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considerable improvement in this respect; but the rate carriages-rather of a clumsy make, and not very | Prince Adam, since an exile, was president of the nacustom-house, above all others, would do well to take ex- different from the public vehicles, but built for the tional government during the Polish insurrection in ample from the United States, and render itself some heavy roads beyond the city pavement. Negro coach- 1830. Josephine was conversant with the history what less odious and offensive to foreigners. The ser men and white, in straw hats, black hats, white hats, of her country; and the intercourse she now enjoyed vile rapacity of the French officials is sufficiently con- glazed caps, fur caps ; in coats of drab, black, brown, with persons whose character she had studied from its temptible ; but there is a surly boorish incivility about green, blue, nankeen, striped jean, and linen ; and pages, and whose patriotic virtues she had learned to our inen, alike disgusting to all persons who fall into there, in that one instance (look while it passes, or it adore, made a strong impression upon her mind. The their hands, and discreditable to the nation that keeps will be too late), in suits of livery. Some southern sight of the venerable prince, over whose grey head such ill-conditioned curs snarling about its gates.” republican that, who puts his blacks in uniform, and nearly a century had passed, surrounded by the noble, All travellers arriving in England will concur in the swells with Sultan pomp and power. Yonder, where the learned, and the devoted, the example of the justice of these remarks.

that phaeton with the well-clipped pair of greys has Princess Isabella and her daughters, the circle of Mammon, as is well known, is the object of worship stopped-standing at their heads now-is a Yorkshire Polish matrons, who on festive occasions assembled in America, as Title is in this country, and it afforded groom, who has not been very long in these parts, and with their families at Siemiaura, produced a favourMr Dickens no small pleasure to find how much the looks sorrowfully round for a companion pair of top- able effect upon Josephine, and assisted in forming her worst features of pure money-getting habits and as- boots, which he may traverse the city half a year character and confirming her patriotism. She obsociations may be softened by the quiet influence of without meeting. Heaven save the ladies, how they tained an insight into the human heart, its affections literature and intellectual refinement. Acted upon dress! We have seen more colours in these ten mi- and impulses ; she acquired a strong sense of propriety by the “gentlemen of learning and varied attain- nutes than we should have seen elsewhere in as many of conduct, and a power of so regulating her demeanments," of the university of Cambridge, at the distance days. What various parasols — what rainbow silks our, that, without any dereliction of principle, she of a few miles from Boston, the general tone of society and satins ! what pinking of thin stockings, and pinch- could steer her course amidst conflicting parties and is greatly reliered from that which would be inciden- ing of thin shoes, and fluttering of ribbons and silk interests, yet neither give offence nor provoke distal to a purely commercial population. Our travel tassels, and display of rich cloaks with gaudy hoods pleasure. ler's “ notes” on this condition of things testify to the and linings ! The young gentlemen are fond, you On the death of the prince in 1823, his court-the goodness of his heart and soundness of his under- see, of turning down their shirt-collars, and cultivat- last left to Poland-dispersed. Josephine retired with standing. The American universities, he observes, ing their whiskers, especially under the chin ; but the family, amongst whom she had hitherto resided, to whatever be their defects, “ disseminate no prejudices, they cannot approach the ladies in their dress or their estate in Podlachia. There she received an offer rear no bigots, dig up the buried ashes of no old super- bearing, being, to say the truth, humanity of quite of marriage. At this conjuncture, the most important stitions, never interpose between the people and their another sort.”

of a woman's life, Josephine was spared the sweets and improvement, exclude no man because of his religious With descriptions of visits to asylums of various pangs which usually attend upon the course of love. opinions ; above all, in their whole course of study and kinds, prisons, and other establishments in New York, The person who asked her hand had not exchanged ten instruction, recognise a world, and a broad one too, Philadelphia, and Washington, the writer gets to the words with her before he made his proposals, and she lying beyond the college walls.” With respect to the end of his first volume, and there we, for the present, accepted his offer, for the sole reason, that he possessed university above mentioned, it was pleasing to “note at leave him.

the esteem of all who knew him. M. Szyrma had just every turn the humanising tastes and desires it has

returned from a tour in Germany, France, and Engengendered, the affectionate friendships to which it


land. Literature was his profession : he had obtained has given rise, the amount of vanity and prejudice it

academical honours in the university of Warsaw, and has dispelled." The golden calf they worship at Bos- Tue virtues of private life have seldom any record was then a candidate for the vacant chair of moral ton is a pigmy compared with the giant effigies set up beyond that which is left in the respect and affection philosophy, which he succeeded in obtaining. His in other parts of that vast counting-house which lies of friends and relatives. Many of the most estimable, moral and patriotic qualities decided Josephine to beyond the Atlantic ; and the almighty dollar sinks and perhaps the most valuable, women, have acquired accept him for her husband; respect for these rather into something comparatively insignificant, amidst a no wider fame. Content to fulfil their duties humbly, than love influenced her choice. Josephine Szyrma whole Pantheon of better gods. Above all

, I sincerely though ardently, their difficulties, their struggles, their had now completed her twenty-first year. She was believe that the public institutions and charities of devotedness, and their usefulness, hare been known to of the middle size, well proportioned, and graceful. tbis capital of Massachusetts are as nearly perfect as few. Their unobtrusive virtues, however venerated Her demeanour was dignified, and she was distin. the most considerate wisdom, benevolence, and hu- in their own circle, have made no claim upon public guished by the peculiar expression of benignity with manity can make them. I never in my life was more attention, and thus the world has little acquaintance which she bowed ; her eyes beamed with intelligence affected by the contemplation of happiness, under cir- with their simple but instructive biography.

and benignity ; in her own country, such eyes were cumstances of privation and bereavement, than in my The subject of the present memoir was a native of called "eyes of wisdom;" her features were characvisits to these establishments."

Poland, and distinguished for her earnest and faithful terised by modest decision, tinged with thoughtfulMr Dickens admires the prevalent practice in Ame- devotion to the duties of life amidst severe trials and ness. rica, of supporting institutions wholly or partially by reverses of fortune. Her patient endurance and active A newly-married couple are always subjects for the state, which thus does for the people that which pri- fortitude never appear to have forsaken her; nor did speculation. On their arrival at Warsaw, resemvate endowments accomplish in England; but on this her own privations ever render her indifferent to the blances and differences between the bride and bridepoint there may be some controversy, and we pass from calamities of others, or chill her benevolent exertions groom were sought and found; their tempers, chait to his definitions of the cause of such splendid charit- in the behalf of her fellow-sufferers. The political racters, ages, &c., were discussed; the conclusions able institutions as England is alone able to boast of. condition of Poland, struggling for independence and drawn were in their favour ; and it was decided they The worrying of rich old relatives, he says, is at the bot- deliverance, involved all ranks and conditions in the possessed a remarkable similarity in the most importtom of it. “Some immensely rich old gentleman or troubles attendant upon foreign tyranny and internal ant points, and even that they resembled each other lady, surrounded by needy relatives, makes, upon a discord. Many women, whose habits inclined them in person. The promotion of so young a man to the low average, a will a-week. The old gentleman or lady, to the privacy of domestic life, were forced by the cir- chair of moral philosophy had excited some envy nerer very remarkable in the best of times for good cumstances of the times into public scenes of action amongst a few individuals; but the feeling was dissitemper, is full of aches and pains from head to foot ; It was Josephine's lot to be so placed, and her short pated by a remark made by one of the professors, that full of fancies and caprices ; full of spleen, distrust, history proves that a woman may be a patriot, yet the young philosopher, in choosing such a wife, had suspicion, and dislike. To cancel old wills

, and invent in no way forfeit feminine character, or sacrifice the surpassed Socrates himself in wisdom. It was goodnew ones, is at last the sole business of such a testa- duties of a wife and mother.

humouredly determined that, for the future, the phitor's existence; and relations and friends (some of Josephine's maiden name was Dziergowski : she was losophy of the other professors should be tested by whom have been bred up distinctly to inherit a large born in 1904, in the palatinate of Rowa, in Masovia. their discernment in avoiding a Xantippe. share of the property, and have been from their cradles Her family was noble, but, like many others in Po Madame Szyrma possessed the tuct of appearing specially disqualified from devoting themselves to any land, had been impoverished by the invaders of with singular propriety under all circumstances-diguseful pursuit on that account) are so often and so their country, who, when unsuccessful, never failed nified in the assemblies of the great, interesting to unexpectedly and summarily cut off, and re-instated, to leave ruin and devastation behind them., Jose- the learned, and pleasing to all : she was also known and cut off again, that the whole family, down to the phine was sent at seven years old to one of the first as the active housewife and the indulgent mistress. remotest cousin, is kept in a perpetual fever. At ladies' schools in Warsaw, where she pursued the She trained her domestics to her service. The culi. length it becomes plain that the old lady or gentle usual studies (under

an improved system of education) nary art in Poland is far from simple ; and some paman has not long to live; and the plainer this be- in science, history, and art; and, besides a complete tience is needed in dressing the various dishes and comes, the more clearly the old lady or gentleman knowledge of her native tongue, she acquired the Ger- delicacies of the table, as well as in giving instructions perceives that everybody is in a conspiracy against man and French languages, speaking and writing for their preparation. On one occasion, at the comtheir poor old dying relative; wherefore the olå lady them fluently and correctly. She gained the affec- mencement of Josephine's duties as the mistress of a or gentleman makes another last will positively the tions of her companions, and retained their regard in household, a refractory cook objected, that her mistress last this time--conceals the same in a china tea-pot, after years, when these early friendships were ce was too young to understand the management of a and expires next day. Then it turns out, that the mented by still stronger ties. Josephine's education house better than she did : this reply reaching the whole of the real and personal estate is divided between commenced in 1812, when Napoleon's army marched ears of M. Szyrma, he discharged the servant as a half-a-dozen charities; and that the dead and gone to Russia, and the Poles anticipated the probable re necessary mark of respect to his young wife. The testator has in pure spite helped to do a great deal of storation of their ancient monarchy; . One portion of woman refused to quit the house ; nor would she leave good, at the cost of an immense amount of evil passion Poland was, in 1815, erected into a kingdom, and ob- | a mistress to whom she was really attached, until and misery.”

tained a constitution. Although these political arrange- removed by the police. Madame Szyrma, however, This is in Boz's best style, but is more clever than ments fell far short of the nation's hopes, yet there blamed her husband for an exhibition of aristocratic profound. The worrying may do something towards was enough of promise in the events of the period to feeling and manner, which, she said, he had brought the charitable bequest ; a far deeper principle, how- excite the imaginations of the young and ardent. with him from England, jestingly adding," for this ever, operates, we verily believe, in ninety-nine cases Emotions, common to the nation, were shared by the cause she could not love him.” After training her in the hundred. We allude to the love of posthumous young in their schools and seminaries, added strength domestics to useful and regular habits, she usually fame. To die worth half a million, and leave it all to to friendship, and inspired with enthusiasm and devo- interested herself in seeing them well married, and erect an everlasting monument to the name of Hig- tion both individual sentiment and public feeling: never ceased to take an interest in their welfare and gins, is a glory cheaply purchased with a lifetime of Josephine left school in her sixteenth year, and be happiness. Their attachment to her was unfailing ; toil, anxiety, and possibly the most dire privation. came an inmate in the family of Prince Czartoryski's and in one instance a servant voluntarily quitted her

Getting in due time to New York, the traveller physician. She was six or seven years older than the husband to accompany her former mistress when leavfinds the city as hot as an oven. “ Warm weather! doctor's two daughters, and stood rather in the rela- ing her country as an exile. Madame Szyrma, bowThe sun strikes upon our heads at this open window, tion of their sister than of their governess ; they all ever grateful, could not conceal from the woman that as though its rays were concentrated through a burn- studied together under the parent's direction. At this proof of attachment was at variance with her ing-glass; but the day is in its zenith, and the season Siemiaura, the principal seat of the family of Czartor- duty. an unusual one. Was there ever such a sunny street as yski, Josephine was frequently a guest : she may be The beginning of married life is full of importance. this Broadway! The pavement stones are polished said there to have made her entrance into the world. Madame Szyrma possessed the qualities most favourwith the tread of feet until they shine again; the red The court of the prince was the resort of natives and able to a happy coinmencement. She had seen enough bricks of the houses might be yet in the dry hot kilns ; foreigners of birth and distinction : he was himself of the world to give her a relish for the seclusion neand the roofs of those omnibuses look as though, if distinguished for his literary attainments, as well as cessary to her husband's occupations, yet she could water were poured on them, they would hiss and for his patriotism, hospitality, and splendour. The still adorn and enjoy society. Having had the opporsmoke, and smell like half-quenched fires. No stint estate was of great extent, comprising towns and vil- tunity to look upon the present as it is, and upon the of omnibuses here! Half a dozen have gone by within lages. The princess was very attentive to the wants past as history represents it, her judgment was of a as many minutes. Plenty of hackney cabs and coaches of her poor neighbours, and sought to place herself on practical kind, and her sentiments possessed a mascutoo; gigs, phaetons, large-wheeled tilburies, and pri- easy and familiar terms with them. The eldest son, I line strength, tempered by feminine delicacy. Accus

tomed to serious reading and severe study, her mind / which now animated the Poles. We do not mean to Szyrma. The fatigue exceeded her physical strength; was never occupied by trifles. The time that remained say that the women took up arms in defence of freedom, yet for three years, indeed until her death, she pafrom household duties she employed in assisting her although there are instances of a few who joined the tiently performed an office which she felt to be incumhusband in his literary pursuits, acting as his ama ranks; the young Countess Platen, for example, placed bent upon her as a sacred duty. nuensis, or correcting the printed proofs of his works : herself at the head of a small body of her own vassals. On the 2d of January 1837, having become visibly her literary taste gave a high value to her opinion. With some exceptions, the women still pursued their feeble, she attended for the last time a meeting of the She was always occupied, and was never plagued by domestic duties, though these were changed by the Ladies' Society, called to audit her accounts for the ennui : those who knew her best never saw her yairn. state of the times. Their usual social meetings were preceding year. At its conclusion, she said to her

The nature of her husband's duties as a public now thrown open to all ; knitting and embroidery husband with great satisfaction, “ Now the business of functionary, however honourable, caused him consi were laid aside for the preparation of lint and band- last year is done and closed, how happy I am." She derable embarrassment. He was responsible to a fo- ages for the wounded, flags for lances, and other trap- lingered until the 22d, neglecting none of her daily reign and despotic government, whose views were pings of war. The customary morning calls were duties, domestic or official. It was her habit to enter in diametrically opposed to those which he was bound exchanged for visits to hospitals, attending on the an account-book every article purchased, and daily to to adopt, as a conscientious teacher, for the promotion wounded, the sick of cholera, and performing the last cast up the amount. On referring to that book, three of science, and for the good of his country. The sus- offices for the dying. This Christian charity was ex years after ber death, her husband found the sum total, picions of the government were never at rest ; secret tended equally to the Russians. Many private houses dated Saturday, the 22 January, written in her own agents attended to report upon his lectures. A register were used as hospitals, where Russians and Poles were hand, evidently trembling under the effects of fever. was kept of all passages supposed to contain treason: lodged together; but the latter became irritated that on the morning of the 24th she expired. It seemed able or offensive sentiments, and this was forwarded equal attention was bestowed on their enemies, and as if on that Saturday she omitted none of her most to St Petersburg for inspection. Other popular pro- they were separated. To this charitable sisterhood trifling duties, and that the occupations of that week fessors were subjected to the same jealous vigilance. Madame Szyrma belonged ; she escaped infection and completed a life of labour. On that day her husband This watchfulness and distrust rendered the perform- disease, but many of its members fell victims to their received letters and intelligence respecting her friends ance of his public functions highly painful and dan- zeal and devotion.

and family in Poland : she listened to them with degerous to M. Szyrma. Ilis wife shared in his anxieties It often happened that the women who thus assem- light, as if they recalled to her mind all who were dear and difficulties, and her participation was their best bled had husbands, brothers, and fathers in the field ; to her, while the scenes and events of her youth, and alleviation. In such a case, if action were a virtue, and that, amidst their employments, they eagerly all loved and happy memories, seemed to pass in review caution was no less a duty; clamour and complaint expected news from the armies, which were so near, before her. Her countenance reflected the sentiments would have been a betrayal ; silent perseverance was that at times the thunder of the cannon was audible. of her mind, and even a glow of health appeared to rethe safest, indeed the only means of securing the ad. On other occasions, when the scene of action was re turn to her cheek, and to promise that she had passed vantages which truth and patriotism desired to attain. mote, they listened to appeals to the provinces, to the crisis of her disorder, “ Ilow healthful you look, In such a juncture, the discretion of the wife was as accounts in the newspapers, to some new patriotic dear Josephine,” said her husband, exulting in renecessary as the steadfast and guarded ability of the poem, song, or march. Children, as soon as they could newed hope ; " I never saw you so beautiful.” But husband. When all civic virtue was condemned to speak, were taught by their mothers and nurses to this beauty, alas ! was already that of heaven. During silence in public, it could only spring up and ripen at repeat these patriotic hymns. On one occasion, M. the night she became speechless, and at seven in the the domestic hearth. In this political conjuncture, Suchodolski, a celebrated patriot poet, one of Colonel morning she breathed her last. She died of consumpthe women of Poland performed an important part. Szyrma's guard, having come from the army to War- tion, accelerated by influenza. Madame Szyrma was amongst the most distinguished. saw, dined with his colonel. During dinner, Madame Her husband and children sorrowed as those only At Warsaw, she came in contact with women who, Szyrma’s youngest daughter lisped forth, unasked, in can mourn who lose such a wife and mother. Her like herself, were distinguished for their amiable dis- her childish accents, a stanza of the poet's most popu- exiled countrymen deeply felt her loss, while her Engpositions, their refinement, and patriotism. They lar hymn. M. Suchodolski was so touched by hearing lish friends manifested their sense of her virtues by met weekly at each other's houses, when music, con his verses thus uttered, and by finding they had fixed many private and public tributes to her memory. versation, and reading, formed their principal amuse themselves in the memory of so young a child, that She was buried at Kensal Green cemetery, according ments, and served as an agreeable relaxation to their he could not conceal his tears. Humble as the tribute to the rights of the Catholic church: a monument, husbands and relatives after their daily studies and was, it was the last he received; for he fell in the next erected by English women, marks the spot where her business. These domestic meetings were varied by encounter with the enemy. Ilis friends remember lim remains repose. excursions and pic-nic parties into the beautiful envi- in the camp, surrounded in the evening by the soldiers Madame Szyrma was the mother of four children ; rons of the Polish capital. The ladies had the entire listening, with enthusiasm, to his patriotic songs. two daughters only survive her. She educated them direction of the arrangements ; for a system of espio The events of a war, which had so much influence herself, and particularly delighted in instructing them nage prevailed so universally in Warsaw, that neither upon Madame Szyrma’s fate, belong to history. in history. She was patient, mild, and persevering; servants nor even members of the same family could Colonel Szyrma was marching to the relief of Warsaw, never excited to anger, and never having recourse to be trusted. These social meetings were necessarily ex when the news reached him of a capitulation after punishment. In her manners and conversation she clusive ; none but persons of known character and two days' siege. He was distant two days' march was eminently natural-making no display of sentipatriotism were permitted to join them; they soon from the city. The soldiers shed tears on learning ment, or of what she thought, felt, and did. All her became celebrated, and a good deal of ill feeling existed the disastrous intelligence ; retreated, and soon after- actions proceeded from a strong sense of duty, never amongst those who were excluded.

wards dispersed. Colonel Szyrma made his way alone from the desire of distinction. Her natural and acMadame Szyrma's parties were held every Monday. through Hungary and Austria to Munich, waited quired gifts sufficed for every emergency of her life; On that day, November 29, 1830, as some of the there for letters from his wife, and proceeded through they were solid and applicable to all occasions; and elders of the party were sitting down to their game of Paris to London. Alarmed' by the license of the instead of failing in time of need, as the pretensions whist, and the ladies, seated around a table engaged in Russians, and the atrocities they committed on War- of vanity must necessarily do, her various talents were needlework, were listening to Las Casas' work on saw, the kidnapping of Polish children for the purpose inexhaustible in their exercise, and universal in their Napoleon's Russian campaign, news was coming from of sending them to Russia, Madame Szyrma retired application. the theatre that the revolution had broken out. The under a feigned name to her father and brothers in Madame Szyrma kept a private journal, in which shock occasioned by this sudden and unexpected in the country, there to await until a passport could be she entered the principal events of her life, and some telligence may be imagined. All hurried away ; some procured. This would probably have never been ob- of her opinions and sentiments. The last words she of the gentlemen accompanying the ladies home, tained, as no egress from Poland was permitted, but wrote therein are characteristic of her firmness, her while others flew to arms. The night passed. In the for the intercession of one of the Russian generals, submission, and right-mindedness : “ Whatever hardmorning, not a Russian was to be seen in Warsaw ; Count Kiasimiski, whose life her husband had saved ships and injustice may have fallen to my share, in the but they were banded near its walls, with the Grand during the revolution, when threatened by the in- purity of my thought and conscience, I have my reDuke Constantine at their head, ready to attack the censed citizens of Warsaw. The passport was for ward." town at a moment's notice.

England, and extended to one year only ; but Madame On the following day, at three o'clock, a deputation Szyrma, on quitting Poland, determined never to refrom MI. Szyrma's pupils at the university waited upon turn, except as her husband's companion. Her jour

MR AND MRS HALL'S ACCOUNT OF him, to request him to organise them into a military ney through Prussia was cheered by the sympathy

IMPROVEMENTS IN DONEGAL. body, and to take the command. Madame Szyrma, which the cause of Poland had excited, and by her To all who take an interest in the progress of improveas a patriot, wept for joy at the honour thus conferred own situation as a wife and mother, leaving her pater- ment in Ireland, the following particulars will be acupon her husband; but when she considered the dan- nal home to follow her husband, and share with him ceptable. Mr and Mrs Hall, in the course of a tour gerous service the trust imposed upon him, and looked the hardships of exile. From Hamburgh she crossed last year in Ulster, for the purpose of collecting mateupon her infant children, she wept as a wife and to England, and, after a stormy passage, landed at the rials for their very beautiful work, “ Ireland, its Scemother. She had a presentiment that troubles and custom-house, 27th November 1833. Here she was nery, and Character,

19** visited a district of the marianxieties were benceforth to be her lot. ller hus- welcomed by her husband, who had been three days time county of Ulster, which, as they inform their band accepted the proposal made to him. The ac- awaiting her arrival. Of the feelings of the husband readers, is now undergoing a very remarkable change tivity and good conduct of the corps, which was com and wife at their first meeting, after a period of such in its social and physical condition. posed of the sons of the first families in Poland, and mutual anxiety, nothing requires to be said.

Leaving the northern and western quarters of Dodistinguished by the title of the guard of honour, soon Madame Szyrma’s residence in London was not one negal, so rich in all that can delight the antiquary, acquired influence and power throughout the country of pleasure, or even of comfort ; but she was more the naturalist, and lover of grand and picturesque Josephine knew that offices of trust were confided to than content, for she was with her husband, and could scenery, they proceeded in a direction towards the her husband, that he was enabled to save life and pro- educate her children. Colonel Szyrma acted as secre town of Stranorlar and the border town of Strabane. perty, to keep order, and that he could even extend tary to the Association of the Friends of Poland, so “ Our object in visiting Stranorlar," they go on to protection to the families of the Russians. She had distinguished for its efforts in behalf of the Polish re- narrate, “ was to examine certain improvements efseen him preside at national festivals, respected by the fugees, and its advocacy of the Polish cause. His wife fected upon a wild tract of mountain land, by which, citizens ; his services publicly acknowledged by the was compelled to witness the misery and destitution we had been informed, many hundred acres had been diet; borne home in triumph upon the shoulders of of her countrymen. She did what she could to alle. so reclaimed, as to furnish comfortable farms for sevehis regiment-honours she could only welcome with viate individual suffering, frequently denying herself ral tenants. It was also our purpose to inspect the her tears. What the reverse of the picture? When little comforts, from the feeling that others enjoyed schools connected with the estate of which the now executing a mission intrusted to him by the govern- still less. Her acquaintance with several English fertile meadows form a part. We were not disapment, her husband had been imprisoned for month families enabled her to obey the impulse of her gene pointed. We drove over well-made roads, where a in a Prussian dungeon, whence he ted to be de- rous nature. She succeeded in forming a society of few years ago bridle-paths only existed, by the side of livered up to Russia. Rescued from this danger, she Englishwomen for the relief of her countrymen, she a broad and most rapid river-which unhappily is had to endure suspense as to the issue of the battles herself undertaking the most difficult part; all who still suffered to run waste and idle ; and after asfought near Warsaw, the agony of repeated farewells, needed assistance first applied to her, and she had to cending some miles, reached the mountain top, where every one of which might be the last; the joy of see- determine between comparative claims when all could we had ample evidence of the vast good that may be ing him return in safety-these, and similar alterna- not be satisfied. The society supplied the refugees achieved by skill, judgment, and perseverance. The tions of happiness and misery, hope and fear, could with clothing, the sick and infirm with medicine and district is called Glenfin, and the estate to which we not be supported without injury to her health, and better diet ; it encouraged industry among them, by more immediately refer, Cloghan. much mental endurance.

buying articles of their manufacture, and reselling It is about twenty years since Sir Charles Style inIn countries like England, where there is no expe- them at a bazaar established for the purpose, the pro- herited his estates. He found the part that was siturience of war, where it is only known in the shape of fits being given to the Poles. The superintendence ated in Donegal in a deplorable condition. Ilicit distemporary and partial popular tumult, women can of the whole of the business, keeping the accounts, tillation was then at its height, and Glenfin was one scarcely conceive the noble feelings excited among and especially the difficult task of distribution, and their sex by a struggle for inde ence such that I satisfying the demands of necessity, fell upon Madame

* Part xxiv. London: J. How, Fleet Street


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continued distillery, over-run with all the demoralisa-passed in draining and deepening his soil, irrigating improvement cottages perfected, and in progress,
tion and misery which accompanies the trade. He at his land, collecting manure, &c., he lays himself up in dotted the landscape; the cry of the wild plover was
once determined to leare his native country, England, absolute idleness. His Lilliputian farm thus produces mingled with the wild song of industrious labour.
and to establish himself upon his Irish property. It but a Lilliputian crop, not equal to one-third of its na- In one dwelling, which we entered by chance, we
contained about 16,000 acres, of whichi about 2000 tural capability. His provisions become exhausted found a woman habited in the dress of the district
were arable, and the remaining 14,000 mountain waste. about May. Unable to get day labour to support his busily employed at her wheel, which, though she turned
Ile gare new leases to his tenants, made war upon the family through the summer, which is likewise a with her bare foot, was in a neat room, lighted by a
distillers, and in a short time completely eradicated season when he thinks his farm has no claim window that opened and shut, decently furnished-more
them. IIe built the house, and formed a domain on a upon him, he borrows at usurious interest for their than decently furnished, for a "jack-towel actually
portion of the wildest bog ; had a bridge built across support, and for the following year brings an hung on a roller behind the door, and the newly-made
the river Finn, and several roads made through the additional burden upon his shoulders, already too stairs leading to the loft were covered in the centre
property ; and after fourteen or fifteen years' resi- heavily laden for his strength. Having thus com- by a narrow strip of coarse carpeting. The young
dence and active exertion, the state of his health com- menced his downfall, he adds on, debt over debt, by woman shook hands with us both-a ceremony never
pelled him to leave Ireland ; but instead of abandon- the same process, each successive year, until he is omitted by these mountain peasants, when a stranger
ing his tunants to their own resources and misery, as obliged to sell his interest in the land, and turn out or an acquaintance enters their house.
absentee proprietors too frequently do, he selected a a pauper. Those proprietors who would use their in- We passed more than once over those roads, formed
substitute, to whom he gave unlimited powers to act fluence or their means to improve their tenants, should across what was once considered an irreclaimable bog.
for him, with ample means for continuing his improve consider well those circumstances. They should re- to a height from which we could command an exten-
ments. He divided the rents of the estate into two serve the whole of their expenditure on all general la sive view of Glenfin and its interesting vicinity. How
equal portions, leaving one half to bear the charges of bours that will admit of it for the loan quarter,' as it delightful was the reflection, that but for what had
management, charities, taxes, &c. This arrangement is aptly termed, and thereby prevent the poor man get been done for the civilisation of the country, and the
left to the agent, to be applied to the improvement of ting into debt. All government and county works should improvement of the land, the people who now are,
the property, about L.300 a-year, after deducting all be regulated upon the same principle. And again, and in a few years will be a still more valuable tenan-
the fixed charges.

the winter idle season, which, if properly looked to, try, would have either increased the starving popu.
Captain John Pitt Kennedy settled, as his agent in may be termed the remedial period of the year, should lation, or been emigrants to a foreign country.
Glentin, in the autumn of 1837. The leases given by likewise receive the attention it deserves, by taking Now they are prosperous, industrious, and happy.
Sir Charles Style were to expire in November 1938. every means to call forth the energies of the farmer, Where the foxes of the earth made holes, their cot-
During the continuance of these leases, the tenants so that in each successive year he may bring an addi- tages are built ; land, over which the screaming eagle
had divided and sub-divided the small portions of tional portion of his land into a more prolific state Happed its wings, echoes with the hum of cheerful
arable land into Rundale, a state of things which pa- than it was previously. The method proposed by voices. Children, ignorant of all book-knowledge, and
ralyses all improvement. It consists not in merely Captain Kennedy to avert the evils of the loan quar- wandering, like Indians, over the hills and valleys, are
sub-dividing the farm into a given number of small de- ter, is to reserve all possible expenditure in labour gathered in the profitable union of a happy school,
tached farms, but every quality of land is sub-divided, for that season. The plan he has found most effectual and taught the independence produced by steady and
so that a holding of four or five acres was frequently in bringing out the poor farmer to make the indis- well-directed labour. Land reclaimed without an out-
to be found scattered into fifteen or twenty different pensable improvements required on his farm during lay, which frequently Irish landlords cannot afford ;
lots at considerable distances from each other, and in- the winter remedial season, is by the instrumentality members of a population of almost paupers converted
terlaced with the similar lots of other occupiers, pre- of a loan fund ; from which no one can receive a into cultivators, improving the value of the proprie-
cluding all possibility of enclosing the holdings. He grant unless he shall have qualified by completing a tors' land, and their own condition at the same time;
found the tenants congregated in villages which, from given quantity of draining, trenching, or otlier requi- while the agricultural school, established with such
the incessant and unavoidable trespass of the cattle on site work on his farm-to have been previously laid fair success, promises that a race of better farmers
each other's lands, were the seats of incessant warfare ; out, and its completion certified for, by the agricul- shall spring up to guide the earth in bringing forth
many of the villages and townlands being without any tural teacher of the district. The loans, for this rea- its fruits in due season."
means of ingress or egress by road.

son, are for the most part made in the winter. The His first step was to take up the possession of all application of a loan, when granted, is likewise looked the farms, and to re-divide the estate into compact to. It must be for some reproductive object--as

TEMPERANCE COFFEE-HOUSES. holdings, giving to the original tenants as nearly as lime, improved farm implements, the purchase of a This class of coffee-houses, as may be readily supposed, possible an equivalent, in their new farms, for the cow, &c., but not for food or clothing.

owe their existence to what is called the “ temperance arable land they previously held. Observing that when No fines are levied in this fund. No rate of inte- movement;" and, though not in every respect what such a claim came below the quantity by which a rest is taken beyond what the ordinary law allows. they ought to be, have done much good. They are family could support itself, instead of receiving a simi- During five years that it has been in operation, the not now confined to large cities, but may be found in lar small lot of arable, the claimant was placed on a decrees' have not exceeded seren in number, and no almost every town of any note, increasing the stock waste-land farm, of improvable land, and dimensions loss has yet been sustained. When the defaulters of simple pleasures, and aiding in the diffusion of gesuited to his capability - averaging twenty statute exceed a certain proportion of the borrowers, the issues neral information amongst the people ; for no coffeeacres ; and he besides received some compensation cease until the number is reduced within that limit, house can be kept up for any length of time without from those amongst whom his former small arable lots and the names of the defaulters are made public. The newspapers, magazines, or reviews—which form, inmay have been divided. The effect of this measure system is working well. The people are gradually deed, a leading feature in their economy. During the was at once to multiply by about five the average ex- supplying themselves, by the aid thus afforded, with intervals of business, and at the close of the day, tent of every man's field of exertion, which previously carts, improved farm implements, additional live stock, they are much frequented by commercial men, to had been so limited, as not to afford employment for lime, &c.; and they are gradually losing their dor: whom they afford the means of agreeable relaxaone-third of their time; and that in a country where mouse qualities, and facing the winter's blast for the tion. there was but little opportunity of obtaining day permanent improvement of their lands. During the But it is matter of some regret that such establishlabour.

last winter, about a hundred tenants were to be seen ments do not, in general, possess those conveniences, The number of new mountain farms thus tenanted constructing on their farms thorough-drains, which and that amount, or at least appearance, of respectahas been 160. Their occupiers are to hold rent-free they had never before thought of; but without which, bility, which belong, as if by prescription, to an Engfor the first three, four, five, six, or seven years, ac- froin the nature of the soil and humidity of the cli- lish inn, the comforts of which have been sung by cording to the quality of the land, and are afterwards | mate, harvesting a crop was by no means a neces- more than one of our poets. In this, as in many to pay a small, and gradually increasing rent, com- sary consequence of sowing the seed. It is not un- things else, appearance goes a great length, and mencing at one shilling per statute acre, till it reaches reasonable to anticipate, that a very advantageous should accordingly meet with due attention. A about ten shillings an acre on the average. The oldest change must follow a continued system, thus adding house, for instance, may be unimpeachable in every settlements are now of four years' standing; their to the productive time of the farmer about five months quality, but if situated within a close or alley, approgress we witnessed. The agent is well satisfied in each year, which were hitherto, we may say, lost proached by a common stair, or possessed of any other when they improve at the rate of an acre per farm to him ; yet the change does not stop here. The in- mark of inferiority, it is not to be supposed that it cach year, and many have exceeded this rate, notwith- tensity of his exertion, whilst employed, is gradually will be patronised by those accustomed to the better standing the three last unfavourable seasons. This increased by the system of classified remuneration given class of hotels; and, least of all, if lady travellers be in year promises to make up all losses. The richest crops to labourers at the public works—the man who per- the case. We remember once going considerably out are now growing on these new mountain farms. forms the most labour receiving a commensurato re- of our way to seek accommodation at a “well adver

The first operation of both the old and new land ward ; and already the fruits of this classified remu- tised” temperance hotel in a provincial town in Engfarniers consisted in enclosing their holdings, and in neration have been most prolific. Add, also, the effect land, but the spectacle of a drab washing the lobby at building cottages in the centre of each. To the build- of the agricultural teacher periodically visiting each mid-day, with other appearances of a mean order, led us ing Captain Kennedy contributes a stipulated rate of man's farm, and advising with him on all his projects, to turn away at once without putting our foot within assistance on the part of the proprietor. We should besides the repeated practical lessons he is receiving, the threshold. This we give as a hint to persons propremise, that previously to fixing the limits of farms as often as le passes the model farm in connexion with posing to establish temperance hotels. If they expect on the new division of the lands, he laid out general the agricultural school.

to take a high standing, they must look a little more lines of road through the estate, and then laid off the Thus we have at once three elements of improve to exterior appearances, as well as to all the usual infarms with reference to these communications, the ment at work in every man throughout the estate ; ternal qualities of a good inn. construction of which has been gradually going on first, a vast increase of his productive time ; secondly, Glasgow, we understand, is making an effort in from the commencement, at the entire cost of the pro- a vast increase of his productive energies during that these respects, though no house, as far as we are aware, prietor, and at the rate of about five miles yearly. time; and, thirdly, a vast increase of his skill and comes yet up to what we point out as desirable-that The cost of these roads varies from about twenty to judgment in directing those energies.

is, a large temperance hotel to compete with the other sixty pounds per statute mile, according to tle nature We have very frequently received gratification by leading establishments. As to those houses already of the dietricts through which they pass; the average risiting the comfortable villages and cottages where in operation, however, there is nothing to find fault cost is about twenty-five pounds per mile. The extent the inhabitants are auspiciously located, and under with, as far as they go; whether as coffee-houses or made, up to this moment, amounts to about twenty kind and judicious management; such are rapidly on inns, they deserve to be spoken of with respect; and miles; and the employment they afford, as well as the increase ; and, year after year, we have been happy from the slight examination we were able to give, they every other outlay for labour that admits of it, is to observe the active progress of improvement. Yet secmed not only reasonable in their charges, but supestrictly reserved for the summer idle season of the we had been unprepared, amid the mountain fastnesses rior in accominodation to any we had previously seen. ycar, when the stores of the poorer class become ex- of Donegal, to see the number of prosperous and plea- With Mr --'s temperance hotel in Jamaica Street, hausted, and they are most in want of assistance. It sant dwellings that are to be met with throughout we were particularly well-pleased. It is frequented is not sufficient, under the peculiar circumstances of Glenfin.

by the higher class of travellers, and possesses, besides Ireland, merely to effect objects useful in themselves, Looking down from one of the hills, over folding a convenient reading-room, twelve bed-rooms, neatly In order to obtain the maximum result, they must be valleys and leaping torrents, it was impossible, know- / but not expensively furnished; the charge for a single effected in the right way, and at the right time. This ing the nature of the country, and the nature of the night's lodging being 1s., with 23. extra for the servant. consideration involves an analysis of the habits of the people, not to feel deeply anxious to ascertain how Other charges were proportionably low. Mrs —'s poor. They are, we may say, exclusively agricultu- such admirable roads, intersecting the boys and tra- coffee-house, in Argyle Street, is also of a superior rists. They imagine that their duties, as such, are versing the highlands, had been so quickly con- description, but the charges are somewhat higher. limited to the spring sowing and the harvesting of tructed ; and how, in the midst of bog, such well-built Mr —'s temperance hotel, Melville Place, Trontheir crops. The judicious preparation of his land for homes and productive gardens had metamorphosed gate, was the first established in Glasgow on total receiving the ordinary operations of tillage, do not the 'cottier into the small farmer-respecting the abstinence principles. It is very tastefully fitted enter into the calculation of the small Irish farmer. laws, and respected by his superiors. The wild beauty p, kept remarkably clean, and possesses bed-rooms And during the winter season, which ought to be of the scene was enhanced by the moral beauty of elegantly furnished. The reading-room is well sup

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plied with the periodicals of the day, and, we under


air is contained in the body of the island, and may be stand, much resorted to by the citizens.

dislodged by probing the earth with a pole. This air Regarding these establishments as well fitted to [From a late number of the Gaberlunzie's Wallet.] was found by Dr Dalton to consist of equal parts of car. contribute to the comfort of the traveller, and at

WEE, genty, timid, baslıfu' wean,

bureted hydrogen and azotic gases, with a little carbonic the same time to elevate the tone of social life, we

Tott, totting through the street thy lane,


Like sunny keeks through cluds o' rain; wish them every possible success.

Mr Otley further adds---" That one material circum-
Thy face sae fair
Peeps sweetly through thy clustering train

stance has, however, generally escaped observation ;

namely, that the air to which the rising of this island has

O raven hair.

been attributed is not collected in a body underneath it, Thy wce bit neck and bosom bare,

but interspersed through the whole mass. And the most “ INTELLECT” makes but slow progress in its “marchi,"

Though tussled by the cauld raw air,

probable conclusion seems to be, that the air or gas is compared with the onward movement of electricity. We

Are pearly pure, and lily fair,
As snaw flakes fa'in;

generated in the body of the island by decomposition of speak not of its plıysical movement, for, time out of An' thy wee cheeks glow like a pair

the vegetable matter of which it is formed; and this gas mind, a flash of lightning lias run second only to thought;

O roses blawin'.

being produced most copiously, as well as being more but of its advances into the social system, and its in

rarefied in liot weather, the earth at length becomes so

Thy form light as a fairy faycreasing usefulness in the arts of life. The daily multi

Thy facy sweet as fiowery May

much extended therewith as to render the mass of less plying appliances of this subtile mysterious principle

Thine ee, like dawn o'infant day,

weight than an equal bulk of water. The water, then, inWaukin' the east,

sinuating itself between the substratum of clay and the forbid us to question its power to accomplish all things.

Till light an' lustre sparkle gay

peat earth forming the island, bears it to the surface, Electric influence is extending its dominion in regions

In every breast.

where it continues for a time, till, partly by the escape of where, some years since, the most outstretched imagina

Tho'sma' thy mak, an' scrimp thy clecding,

the gas, partly by its absorption, and partly by its contion would not liave conceived the possibility of its en

Tho'bleak thy hame, an' puir thy feeding,

densation consequent on a decrease of heat, the volume tering. The engraver finds the utmost ingenuity of his

Tho' scant thy lair, an'laigh thy breeding,

is reduced, and the earth gradually sinks to its former Still we can see

level, where it remains till a sufficient accumulation of art surpassed ; the plater beholds the solvent gold and

Sweet beauty a' the graces leading

gas again renders it buoyant. But as the vegetable silver reappear, and, at the touch of this invisible agent,

Captive to thee.

matter of which the island is principally composed apspread themselves over all the intricacies of the chiselled

Yet beauty's e'en a doubtfu' gift,

pears to have been amassed at a remote period, when the metal with matchless uniformity and precision ; sauce

Wi' mickle show, but little thrift;

lake was of less depth than at present, receiving very pans and kettles actually grow in the blue copper solu

Wit the rich may mak a shift

little addition from the decay of plants recently grown tion, to set at nought the brazier's art ; the fabric-printer

To lead the fashion, throws down liis wooden blocks in despair on seeing the

While humble beauty's cast adrift

upon the spot, it is reasonable to suppose that the process On human passion.

of furnishing the gas cannot from the same materials be most involved patterns, trace<l in varieties of colours,

continued ud infinitum ; but that there must be a time impressed at once and in the twinkling of an eye by the

O, man! why wilt thou seek thy bane,

when it shall have arrived at its maximum, after which touch of a wire; the antiquary starts on discerning his

An' barter happiness for pain :

the eruptions will become less extensive or less frequent." rarest relics reproduced so exactly, that no skill can dis

Why cast on beauty's flower a stain
That gars it wither;

--- Glasgow Herald. tinguish the copy from the original; even the giant

I trow the heart gets little gain steam, with his lightning speed, is left far behind by

That breaks anither.

SIR RICHARD JEBB. the lightning itself, and groans the announcement, that

Alack! puir wean, thy fate I fear, steam has had its day. To those who have witnessed the

This physician was very rough and harsh in manner.

Thy morning sky's e'en cauld an' drear; inroads of the electric fluid into all the affairs of life, it

He said to a patient, to whom he had been very rude

Dark poortith hovers in the rear, comes within the range of imagination to conceive that

Wi' borling scowl,

Sir, it is my way.” “ Then,” replied the patient, pointeven the functions of government may be, at no distant

An' how can sic as thou win clear

ing to the door, “ I beg you will make that you'r way." day, performed with pametnality and despatcli” by its

O' faes sac foul.

Sir Richard was not very nice in his mode of expression, all-pervading influence. The lightning-telegraph already

and would frequently astonish a patient with a volley of

Auli beldame Fortune, would I kenned her! threatens to destroy at one fell swoop the whole corps of

oaths. Nothing used to make him swear more than the

I wadna, wee thing, let thee wander representative sovereigns and deputy-governors. What Wi'thy sma' limbs, sac slim an' slender,

eternal question -“What may I eat?" "Pray, Sir need of ambassadors at foreign courts, when communica

Expos’d an' bare,

Richard, may I eat a muffin?" "Yes, madam, the best tions can be made directly and instantaneously between

And thy wee feet, sae jimp an' tender,

thing you can take.” “Oh dear, I am glad of that. But, the sovereigns or ministers of distant nations ? Of what

A' dinlin' sair.

Sir Richard, you told me the other day that it was the use will be colonial governors, where intelligence of pass

Jlail, holy Nature, thou whase power

worst thing I could eat !" * What would be proper fer ing events is communicated, and all necessary instruc

llast gi'en her be..uty for her dower,

me to eat to-day ?** says another lady. Boiled tunips." tions transmitted, across the Atlantic ere an ordinary

o tend wi' care this tender flower

“ Boiled turnips! you forget, Sir Richard, I told you I courier can ride from Whitehall to Windsor ? Great

That springs frae thee,

could not bear boiled turnips.” - Then, madam, you advances have been made in the perfecting of this impor

And rear her safe in Virtue's bower,

must have a very vitiated appetite." Sir Richard being

Aneath thine ee ! tant governmental apparatus since we last noticed its

called to see a patient, who fancied liimself very ill, told progress; and if it but proceed on the road of improve

him ingenuously what he thought, and declined prescribment during the next twelve months at as rapid a pace

ing, thinking it unnecessary. Now you are here," said

THE FLOATING ISLAND IN DERWENT LAKE, as during the past year, the picture now sketched by

the patient, " I shall be obliged to you, Sir Richard, if

NEAR KESWICK. imagination will be painted in vivid colours on the cauvass

you will tell me how I must live, what I inay eat, and

what not." of accomplished facts. This most extraordinary phenomenon is situate not

• My directions as to that point,” replied In the course of experiments instituted by Messrs far from Lodore, at the south-east extremity of the lake,

Sir Richard, “ will be few and simple. You must not eat Wright and Bain for the improvement of their electrical and a little more than 150 yards from the land, where the

the poker, shovel, or tongs, for they are hard of digestion; telegraph, they discovered that the electric circuit of a depth of the water does not exceed six feet in a mean

nor the bellows, because they are windy; but anything galvanic battery is as effectually completed through a state of the lake.

else you please !"-Flowers of Anecdote. large body of water is through an insulated wire. They During the last. forty years, it has appeared thirteen

HYDROPHOBIA. have applied this curious discovery so effectually, as to times. In the year 1808, from July 20 to the beginning My predecessors, Messrs Blaine and Youatt, as well as be now able to dispense with two of the wires heretofore of October in the same year; in 1813, from the 7th of myselt, have been bitten by rabid dogs, and we are still thought necessary for the action of their printing-tele- September to the end of October following; in 1815, alive; and we have operated on some hundreds of human graph ; and they are thus enabled to print all communi from August 5 to the end of the month ; in 1819, from beings who have been bitten by rabid animals, and in no cations, either verbal or symbolical, at any distance, by August 14 to the end of the same month; in 1824, from case has there been loss of life. The preventive is as folthe use of a single wire. We understand they are now June 21 to the end of September ; in 1825, it was above lows :- The person bitten should, as soon as possible, in treaty with the government to construct a telegraph the water from the 9th to the 23d of September, and thoroughly wash and cleanse the bitten part; not suck on this principle between the Admiralty and Portsmouth. from the 11th July to the end of September in 1826. the poison from the wound, as is too commonly done-for One insulated wire would be laid down between the two • The circumstance of its appearing in three successive inoculation may take place by an abrasion on the lip. If points, to connect the galvanic battery of the outport with years," says Mr Oiley, "may be attributed to the extra the wound be superficial and ragged, let the edges be the printing apparatus of the Admiralty, and the return ordinary warmth of the season.” It made its appearance removed with a pair of scissors, and then apply freely to current would be sent through the earth in lieu of using again on the 10th of June, 1831, and remained uncovered every part the nitrate of silver, commonly called lunar a second wire to complete the circuit. Should the mois until the 25th of September. In 1834 and 1835, it was caustic, and wliich may be had in any druggist's shop. If ture in the ground not prove sufficient to conduct the visible for a few weeks in August and September. In the wound be a punctured one, as in some cases it is, from electricity, the inventors propose to transmit the return 1837, it appeared in July and August. It appeared again the tusk of the animal going deep into the flesh, the stick current by water ; making it pass down the Thames to on the 19th July, 1811, and remained till the end of of caustic niust be carefully pointed, that it may reach the German Ocean, and thence along the Channel to August. And it made its appearance in the latter end of the bottom; if necessary, the wound should be enlarged, Portsmouth; this roundabout voyage to be performed last or the beginning of the present month (September), care being taken in the use of the knife, or the poison instantaneously. By thus simplifying, and consequently but it is not yet quite so large as on some of the former may be carried by it over the fresh surface. The nitrate greatly reducing the cost of the electrical printing-tele occasions of its appearance.

of silver destroys the surface of the wound, and neugraph, the inventors have gone far towards rendering it We will not undertake to investigate the great number tralises the poison, which comes away with the destroyed generally available; another step in advance will dispense of hypotheses which have been advanced relative to the surface without the absorbents acting upon it; and if with all metallic connexion whatever. The atmosphere cause of this singular plienomenon, nor examine into any freely applied to the part affected, the patient may feel and the occan may then be all-sufficient media for the of the arguments which have been adduced, but will himself perfectly safe. I do not recommend the applicommunication of thought, literally to realise the poet's merely give the opinion of Mr Otley, who is well-versed cation of a poultice after the operation, but let the wound vision

in the geological and meteorological properties of the be exposed to the atmosphere, and should any inflamma

lake district, who is resident at Keswick, and who, for the tion ensue, it may be relieved by dressings of olive oil. “ And waft a sigh from Indus to the Pole."


last thirty years, has watched with much attention the Believing that some lives may be saved, I communicate [To the above may very properly be added the following, operations of it. Mr Otley says---- That it generally this information through your valuable columns.-Extract likewise a newspaper paragraph of recent date :-"A rises after an interval of a few days, and after a continu- from a letter of Dr Ainslie, Middlesex Hospital, in the German journal gives the following account of what it ance of fine weather. Its figure and dimensions are va Standard, designates as one of those wonders in which electrical che riable; it has sometimes contained about half an acre of

COMMERCIAL STRUGGLES. mistry is so fertile: . A pupil of Berzelius, who was oc- ground, at other times only a few perches; but extend In truth, it is wonderful to behold-and not the less cupying himself in Sweden with galvanic gilding, having ing in a gradual slope under water, a much greater por- wonderful because little known, and therefore a thing used in his apparatus the skin of a sheep, on which there tion is raised from the bottom than reaches the surface little esteemed-how fiercely and successfully men of was some of the wool remaining, perceived that it be of the lake. Several large rents or cracks may be seen in high commercial fame battle with difficulties as they came partially covered with the gold. Struck with the the earth above the place, which appear to have been beset them. The politician, the soldier, the sailor, each incident, he followed up the idea it suggested, and in occasioned by its stretching to reach the surface. It has his loud acclaim for coolness and freedom of demeantiine produced an entire golden fleece, preserving the never rises far above the level of the lake, but having our in time of danger ; but few remark, and nobody conwool in its original and natural state as to texture and once attained the surface, it for a time fluctuates with descends to tell, how the mind of a tradesman battles flexibility. Living in a village, the youu sarant showed the rise and fall of the water, after which it sinks grailu- with and subdues mere fleshly fears when that which he the wonderful production to his neighbours; but the ally. When at rest in the bottom of the lake, it lias the holds dearest on earth, his credit and his name, are in fanatical and ignorant peasants, regarding him as a same appearance as the neighbouring parts, being covered jeopardy, and the terrors of " stoppage" compass hila practiser of the black art, attacked his laboratory, broke with the same vegetation,

consisting principally of lite about. In truth, that is no mean intellect which, on a all his utensils to pieces, and compelled him to fly with rella lacustris and lobelia dorimunno, interspersed with crowded exchange, in the face of rivals, of those great his fleece to Upsal, where he was received with kindness isoetes lacustris, and other plants common in this and all ones whom he has met as equals, and those men to whoma and consideration by the members of the university, who, the neighbouring lakes. After remaining some time above a glance of recognition has been an acceptable favour, can by a subscription, not only supplied himn with the means the water, its verdure is much improved. For a few cover with a face of cheerfulness a bosom of sorrows, and or subsistence, but established a new laboratory for him, inches in depth, it is composed of clayey or earthy matter, carry high the head when the last planks of the ship are and aided him in applying his new discovery to the manu- apparently deposited by the water, in which the growing about to part.- The Cotton Lord. facture of woollen cloth. We may therefore expect to plants have fixed their roots; the rest is a congeries of have shortly cloths of gold, silver, and platina, which decayed vegetable matter, forming a stratum of loose LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by will entirely supersede our present gold lace and em- peat earth, about six feet in thickness, which rises from W. S. Orr, Paternoster Row, broidery.'") a bed of very fine soft clay. A considerable quantity of

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefritis






PRICE lid.

the painful subject. He cast his thoughts into the ton Grey was strongly evinced by the fact of his being TEMPER.

mould of gentle, even affectionate words, but he learned indignant beyond expression at the “liberty” his PERHAPS of all the lesser ills of life, and which make that hour a lesson of worldly wisdom, which, though friend had taken with him—a liberty which only a up a pretty large amount of misery, few are so truly he was too truthful and noble always to act upon,' he very true friend could have ventured upon. Of course vexatious and distressing as those which proceed from never forgot; the lesson, that with inferior minds, to he struggled as much as possible to conceal his wrath, the infirmities of temper. Thrice blessed are ye who tell them of their faults, is most unpardonably to for to have given full vent to his feelings, would have may dispute the assertion, for your inexperience must offend.

confirmed all George Hamilton had asserted; but the be a blissful ignorance ; but they who know the hideous “ Perhaps, sir,” said Newton Grey, after a slight latter was never forgiven, and in a few months their aspect of the “ domestic demon” will admit its truth. pause in the conversation to which we have alluded, intimacy dwindled to a mere bowing acquaintance. Not that it is easy to define precisely where just indig- “ perhaps, sir, you will favour me with some other in Perhaps the reader may suspect that George Hanation is merged in mere anger, or where this sinks to stance of my violence, or, as I think you phrased it, milton was more than commonly pleased with the the still more ignoble feeling which we recognise as display of anger disproportioned to the cause.”” young lady who had spoken so eloquently on the sub“ill temper;" though, if we do anatomise the vile thing, “My dear fellow, I believe occasional violence of ject of temper; and it was so. The world said he had we shall be obliged to confess that it is the triumph temper, however unjustifiable, to be even a less fault very much admired his cousin Rose, and that her enof the worst feelings of our nature over all the higher than that which I am urging you to correct. There gagement to Newton Grey had been a great disapattributes ; triumphs perhaps occasional and rare at is a Turkish proverb to the effect, “Why beat the pointment to him ; if so, he was by this time reconfirst, but, by their exercise, very likely to become fre- Stamboul puppy because the dog at Bagdad bit you?' ciled to his fate ; but such sentiments might account quent or perpetual, for a bad temper is one of the and I think it applies to you. For instance, was it for the strong interest he took in the disposition of many demons which you must resist, if you would dignified, or even gentlemanlike, because you were dis- him on whom her happiness rested. For Ellen have them flee from you.

appointed of the curious prints I know you had pro-Saville, however, his affections soon assumed a much Newton Grey was an only child, the only son of a mised to take with you, to disappoint the party at the warmer character, for they were based on the most widow, and, perhaps, if ever excuses should be made manor house last Wednesday—a party made up chiefly solid foundation. Without any striking beauty to for such ill-training, some might be offered for the in honour of your coming of age—without even send attract, without more than a very moderate compebereaved mother, whose over-indulgence of the sole | ing an apology, until after they had waited dinner for tence to lure, and without one particle of art to enremnant of her flock strengthened those errors which you as long as in courtesy to the other guests. they snare, she was one of those persons who, in frivolous might have been in childhood uprooted. His educa- could do ?”

society, too often meet with positive neglect. But the tion was in a great measure a home one, and Mrs " It was so provoking, when the fellow had promised conversation which had made so strong an impression Grey's acquaintance were for the most part of that that they should be cleaned, and a portfolio made ex on George Hamilton convinced him that, however unmole-like and unobservant class (of whom, if the world pressly for them by that morning ; it put me in such obtrusive her manners, she observed, reasoned, judged, entirely consisted, we should surely go back in a little a rage."

and felt ; and a very few interviews convinced him he while to primitive barbarism) who never discovered Exactly so. And because the printseller broke | had found the one whose companionship through life anything particular about Master Newton, though his word, you forfeited yours, and had to answer for would never weary. It might be two months after perhaps they would have acknowledged, if asked the poor Mrs Percival's soup being cold, her turbot spoiled, that eventful dinner-party that young Hamilton paid question, that he was rather a disagreeable boy than and an uneven number of guests being at her table a visit to his relatives, and entered the drawing-room otherwise. A public, or even large school, would have a thing her precise husband very much dislikes ; not where, at the moment, Rose was alone. His manner been the making of him, for in either he would have to mention that young Bolton had ridden eighteen was unusually animated, and his face radiant wit) found his level; but, as it was, the “ disagreeable” boy miles to meet you, and talk over your childish ac- pleasure. grew rapidly into the handsome, intelligent (as far as quaintance, or that my merry cousin Rose had no one “Give me joy, Rose,” he exclaimed; “I am the books could make him so), but ill-tempered young to take second in her favourite duets."

happiest man in the world.” man. It must not, however, be supposed that he went “ I was in such a rage" :

“You have passed your examination, and are admitabout the world like a porcupine with his quills erect “ And are now," returned George.

ted, I suppose ?” (George was studying for the law.) - very far from it: he had caught the tone of good “ Nonsense. I never was calmer,” stammered the “Oh, no ; that's a trifle in store for next spring," society—if not the feeling which that tone is intended other between his set teeth.

rejoined he; and then, with a voice almost faltering to represent—and to the stranger there was even sua “Well, well, the truth was, you did not know Rose with emotion, he continued—“I have proposed and vity in his manners. The creature was harmless while would be there, or I daresay you would have gone. am accepted.” all went smoothly, but stroke him the wrong way, and it would then have been your pleasure to do so; but “ By whom ?" asked Rose, wonderingly. you would be glad to draw your hand back. It was having no particular inducement, except the selfish “ By whom !--why, by the only woman I ever did, remarkable, that though rather popular in society than gratification of being envied as the possessor of those could, or can love, Ellen Saville—my Ellen now. Of otherwise, he had not formed any of those warm en rare engravings-after all, a ten minutes' interlude in course she will wish you to be bride's maid ; but, alas ! thusiastic friendships which are so natural with the five hours you would have spent there ; when de- you'll not be needed till next summer; and I am the young, and which, though possibly in their very prived of that, you cared nothing about annoying, more afraid you will be married first, and she will have to elements “sweet, not lasting,” may yet be considered or less, half-a-dozen other persons. This is what I be second to her friend.'” as an earnest of those aspirations after the good and call temper."

Afraid, George, that I should be married first ! the true, which bespeak at least a belief in their ex “ And so, I daresay, you explained it to Miss Hamil. Perhaps you had better ask Newton to postpone our istence. Had Newton Grey been questioned on the ton,” exclaimed Newton, dashing to the floor a pile of marriage because you, too, are in love,” said Rose with subject, he would probably have told how often he had books which stood at his elbow, merely to relieve his a laugh. “I see you are over head and ears; and, already been deceived, or how changeable people were. feelings. “Fortunately I was not called upon for an remember, I do not expect one word of sense from The truth was, that as soon as acquaintance merged explanation ; but when your mother entered the room, you for the next twelve months. That is giving you into intimacy, he invariably (to keep up the meta- it was very evident that she had been recently in tears ; ten months' courtship and a double honeymoon before phor) showed his quills, and the fresh warm hearts of and though she delivered your message, I doubt not, the recovery of your senses." his associates as instinctively drew back from a closer quite correctly, the real state of the case was, I believe, “Though I know you are half in jest, Rose, yet contact.

suspected by all. I even heard Rose defend you”—a you do me injustice. Since you are to marry Newton Among his young acquaintances, however, was one pause, but no word from Newton Grey)—“though a Grey, I shall be happy, as speedily as you please, to who either had for him a more sincere regard than the young lady, who is now on a visit to Mrs Percival, congratulate you on your nuptials, though I am sorry others, or for some motive not at the time known or joined in the conversation, taking the very opposite to say he has almost cut me three times since I saw suspected, did show unusual forbearance under New- side of the argument, and so sensibly and eloquently you. However, let it pass, and forgive me if I ever ton's petty but annoying outbreaks of temper. It is did she express herself, that I fear, poor girl, she pained you by the truths I some time since endeacertain that George Hamilton, though only a year or must have spoken from personal experience. I really voured to impress upon your mind. I shall be but two Sis senior, had penetrated the character of Newton do believe," continued young Hamilton, after a mo too rejoiced if experience proves that I was in error. Grey, and discovered some of the good qualities which ment's hesitation, “ that good sense is the most valu- Believe me, my dear girl, I had only your happiness he really possessed, despite his besetting fault. But able quality a woman can possess.” Perhaps he in view when I pcinted out his one infirmity, which, more did he do than show forbearance, for, in a moment might have added, “or a inan either."

I doubt not, you will speedily remove." of confidence, he ventured to remonstrate with him on At all events, the absence of “good sense" in New The engagement to her cousin naturally promoted

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