rulers, One of the camel-drivers told me to mount 2 camel, his chagrin does not prevent him from being corpu- who seem studiously to avoid residing in them. but I could not catch one. I learned that they were lent, as becomes a nawab, or from amusing himself The bazaars are well supplied with good and cheap proceeding to Robat. They were those I had passed with many childish diversions. Indeed, it seems the provisions, and with a great abundance of excellent the day before. We marched four or five koss, when principal business of those about him to find subjects fruits. Kabal is famed for the quantity, Kandahar they halted, and told me that in the evening they fit to excite his mirth, and to enable him to while away for the quality, of its fruits ; yet I found them so rea should go to Robat. I would have continued my his existence. Ilence, he entertains fiddlers, wrestlers, sonable that a maund, or several English pounds of journey, but, alas ! I was to encounter robbery anew. keepers of bears and of monkeys, and often enjoys the grapes, was purchased for a pais ; and figs, plums, My clothing and money were now taken, and I was sight of ponies fighting in his flower-gardens. When apricots, peaches, pears, melons, and almonds, were entirely stripped. In return for my perjamas, they one of the animals gives the other a good shake of the nearly as cheap. The pomegranates of Kandahar are, gave me a ragged pair, which did not cover my knees'; neck, the nawab claps his hands, and cries, “Wah! perhaps, unsurpassed, and justly enjoy a great repute my shoes alone escaped, being either too large or too wah!' His attendants do the same, and the apartments in these countries. Meat, while very good, is not small for their several feet. I did not part with my resound with clappings of hands and shouts of. Wah! perhaps so cheap as at Kabal, but roghan, so generally money or apparel very willingly or very peaceably; wah ! It is wonderful how all seem to delight in the used, and bread, are cheaper, as are curds and eggs; of in fact, one of the ruffians unsheathed his sword, but sport. He is fond of hunting, and is very dexterous the latter ten or twelve being sold for one pais. It is the others forbade violence. I appealed to them as with his bow. He also prides himself on his strength, a great blessing to these countries that subsistence is men and Mussulmans, but this only excited their and, it is asserted, can break the horns of an ox from so cheap, and that the poorer classes are, consequently, laughter.” Mr Masson, however, got into the train the living animal. Overlooking these foibles, he is little affected by the struggles for political ascendancy of a kafila or travelling band, and, though suffering kind and good-natured, and pays great attention to amongst the chiefs. Fuel is one of the articles consi- greatly, contrived to creep along with them till ho his mother.”

dered dear, and is brought from a distance.” If we obtained help and means. Such despot chiefs, taking all they can from those persist in forcing a settlement to the west of the around them, encourage their subjects in like manner Indus, Kandabar must become one of the main stato plunder whenever a chance occurs. Our author tions for the maintenance of our power and the pro

GLASGOW WATER-WORKS. walked alone on many of his journeys, and on one oc secution of our industry. “ Kandahar,” says our WHILE on a late visit to Glasgow, we were much casion, he tells us, came up to two mere youths. But author, “contains, in its fertility and resources, all the pleased with the manner in which that large and young as they were, the spirit of the region was in elements of a powerful state.” But, as hinted in a populous city was supplied with water. Although ihem. “ I made towards them; and as I neared them, late article in this Journal, everything seems to indi. situated on the margin of a fine flowing river, the they were evidently surprised both at my presence cate, that the wisest plan for Britain to pursue at pre: town, in comparatively recent times, was exceedingly and appearance. The younger lad was inclined to run, sent would be to keep to the east of the Indus, and ill supplied with that necessary article. A century but the elder staid him, and awaited me. I could not settle her power safely there. very well understand them, but saw that my colour Another specimen of the mode of treating unpro- ago, or less, the only water procurable in the streets was the cause of terror. The younger seemed to think tected travellers on the Indus, may interest the reader was from wells, a few of which still exist, and are held I was a der, and would by no means approach me, more than any descriptive extract. Shortly after in peculiar favour by some of the citizens. The first although assured by the other that I was only a man, leaving Kandahar on foot, Mr Masson encountered a incentive to establish a public water-company was and there was no reason to fear. The latter asked me camel-caravan, the inen accompanying which were given, in 1804, by Mr William Harley, who conto extend my arm, and, as I thought he did so with a settled for the evening. “ Found about one hundred structed a reservoir at Willow Bank. The building view of assuring his companion, I complied, when he and twenty tents, arranged in a semicircular form; is still standing, with the golden fish on its apex. He seized my wrist, and wrenching it round, brought me, in front of which were two spots, enclosed by stones, without power of resistance, to the ground. He called which served as masjits. It being the time of evening supplied it with spring-water from the adjacent lands, upon his friend to come and examine the bundle I prayer, I went up to one of these, and saluted with which he dispensed to the inhabitants at a small price, carried on my back, but no persuasion could remove the usual salam alikam, and was invited to sit down. through the medium of water-butts carried from street the fear of the lad, and he kept aloof. The fellow When prayers were finished, one of the men, decently to street. The success which attended this experiwrenched my wrist more and more, until I roared out apparelled, said to me, 'Doudi kouri dil ter razi, ment gave rise to the Glasgow and the Cranston-hill that I was the navab's nukar, or servant ; at which he which signifies, ' If you will eat bread, come here.' water-companies. The former was incorporated by suddenly relinquished his hold and retired, allowing I accepted the invitation, and accompanied him to his act of parliament in 1806, for the purpose of supplying me to recover my feet. Seeing the mention of the tent, which was well furnished, after the fashion of the city, for the first time, with filtered water from nawab terrified him, I denounced all vengeance on him, when he pointed to his camels, and asked me if three tolerable horses. The whole had an appearance the Clyde ; the latter, having a similar object in view, I would drink some milk. I asked whether he had a of easy circumstances, indeed of comparative opulence. was incorporated in 1808. During a number of years, piala, or bowl, and found that he intended to milk Bread was cooked expressly for me, water was brought these bodies went on independently; but afterwards into my hands, which I declined, as I should have to wash my hands before eating, and I was encouraged a junction was formed between them, which received placed myself in a position which might have disposed to eat heartily. I felt perfectly at ease, and was doing the sanction of parliament in 1838. The proprietary him to take another advantage.” The author got free justice to my entertainment, having fasted throughout of the united company, which is very numerous, emof them, but made a narrow escape, on the whole, the day, when another man came in, and seated him- braces a large majority of the monied men of the from perishing unheard-of by the hands of a reckless self by my side. The repast being finished, the new boy, and leaving his bones to bleach in some nook visitant applied a rather rude slap on my cheek; at

west of Scotland, and is possessed of great local in

fluence. of these perilous plains.

which I merely smiled, presuming it was intended as The city of Kandahar (or Candahar) having ac a joke, and although a severe one, yet, as these savages

The works of the company are very pleasantly quired fresh eminence lately as one of the capitals of understand little of decency, and being alone among situated on the banks of the Clyde, about two miles the district of Cabul (or Kabal, as our author calls so many, it was but common prudence to pass it off above the city. In proceeding towards them, our it), his account of it may prove not uninteresting lightly. He then asked me for my upper garment.path lies through the Green"-a splendid and fa“ The city of Kandahar is surrounded by mud walls, This I refused, still thinking him disposed to be merry. vourite arena for recreation, health, and pleasure. which have a circumference of three miles. There I, however, found, to my cost, he was not trifling, for scarcely surpassed, indeed, by any of the parks of are, I believe, seventeen towers on each face, besides he despoiled me of it by force, as well as of my head London. It comprises about 140 acres of tine grass the angular ones ; and a trench was carried round, dress, &c.; in short, left me nothing but my perjamas land, skirting the northern bank of the river. Under

and shoes. He also applied two or three additional the auspices of the late Dr Cleland, the whole superative of Various Journeys in Balochistan,

Affghanistan, slaps on the cheek, and a liberal allowance of terms of ficies has been levelled and beautified, and a fine car: 1826 to 1838. By Charles Masson, Esad. London : R. Bentley. abuse in Persian, which was all he knew of that lan- riage-drive formed, nearly three miles in length,

guage. This he did in ridicule of my ignorance of which is frequently used by pleasure parties, on horse


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back or in carriages. Here all military displays | admirably with the elegant buildings by which it is | and equally suffering employers, and demanding terms and extraordinary ineetings take place. Near the en- surrounded. It is lined throughout with cast-iron which could never be acceded to. In the autumn trance at the west end stands an obelisk, erected to plates, and is 123 feet in length by 84 in breadth, and of 1831, even while business was getting brisker, the the memory of Lord Nelson.

10 in depth. The whole extent of pipes, with their workmen, or the agents of the unions which they had The Clyde in this vicinity forms the great public varied ramifications throughout the city, amounts to formed, required the adoption of an unvarying scale bath of the city, to which the inhabitants have at all upwards of 140 miles.

of prices, and resolved upon a general turn-out in the times free access. In the course of one day, no fewer The supply to the inhabitants, we were informed, event of non-compliance. By this scale, or tariff, the than 2000 persons have been observed to bathe here. begins about six in the morning, and is continued silk-weavers determined to stand, never reflecting, apIt is matter of deep regret, however, that in a crowded without intermission throughout all the pipes, till parently, that it was absurd to call upon the employer, city like Glasgow, teeming as it does with a dense from eight to ten in the evening. The population himself suffering from all changes in the market, tó manufacturing population, so little attention should of Glasgow, according to the last census, is nearly insure the workmen from the chances of suffering from be paid by the public authorities to the establishment 300,000 ; and these works pour unceasingly, like the the same cause. Early in October 1831, the weavers, of suitable baths. Our continental neighbours are heart in the human system, the life-blood of a city, pursuing their object, said the scheme of a wage-tariff far before us in this respect.

WATER—through a thousand channels, until it reaches before the mayor and authorities of Lyons. The latter, After a delightful walk along the margin of the the most distant and obscure member of the com intimidated seemingly by so numerous a body, reriver, we reached the water-works, which we found to munity. One has only to witness, for a brief period, ceived the application, and called on the masteroccupy both sides of the stream, the motive-power the effect of a partial suspension of the works, to be manufacturers to send delegates to meet those of being on the one side, while the aqueducts and filters convinced of the incalculable benefits they confer upon the workmen on a certain day. M. Dumolart, Preare on the other. Our attention was directed, in the such a city. Time is economised, habits of cleanliness fect of the Rhone, rashly yielded to this arrangement. first instance, to the works on the northern bank. These are formed and cherished, and the sum of domestic | “ The definitive convocation of the delegates of the consist of a series of buildings occupied by nine large happiness is increased. The“ well,” indeed, has been working-men and of their employers took place in steam-engines, two of which, called Goliah and Samp- brought to almost every fireside, and fountains made M. Dumolart's drawing-rooms. While the opposing son, are of great magnitude and power, and well merit to flow in every alley. Fires, too, those dreadful interests were engaged in debate, an immense multithe names which have been given them. They were scourges of a manufacturing community, are extin- tude of the workers in silk, organised in troops and made in 1839 by the Neath Abbey Iron Company, guished by the same means; and large factories are cohorts, advanced from the suburbs to the square of Glamorganshire, and have each a 72-inch cylinder, sustained in localities where there is no water, and Bellevue and the square of La Préfecture, immediately with a 10-feet stroke. They are kept in excellent where, of course, they could not have been erected. in front of M. Dumolart's house. They were then order, and present the finest and most elegant speci.

without arms, without sticks, and they marched in mens of workmanship of the kind we have ever had

silence and in perfect order. Their chiefs carried the pleasure of inspecting. The room in which they


wands in their hands as signs of their authority; and perform their Herculean labours is tastefully painted INSURRECTIONS, mobbings, and all other commotions the multitude, rallying round the tri-coloured flag, and papered, and entirely free from disagreeable efflu. for the purpose of raising the rates of wages, have in- remained inoffensive and mute. That day (the 25th via. The erection of these magnificent machines, with variably ended in misery and disappointment to the of October) presented a singular spectacle : a perfect their appurtenances, cost the company L.20,000. Four parties concerned ; for the simple reason, that they order reigned in the disorder—there were no tumulof the other engines, possessing 54-inch cylinders, with discourage the adventuring of capital, and paralyse the tuous cries-no provocations ; the satisan 8-feet stroke, have received the appropriate names of very moving springs of employment. Their fatal fied themselves with making a demonstration of their Jupiter, Saturn, Achilles, and Ajax. At Cranston-hill effects have in no instance been seen more conspi- forces. A great number of them, however, penetrated works, which we did not visit, there are also four steam- cuously than at Lyons a few years ago. The history into the court-yard of the Préfecture, and stationed engines in constant operation. The aggregate amount of the great insurrection at that city is interesting, themselves immediately under the apartment where of motive-force thus at the disposal of the company, and may yield an instructive lesson. It was originally the tariff was regulating. At last, one of their deleis estimated at about 700 horse-power. Attached to told by M. Monfalcon, a physician of Lyons, whose gates left the assembly, walked down to the square in the walking-beam of each engine is a very ingenious narrative is here given in an abridged shape.

front of the Préfecture, and commanding silence, said piece of mechanism, with seven dials, resembling The silk manufacture, introduced from Italy in the My friends, people are busy up there about your clock-work, and furnished with a pendulum which fifteenth century, forms the great spring of industry interests-- all goes on well-retire ! At the instant vibrates in unison with every stroke of the engine, and wealth in the city of Lyons, a town happily situ- all that host of working-men quietly retreated in the and registers, with amazing accuracy and precision, ated on a peninsula formed by the junction of the same order in which they had advanced. At two the number of strokes given in the course of an Saone and Rhone, in the south-east of France. It is o'clock in the afternoon, the civil authorities of Lyons hour, a week, a month, &c. The superintendant has the second city of that country, and contained, about announced that the tariff was agreed upon and finally only to consult this self-acting index to ascertain the the year 1830, a population of 140,000 persons. Of settled. This news was received by the weavers with quantity of water thrown into the city by each engine these fully 30,000, including men, women, and children, the most lively demonstrations of joy. A tariff had during any given period. Connected with the water may be computed to have been engaged, at the same been established on paper, but it remained to be seen pipes we observed mercurial pressure-gauges, of very period, in the silk manufacture ; and the quantity of if it would work. The men had fixed that work was fine workmanship, for indicating the height to which silk manufactured may be reckoned, in round numbers, only to be done at certain prices, but they could not the water is raised in the city, where corresponding at 700,000 kilogrammes, a kilogramme being equal to compel masters to give them work at those prices, if gauges are kept in the engineer's office, by which it 2 lbs. 8 oz. and 3 dwts. of troy weight. The money the latter should find it ruinous to do so. "Clearly, can be known at a glance how the supply is main- turned over at Lyons by the silk trade is estimated by the right of considering whether they were to give tained by the engines, though in operation at the dis M. Monfalcon at 200,000,000 francs annually. “The work at the prices fixed upon remained with the matance of nearly three miles. The quantity of water exportation of the article is greater, by one half,” he nufacturers, if liberty and right were to be anything furnished by the works daily amounts to upwards of says, “ than the exportation of all the other manufac more than mere names in the country. To pursue 8,000,000 gallons, besides about 600,000 gallons of un tured productions of the whole of France put toge- the narrative of M. Monfalcon-“Scarcely was the filtered water, raised directly from the river for the ther.” As the great, though not the sole seat of a tariff promulgated in Lyons, when many commercial use of several public works. At one period, double manufacture so important to the national wealth and houses, alarmed at the prospect of the future, or findthis quantity was used; but the factories seem now welfare, Lyons, it may be imagined, is a place viewed ing it impossible to pay the high prices demanded by to prefer filtered water, though at a higher rate. with deep interest by the entire people of France. the weavers, came to a determination to suspend all

Having examined the varied and ingenious means The parties engaged in the silk manufacture may their operations. The great fault of M. Dumolart
and appliances on the northern bank for propelling be divided into two principal classes ; namely, the had placed our capitalists in a frightful position-
and conducting the water through the city, we were masters, who have several silk-looms of their own, many thousand looms were at once left without work.
carried across the stream in a boat, to inspect the usually from three to eight, and have a fixed residence ; A dreadful fermentation agitated the working-
aqueducts and filters on the other side. These occupy and the class called compagnons, who work some of the classes during the first weeks of November. They
a triangular peninsula, of a honey-comb-like struc- looms of the masters, and receive balf of the money demanded the execution of the tariff, and showed the
ture, washed on two sides by the Clyde, and perfo- gained by these looms, without having responsibility most deadly animosity against the manufacturers.
rated in various directions by water-channels. The of any sort upon their heads. When the silk-trade is Mobs gathered in the streets, squares, and suburbs ;
principal aqueduct or filter consists of an elliptical | dull, these latter persons turn their hands to some La Croix Rousse (a large dependent town, rather than
tunnel 74 feet in diameter, and upwards of 600 yards thing else, and the instability of their position forms a suburb) was up in arms, and a hostile collision
in length, sunk ten feet lower than the level of low a great evil in the manufacturing system of Lyons. seemed inevitable. A grand review of the national
water, in a bed of sand and gravel, through which the Generally speaking, the compagnons are improvident guard took place on Sunday, the 20th of November,
water filters naturally. This tunnel forms a curve persons, and their habits are immoral. They dissipate for the installation of its chief, old General Ordonneau.
parallel with the bed of the river, at about 50 feet upon foolish or injurious luxuries much of the means Ten thousand men were present beneath the national
from its margin. There are, besides, about eight acres which they gain by working five days in the week with flag, and had these men been decided in their wish of
of meadow land, and nearly two of sand-filter, on which diligence. They live poorly, their houses are crowded maintaining order, no troubles could have happened.
the water is raised by steam-power. The whole water and unhealthy, and sometimes large families are But it was easy to see, by the alarming countenances
produced by these filters is conveyed through a gra- crowded together in single ill-ventilated apartments. of all the companies from the suburbs, and by the
velly subsoil into the tunnel above mentioned. The Their children, boys and girls, are usually brought up apathy of the majority of that armed militia, that
water thus purified is brought across the stream to the silk-trade like their parents, and the youths of some great event was preparing. The citizens of
through four suction-pipes, laid in the bed of the the male sex may be said to be the most dangerous Lyons were left a prey to the most acute anxiety, and
river, and connected with the engines on the nor portion of the population of Lyons. The elder among people ran everywhere inquiring wliat would be the
thern side. It is worthy of remark, that two of them, youths from fifteen to twenty, are called ap- probable result of this cruel situation. They were
these pipes were designed and laid under the direc- prentices, and the younger are called lancers, their not left long in this state of uncertainty."
tion of the celebrated James Watt, whose genius task being to throw (lancer) the shuttle in certain The result was a dreadful conflict, which lasted for
and skill triumphed over the first difficulty which pattern-silks. For the most part, M. Monfalcon as three days, and watered the streets of Lyons with the
presented itself, arising from the bend or curve in the sures us,“ neither apprentices nor lancers have received blood of its citizens. Hundreds of lives were lost, and,
bed of the river, by devising a flexible main or tube, the slightest education. They are turbulent on days as takes place in every similar scene of confusion, the
constructed of iron pipes, and so connected by move- of riot and revolt, through a mere love of noise. But innocent suffered alike with the guilty. It was on the
able joints and hinges as to adapt its form to the these boys were seen, during the days of disturbance, morning of Monday, November 21, that the wea-
bottom of the Clyde. The water is conveyed into the creeping among the horses, and aiming blows at the vers of La Croix Rousse placed themselves in an atti-
city through the medium of four principal pipes or dragoons, which were so much the more dangerous, as tude of open insurgency, raised barricades, and planted
mains, as they are called, respectively of 14, 21, 25, and it was impossible to foresee them.” They were even above their heads a black standard, with the pointed
36 inches diameter. As the ground on which Glas- provided with fire-arms, he continues, and showed an inscription—" We will live working, or die fight-
gow is built is of great variation of elevation, four utter contempt of danger.

ing!” They cut the silk from looms, and forced the intermediate stations or reservoirs have been formed, Such is the character of the class of artificers among peaceable to join them or perish. They had abuninto which water is raised to the elevation requisite to whom, in 1831, a spirit of disorder insinuated itself, dance of arms and ammunition, and even two pieces supply the several districts, and no more ; thus eco in consequence partly of the agitating influence of the of artillery. The civil and military authorities knew nomising the power required to be exerted by the Three Days of the preceding July, and partly from all this, and they had force sufficient, of regular troops, steam-engines, and furnishing, at the same time, an the effect on the French silk-trade of the increasing to restore order. But they sent, at the outset, only abundant supply to those who occupy the highest competition of Prussia, Switzerland, and, above all, sixty men of the national guard, with arms, but withhouses. Besides these reservoirs, there are two others Great Britain. The influence of the latter cause out ammunition, to march upon the barricaded position. now in course of erection at the west end, to meet the should have rendered them more prudent and in “ A shower of stones gave them their welcome; many increased demand arising from the rapid extension of dustrious than formerly. Feeling a change for the of them were wounded, and the detachment was comthe city in that direction. One of these is an ex worse, though to no great extent, they adopted a very pelled to make a hasty retreat. Then, indeed, some tremely handsome massive structure, and harmonises opposite course, charging the evil upon their guiltless I attacks were made by the troops of the line, but with

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feeble means, and not upon one but different points: government. But some will say, the insurgents did ma.n-servant, therefore, she only expected to gain Me thus they all failed. An officer was wounded in the not abuse their victory., Yes; we must, without Dawkins's consent to her hiring “a youth ;” and bad thigh-a drummer shot through the shoulder. These doubt, to a certain point, be grateful to them for not she lived in the later days of " pages” and biped first successes encouraged the insurgents; the working having proceeded to extremes and the most horrid tigers,” she might with yielding amiability have part of the population rose like one man.”

excesses, which, however, would have brought down suffered her aspiring desires to dwindle from six feet All classes of mechanics were now involved in the a fearful and inevitable vengeance on their own heads. two to four feet nothing. Thus a quarter of an hour affair, and seized the opportunity to demand wage. They did not do to Lyons, and to the capitalists was well bestowed in settling this important question, tariffs

. Dumolart, the Prefect, and General Ordonneau, and manufacturers of Lyons, all the mischief that and about as much time was devoted to arranging went to speak to the insurgents; they were seized and they might have done ; but ought this negative merit some comparatively trifling matters in a similar diplomade prisoners. General Roguet, commander of the to make us forget the crime of their impious aggres- matic fashion. A visiter, however, disturbed the garrison, a veteran but invalid soldier, was the only sion, the horrors of a civil and civic war of three days, party. man now found to direct a force against the insur- and the deplorable consequences that resulted there “Why, that is Herbert Forster's knock, I declare !" gents. But the latter, secure in the lofty firm-built from ?"

exclaimed Mrs Dawkins; “who would have thought houses of La Croix Rousse, repulsed all attacks, though Notwithstanding the lesson given by the results of of his coming on such a wet night; did you expect at the cost of much bloodshed. On the second day, this senseless resort to violence and bloodshed, the him, my dear ?" the soldiers were in possession of but one square, workmen of Lyons did not then learn the wiser part. “ Not I ; though, by the way, I have not seen him in the whole of the great city of Lyons. They In a second article, we shall advert to the scenes which to-day, and perhaps he has brought me some papers had fought with courage ; “ but what could cavalry were presented in that city in 1834, originating in the I asked him yesterday to arrange." do in a war of streets, under the fire of enemies same, or nearly the same, cause.

Meanwhile, Matilda, with rather a sharp “give it that were carefully concealed behind gates and chim

me," had taken the work from her sister's hand, and neys? Many of them were dismounted, wounded, or killed ; and several, who were thrown or fell from


in twenty seconds had arranged herself with wonder

ful composure at the table, with the whole apparatus their horses, were dispatched by the women and chil. It was on a winter's evening, in the year 18—, that of scissors and threads, &c., before her, a very pattern dren of the weavers."

in the small parlour of a small house, in a narrow and of neatness, precision, and industry. Susan said not a The insurgents fired on all flags of truce sent to confined street of the dense metropolis of Great Bri- word, though the faintest smile in the world might them. True, they liberated the Prefect and General tain, was seated a very every-day sort of group. It have been observed on her countenance, as she raised

Ordonneau, but only because they saw their victory consisted of Mr Beaufort Dawkins and his family, the her large eyes to her sister's face. A slight blush sufalmost secured. And in reality, the despairing ma- latter comprising a lady who certainly considered her- fused Matilda's cheeks ; but as she knew this was very gistrates thought it best to yield, and send away the self a “better half,” and two daughters of the respective becoming, she did not by any means withdraw from soldiers. " At two hours after midnight,” says our ages of seventeen and fifteen. An important event had the light which fell full upon her, and she was the author, “on the morning of the 23d of November, that day taken place-nothing less than the formal and last to rise and greet the visiter. General Roguet yielded the representations of the legal admission of Mr Dawkins as junior partner in

Herbert Forster, though only a clerk in the house civil authorities, and resolved to quit the town with the house of Altamont, Dobson, Smith, and Jones, to of Altamont, Dobson, Smith, Jones, and Dawkins, the remainder of the troops he commanded. *** He whom he had been confidential clerk for more than was an orphan, distantly related to several noble was followed and assisted by a few men of the national twenty years. The five o'clock dinner was finished, families, and had passed the years of childhood amid guard. But the insurgents were aware of his move and a bottle of wine was being discussed, the whole all the tenderness of affection and the luxury of ments, and established a strong post at the barrier of party having drawn round the fire, while in the man affluence. His father had been Mr Dawkins's earliest St Clair, with the view of intercepting his retreat. A ner of each were many signs of complacency. There benefactor, and on the severe reverses which preceded single piece of artillery, and a general fire from the is vast expression in the figure-in attitude, ay, even

Mr Forster's death, Mr Dawkins was in some measure troops of the line, presently forced a passage there. in a finger-and the most uninitiated would never enabled to return the obligations he was under, by The soldiers, formed in close columns, then cleared have mistaken the prevailing sentiment, as Mr Daw- procuring for Herbert, at a good and inereasing salary, with courage and rapidity three barricades that had kins leaned back in his arm-chair, stretching a very the situation of foreign correspondent (for which his been raised between St Clair and La Boucle, and beat dirty pair of boots towards the fender, and slightly knowledge of languages qualified him) in the mercanand threw into perfect disorder the posts of working compressing his lips as he brought a glass of ruby tile house to which we have alluded. Though hummen that guarded them; and in spite of a run ng wine admiringly between his own vision and the bled in fortune, he was in every other respect so fire of musketry, and stones and tiles that rained upon bright flame. He felt that he had achieved greatness, greatly superior to the circle in which the Dawkinses them from the houses, they made good their retreat and it is very doubtful whether Newton, after one moved, that there is no wonder that Matilda - 2 to Montessuy, Caluire, and La Pape, after having lost of his profound discoveries, or Shakspeare after the coquette by nature-was willing to try what power a number of men. The dragoons, who performed seve- embodiment of some everlasting truth, evinced so she could gain over him ; indeed, he was nearly the ral brilliant charges, suffered the most. A battalion much self-satisfaction. Neither was there much like- first “ quarry" for whom she prepared the manifold of the 40th closed the retreat, and fought with cou- lihood of any error about the lady's feelings. She weapons contained in a coquette's quiver. Latterly, rage for its protection. But the unfortunate wounded had disdained, on this important evening, to ply her however, he had, to her great dismay, transferred ali soldiers left behind were stripped, dispatched, and needle, as she was in the habit of doing ; so, for want of those trifling attentions which are felt rather than thrown into the Rhone, by a set of weavers, whose better employment, she twirled her restless fingers in described to Susan, for whom, of course, she, as an fury had obliterated every feeling of humanity. Ge- the faded strings of a very fine but rather dirty cap; elder sister, entertained a due degree of contempt. neral Fleury was wounded and dismounted in the and in her endeavours to assume a dignified deport

So much for the relative positions of the younger fatal retreat, and one of his aides-de-camp was killed ment, fidgetted about in a manner which would have members of the party. As for the lady-mother, she by his side."

been very trying to nervous persons. But dignified | liked Herbert Forster pretty well; though, notwithIntoxicated with their victory, the workmen now repose is difficult for the unaccustomed to assume. standing his frequent visits and extreme intimacy, she gave themselves

up to riotous indulgence, and went of the two girls, Matilda, the elder, was acknowledged had not as yet dreamt of any falling in love, either on about the streets, hugging one another, and crying, to be the more attractive. Already of a commanding his part or that of her daughters. The feelings of Mr

Les Braves !"-" The lleroes !"). They were reek- height and figure, with features beautiful and finely Dawkins, however, were of a much warmer character; ing even then with the blood of their countrymen. chiselled, she was indeed eminently handsome ; though for he loved him almost as well as his own children, But the removal of all opposition restored them, in perhaps a physiognomist would have regretted a cer and though not a man of talent himself, he had sufsome measure, to reason. Much property was burned tain vacancy betrayed by the mouth. Yet, withal, ficiently the power of appreciation to recognise the and destroyed; but at length they stood still, as there was that self-possession which, with mind and superior mind and acquirements of Herbert, and to if sensible that wanton destruction could do nought decision, would have formed pride, but, as it was, only feel a strong confidence that he would be successful else than bring ruin and famine on themselves. The constituted vanity. Susan, the younger, formed a in life. Perhaps the only one talent in which Mr municipal authorities began to regain some portion perfect contrast to her sister, for her features were Dawkins excelled (and which, indeed, had been the of their authority. The population retired to their anything but regular, and her figure petite. Still, means of raising himn to his present exalted position) houses, and, willing to return to work, became aware there were people who had the extraordinary taste to was the one in which Herbert Forster was most defiof the obstacles which their own insane conduct admire her ; who forgave a mouth they acknowledged cient, namely, what phrenologists call the organ of had thrown in the way of their peaceful mainte- was too large, in consideration of the teeth it re number. He was, indeed, a first-rate accomptant

On the 27th of November, four days after vealed, and the dimple a smile displayed ; and who a talent, by the way, which seldom accompanies a the retreat of the troops, General Roguet was asked thought a pair of soft hazel eyes, shaded by a jetty brilliant and imaginative mind, though, if it do, it by the authorities to return with them. He found fringe when they were raised and did sparkle, were makes the intellect stupendous. Even on that mea humbled population in Lyons. Men were pray- not to be exchanged for Matilda's dazzling complexion. morable evening the bent of his mind might have ing for work and food. Revenge might readily have Susan was the only one of the party who was occu been observed when he interrupted an animated conbeen taken upon them, but happily another course was pied, and she was hemming diligently a gentleman's versation between Herbert and Susan on a point of pursued. Louis Philippe's eldest son, the Duke of silk handkerchief. Matilda was the first to break a history, to request the former to go over with him Orleans, was to visit the city with Marshal Soult, and short pause, by exclaiming-

some abstruse calculations; and when these were he did so on the 3d of December, when he was received Well

, now, papa, I hope you will let me have some finished, he proposed a family “rubber, "--more, it is with great acclamations. A powerful force accom- | lessons in singing."

not uncharitable to presume, to enjoy the often-repanied him; the citizens received all not only without “Wait, my dear, till we have got into the new peated triumph of astonishing the uninitiated by callresistance but with joy. “ And thus," says M. Mon- house," observed Mrs Dawkins ; " I should not choose | ing the last cards from every hand, than from any falcon, “ finished the history of the three days of No Signor Crocchini to attend you here ;" and the lady other motive. vember, and such was the winding up of the working- looked round with considerable scorn on the house of Kind reader, pass over with me all the bustle, and men's victory. Much blood was shed; brave French the last ten years, where she had drudged, and coaxed, excitement, and confusion of the Dawkinses removal soldiers received their death; the first manufacturing and scolded by turns, but where she had passed, not to the “new house." I must beg you even to imagine city in France was a prey to the most frightful dis- withstanding, a very happy period of her life. their first immersion into a new sphere of society. order : and for what end? Had the condition of the “ And my dear Dawkins, my dear Beaufort,” she By small degrees, and in the short space of three years, working-elasses been improved ? Had they suc- continued, * do not let us think of staying here until so great a change was effected in the Dawkins family, ceeded in forcing their employers to adopt the tariff? the notice expires. What is a quarter's rent com that they seemed to form quite a new species of the No. The principle of that scheme was absurd, and pared to the appearance of the thing. Now that you genus to which they belonged. It is true Dawkins père could never be acknowledged by the government. are really in the firm, it is due to yourself and your was still an “every-day person,” for the lion changes Had they succeeded in raising the price of their family that you consider these things. And, my not his skin, nor the leopard his spots; yet, from the labour ? No. Trade can flourish only when no blows love, I have been thinking a great deal of the new friction of more refined society, into which he and his are aimed at the liberty and tranquillity of its tran- house and all our fresh arrangements, and I am sure had struggled, he had acquired some polish, but being sactions; and their revolt paralysed it, and con we must have a man-servant.

naturally a reserved man, circumstances had rendered demned the silk manufacture to a long period of in “My dear, I cannot afford it.”

him less communicative than ever. Assuredly there activity. Had their easy and short triumph attracted “Well, at any rate, a boy-really a youth-tall of was a mystery connected with him. Some people the public interest to their cause ?-was their country his age, of sixteen or so, in a good livery, gives the talked figuratively of a mine he had discovered, and indebted to them for what they have done? Alas! same air of respectability to a family that a man-ser others of a lottery-ticket tumed up a prize. These no. They attacked with an armed hand the insti- vant does."

rumours might be nonsense ; but the world always tutions of their country--trod her laws under foot, Mrs Dawkins knew her own power. From long looks with suspicion on unaccounted-for wealth. expelled the legitimate authorities, and threw our experience, she was aware that in arguments with her But where did the money come from? Ah! that is city into an abyss of misery. The brutal employ- spouse perseverance was the one thing needful. True, the question. The Dawkinses now had a really good ment of force to resolve a question of trade and in- she did not generally gain entirely the point from house, well furnished, and with family arrangements dustry is equally absurd and criminal, whether it pro- which she started, but for this, of course, she made better conducted than might have been expected. oved from the, his employer, or the l all due allowances. In suggesting the necessity of a | The “boy" had long since made room for a substantial


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