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it ; and, moreover, she had just secured the very of B—, was half-past seven, when the knell of the With only some understrappings on her cranium, identical turban that, of all the turbans that ever clock was followed by a single knock at the door, and and altogether unconscious of her calamity, smiling and were made, was most likely to accomplish this deside the next moment her maid walked into the room with bowing, Miss Cecilia advanced towards her host and ratum-at least so she opined. —what do you think?—the identical crimson and gold thinking, certainly, that her taste in a head-dress was

hostess, who received her in the most gracious manner, Poor Miss Cecilia! Up stairs she rushed, bouncing turban in her hand !

peculiar, and that she was about the most extraordinary into Miss Gibbs's little room, now strewed with finery. “What a beauty!” cried Susan, turning it round, figure they had ever beheld, but supposing that such “Well, Miss Gibbs, I hope you have something that that she might get a complete view of it in all its was the fashion she chose to adopt—the less astonished will suit me?” phases.

or inclined to suspect the truth, from having heard a “ Dear me, mem,” responded Miss Gibbs, “ what a “ Was there any message, Sue?” inquired Miss Be But to the rest of the company, the appear

good deal of the eccentricities of the two spinsters of pity you did not come a little sooner. The only two Cecilia, gasping with agitation, for her heart was in ance she made was inexplicable ; they had been acturbans we had are just gone-Mrs Gosling took one, her throat.

customed to see her ill dressed, and oddly dressed, but and Miss Charlotte Smith the other—two of the “No, ma’ám," answered Sue ; " Miss Gibbs’s girl such a flight as this they were not prepared for. beautifullest — here they are, indeed—you shall see just left it ; she said it should have come earlier, but Some whispered that she had gone mad; others susthem ;” and she opened the boxes in which they were she had so many places to go to.”

pected that it must be accident—that somehow or

other she had forgotten to put on her head-dress ; but deposited, and presented them to the grieved eyes of “ And she's gone, is she, Susan ?”

even if it were so, the joke was an excellent one, and Miss Cecilia.

“ Yes, ma'am, she went directly—she said she hadn't nobody cared enough for her to sacrifice their amuseShe stood aghast ! The turbans were very respect got half through yet.”

ment by setting her right. So Miss Cecilia, blessed in able turbans indeed ; but, to her disappointed and “Very well, Susan, you may go ; and remember, her delusion, triumphant and happy, took her place eager desires, they appeared worthy

of Mahomet the I'm not at home if any body calls ; and if any message gave her a full view of the door, in order that she prophet, or the Grand Sultana, or any other body, comes here from Miss Gibbs, you'll say I'm gone out, might have the indescribable satisfaction of seeing the mortal or immortal, that has ever been reputed to and you don't expect me home till very late.” expression of Miss Charlotte's countenance when she wear turbans. And this consummation of perfection

“ Very well, ma'am.”

entered the room—that is, if she came; the probabi. she had lost !- lost just by a neck !—missed it by an “ And, I say, Susan, if they send here to make any lity was, that mortification would keep her away. accident, that

, however
gratifying she had thought it inquiries about that turban, you'll say you know no- spirit to be beaten out of the field in that


. at the time, she now felt was but an inadequate com- thing about it, and send them away."

She had waited with patience for her turban, because pensation for her present disappointment. But there

" Very well, ma'am,” said Susan, and down she Miss Gibbs had told her, that, having many things to was no remedy. Miss Gibbs had nothing fit to make dived to the regions below.

send out, it might be late before she got it; but when a turban of ; besides, Miss Cecilia would have scorned Instead of four o'clock, how ardently did Miss half past six arrived, she became impatient, and disto appear in any turban that Miss Gibbs could have Cecilia wish it were seven ; for the danger of the next with “Miss Gibbs's respects, and the girl was still out compiled, when her rival was to be adorned with a three hours, was imminent. Well she understood with the things ; she would be sure to call at Miss construction of such superhuman excellence. No! the how the turban had got there—it was a mistake of Charlotte's before she came back.” At half-past only consolation she had was to scold Miss Gibbs for the girl—but the chance was great that, before seven seven there was another message, to say that the turnot having kept the turbans till she had seen them, o'clock arrived, Miss Charlotte would take fright at her errands, and Miss Gibbs, on questioning her, dis

ban had not arrived ; by this time the girl had done and for not having sent for a greater number of tur- not receiving her head-dress, and would send to Miss covered the truth. But it was too late the mischief bans. To which objurgations Miss Gibbs could only Gibbs to demand it, when the whole thing would be

was irreparable--Susan averring, with truth, that her answer, “That she had been extremely sorry, indeed, found out. However, no message came : at five o'clock, mistress had gone to Mrs Hanaway's party some time, when she saw the ladies were bent upon having the when the milk-boy rang, Miss Cecilia thought she with the turban on her head. turbans, as she had ordered two entirely with a view should have fainted ; but that was the only alarm, feelings-that would be a vain endeavour. Rage took

We will not attempt to paint Miss Charlotte's to Miss Cecilia's accommodation ; and, moreover, that at six she began to dress, and at seven she stood possession of her soul; her attire was already comshe was never more surprised in her life than when before her glass in full array, with the turban on her plete, all but the head-dress, for which she was waiting. Mrs Gosling desired one of them might be sent to her, head. She thought she had never looked so well; She selected the best turban she had, threw on her because Mrs Gosling never wore turbans ; and if Miss indeed, she was sure she had not. The magnitude of cloak and calash, and in a condition of mind bordering Gibbs had only foreseen that she would have pounced the thing gave her an air, and indeed a feeling of upon frenzy, she rushed forth, determined, be the conupon it in that way, she, Miss Gibbs, would have dignity and importance that she had never been sequences what they might, to claim her turban, and

expose Miss Cecilia's dishonourable conduct before the taken care she should never have seen it at all,” &c., sensible of before. The gold lace looked brilliant whole company. &c., &c.—all of which the reader may believe, if he or

even by the light of her single tallow candle ; what By the time she arrived at Mrs Hanaway's door, she choose. As for Miss Cecilia, she was implacable, would it do in a well-illuminated drawing-room ! owing to the delays that had intervened, it was nearly and she flounced out of the house, and through the then the colour was strikingly becoming, and suited half past eight ; the company had all arrived ; and streets, to her own door, in a temper of mind that ren- her hair exactly-Miss Cecilia, we must here ob- refreshments, one of the female servants of the estadered it fortunate, as far as the peace of the town of serve, was quite grey; but she wore a frontlet of dark blishment had come into the hall, and

was endeavour. B— was concerned, that no accident brought her curls, and a little black silk skull-cap, fitted close to ing to introduce some sort of order and classification in contact with Miss Charlotte on the way.

her head, which kept all neat and tight under the amongst the mass of external coverings that had been turban.

hastily thrown off by the ladies ; so, when Miss Char. As soon as she got into her parlour, she threw off

lotte knocked, she opened the door and let her in, and her bonnet and shawl, and plunging into her arin

She had not far to go ; nevertheless, she thought proceeded to relieve her of her wraps. chair, she tried to compose her mind sufficiently to it would be as well to set off at once, for fear of ac " I suppose I'm very late," said Miss Charlotte, take a calm view of the dilemma, and determine oncidents, even though she lingered on the way to fill up dropping into a chair to seize a moment's rest, whilst what line of conduct to pursue—whether to send an the time, for every moment the danger augmented ; with haste, and heated with fury.

the woman drew off her boots, for she was out of breath excuse to Mrs Hanaway, or whether to go to the party so she called to Susan to bring her cloak, and her

“I believe every body's come, ma'am," said the in one of her old head-dresses. Either alternative was calash, and her overalls, and being well packed up by woman.

“I should have been here some time since," proinsupportable. To lose the party-the game at loo, the the admiring Sue, who declared the turban was “withdistinction of being seen in such good society-it was

out exception the beautifullest thing she ever saw," ceeded Miss Charlotte, “but the most shameful trick too provoking ; besides, very likely people would suppose she started ; determined, however, not to take the has been played me about my-my-Why—I declare

and she bent forward, and she had not been invited ; Miss Charlotte, she had no

direct way, but to make a little circuit by a back picked up the turban-the identical turban, which, doubt, would try to make them believe so. But then, street, lest, by ill luck, she should fall foul of the disturbed by the maid-servant's manæuvres, was lying on the other hand, to wear one of her old turbans was enemy.

upon the floor, still attached to the calash by Sukey's 80 mortifying—they were so very shabby, so unfashion Susan,” said she, pausing as she was stepping off unlucky pin. able-on an occasion, too, when every body would be the threshold, “ if any body calls

Was there ever such a triumph ? Quick as lightso well-dressed! Oh, it was aggravating-vexatious, been gone to Mrs Hanaway's some time; and, Susan, maid with bursting sides assisting in the operation ; in the extreme! She passed the day in reflection, just put a pin in this calash to keep it back, it falls and then, with a light step and a proud heart, up chewing the cud of sweet and bitter fancies; recalling over my eyes so that I can't see;" and Susan pinned walked Miss Charlotte, and was ushered into the drawto herself how well she looked in the turban—for she a fold in the calash, and away went the triumphant

Cecilia was roused from her meditations by hearing the hall, lying on the floor, fast in the calash, to which that awaits her when she discovers the truth.”.

, you'll say I have ning, the

old turban was off and the new one on, the

ing-room. had tried it on ; figuring what would have been Miss Miss Cecilia. She did not wish to be guilty of the Cecilia's feelings were those of disappointment and

As the door opened, the eyes of the rivals met. Miss Charlotte's mortification if she had been the disap- vulgarity of arriving first at the party; so she lin- surprise. “ Then she has got a turban too! How could pointed person—how triumphantly she, Miss Cecilia, gered about till it wanted a quarter to eight, and she have got it?" and she was vexed that her triumph would have marched into the room with the turban then she knocked at Mrs Hanaway's door, which a was not so complete as she had expected. But Miss on her head-how crest-fallen the other would have smart footman immediately opened, and, with the Charlotte was in ecstacies. It may be supposed she looked ; and then she varied her occupation by resus- alertness for which many of his order are remarkable, room, and the whole party were thrown into convulcitating all her old turbans, buried in antique band proceeded to disengage the lady from her external sions of laughter. Miss Čecilia, alone, was not in the boxes deep in dust, and trying whether it were possible, coverings—the cloak, the overalls, the calash ; and then, secret ; and

as she was successful at cards, and thereout of their united materials, to concoct one of the without giving her time to breathe, he rushed up the fore in good humour, she added to their mirth, by present fashionable shape and dimensions. But the stairs, calling out, “ Miss Cecilia Smith ;" whilst the and by assuring Mrs Hanaway, when she took her thing was impracticable: the new turban was com- butler, who stood at the drawing-room door, threw it leave, that it was the gayest party she had ever seen posed of crimson satin and gold lace, hers of pieces open, reiterating, “Miss Cecilia Smith ;” and in she in B = "I am really ashamed,” said Mrs Hanaof muslin and gauže.

went. But, oh! reader, little do you think, and way, at allowing the poor woman to be the jest of

little did she think, where the turban was that she my company; but I was afraid to tell her the cause When the mind is very much engrossed, whether imagined to be upon her head, and under the supposed of our laughter, from the apprehension of what might the subject of contemplation be pleasant or unplea- shadow of which she walked into the room with so sant, time flies with inconceivable rapidity; and Miss much dignity and complacence. It was below in husband, “ that she well deserves the mortification

Poor Miss Cecilia did the truth, and never the clock in the passage strike four, warning her that Susan, ill-starred wench! had pinned it; and the was herself again. She parted with her house, and it was necessary to come to some decision, as the hour footman, in his cruel baste, had dragged them both off went to live with a relation at Bristol ; but her spirit fixed for the party, according to the primitive customs | together.

was broken ; and, after going through all the stages of


a discontented old age—ill temper, passion, peevish Errors of this description may proceed, in the first all traceable to two sources, the first of which is the ness, and fatuity-she closed her existence, as usual instance, from confounding allied meanings of the same assumption of doubtful premises. This error appears in with persons of her class, unloved and unlamented. term. Sometimes a word is used both in its primary a great variety of forms. and in a transitive sense. An instance in point occurs

Accidental coincidence is often assumed as sufficient to A CHAPTER ON THE SOPHISMS.

in Mr Burke's Essay on Taste, prefixed to his cele- establish efficient connexion. Two events bappen nearly

brated disquisition on the Sublime and Beautiful. at the same time; therefore one is supposed the cause, Logic, if we adopt the latest and most authoritative“ It may perhaps appear,” he observes, “ that there is and the other the effect. Of this sort of false reasondefinition, is to be viewed “as the science, and also as no material distinction between the rit and the judgment, ing, we remember a notable instance in Prideaux. the art, of reasoning.” In either capacity it plainly as they both seem to result from different operations Cambyses was mortally wounded by his sword piercing has to do, not only with the exposition of valid modes of the same faculty of comparing. But in reality, his body in the same part in which he had stabbed of argument, but with the detection of such as are

whether they are or are not dependent on the same the sacred bull of the Egyptians. In narrating this false and fallacious. In systems of logic, therefore, a

power of the mind, they differ so very materially in incident, the dean expresses his concurrence in their

many respects, that a perfect union of uit and judg. superstitious inference, observing that the mode of the place is properly devoted to the statement and discus- ment is one of the rarest things in the world.” The king's death was probably designed to mark the divine sion of the doctrine of Sophisms.

words uit and judgment have each, in the above pas- displeasure against his act of violence, as an insult This and the related term sophist, both derived from sage, two distinct significations--the powers thus de offered to the cause of religion in general. On the the Greek adjective for wise, are not necessarily signi- peculiarly lively exercise. The inference, of course, fate of individuals and of nations has been thought to

same error are based the fictions of astrology. The ficant of wrong reasoning and a dishonest reasoner. does not hold, and the objection it is intended to meet be bound up in the movements and conjunctions of The latter, indeed, was at first a name of honour, cor- remains unanswered.

the stars ; and so simple an event as the appearance responding to our own philosopher or sage, as is evinced Sometimes a metaphorical sense is slipped in, in lieu of a comet has ere now frightened Europe into peniby its application to such men as Solon, the famous of the literal. We have heard that a popular orator tence. Virgil

, in his first Georgic, bids the farmer Athenian legislator. The title, however, was also thus managed to turn to his own account the misfor- contide in those indications of the weather afforded by

tune of a rival, absent, it seems, from delicate health. the aspect of the sun, since that luminary's obscuraconceded to those less calculated to maintain its dig

" The gentleman has said he cannot venture himself tion gave faithful warning of the impending doom of nity. Addicting themselves to subtle disputations on in such an atmosphere, but this is the atmosphere in Cæsar. On the same principle, the decline of the tedious trifles; playing with arguments as they would which I delight to breathe.” With an excited crowd, Roman power was early ascribed to the spread of with chessmen; making victory rather than truth this flimsy artifice, we believe, succeeded in procuring Christianity. All our popular superstitions are to be the object of their efforts ; labouring less to clear their for a stout pair of lungs the applause due to distin- similarly explained ; those, for instance, which interguished patriotism.

pret as infallible preludes of death or discord, the own intellectual vision than to Aling dust in the eyes

Occasionally, the extension of a term is changed. chirping of an insect, the howling of a dog, or the of their opponents—the professors of wisdom soon Thus Hume, in his Essay on Miracles, argues as if spilling of a little salt. involved their distinctive appellation in their own what is granted of ordinary were true of universal Closely allied to the preceding fallacy is that which disrepute and disgrace. By a natural coincidence, under the observation of most persons, it is concluded this stumbling-block we find the father of logic him

erperience. Because events of this order have not come consists in the assumption of a hypothetical cause. At the kindred word sophisma, strictly and etymologically that they could never have come under the observa- self tripping: “ All the heavenly bodies,” says Arisdenoting a wise saying, came to mean a verbal impos- tion of any. A like ambiguity has sometimes arisen totle, in his Physics,“ must move in circles, because a ture, a quirk, or fallacy. It is of importance in from the vague application of authority. Referring to circle is the most perfect of all figures.” The reason studying logic to keep clearly in view the distinction the writer last named, in his capacity of historian, we here assigned for a position, now known to be at varibetween this term and paralogism. The latter word may think fit to pronounce him an excellent autho ance with existing phenomena, is neither appreciable is appropriated to palpable violations of the first prin- rity; but unless the term be expressly guarded, we in itself nor applicable to the question. Des Cartes's

be represented as intimating our approval of his hypothesis of animal spirits, and Hartley's theory of ciples of reasoning; the former denotes violations com- ethical and metaphysical speculations. By prophet we vibrations, both framed to explain the transmission of mitted under the appearance of conformity. A para usually understand a person supernaturally commis- sensible impressions from the extremity of the nerves logism is an enemy at once detected and disarmed ; a sioned to foretell events ; in the works of Mr Carlyle, to the brain, are both referable to the same source of sophism is an assassin wearing the mask of friendship. practical power. Mystery, formerly meaning simply cause has been assigned, the real cause has been dis

he is simply a man of commanding genius and vast error-the supposition, namely, that when a possible The classification of the sophisms is no easy task ;

a thing unknown, now denotes invariably a thing that covered. and, generally speaking, it has been but ill performed. cannot be known. The notion popularly attached to What is true rrith limitations, is frequently assumed to The logicians, in this department, have given a very wealth differs widely from the use of the term by be true absolutely. Thus—“ Deleterious drugs are unworkmanlike specimen of their own lauded art. writers on political economy; and much practical always to be rejected ; opium is a deleterious drug; Nothing can be more indistinct and perplexing, as

inischief has resulted from the belief that a country is therefore opium is always to be rejected.” It is well as barbarous, than the nomenclature they have these cases and the like, serious mistakes have been persons in health, is not applicable, specially, to cases

prosperous just in proportion as it amasses specie. In plain, that a maxim which holds good, generally, of conferred on the various modes of fallacious reasoning. generated, and risen to the rank of established and of disease. This sophism appears, perhaps, more freThe utmost confusion on this head prevails in the unimpeachable principles, through sheer inattention quently in the interrogative than in the categorical common systems of logic: this writer cites as an ex to the variations of terms. The more closelv, indeed, form. The object of the disingenuous disputant, then, ample of one error what that refers to another; so

the shades of meaning blend with each other, the is to extort from his adversary an unconditional answer

more twin-like the similarity that subsists betwixt to a question so put as to require it to be qualified. that a single sophism is often bandied about, like a

them, the greater becomes the difficulty of detecting When the query is advanced in a bold, triumphant pauper of ambiguous parentage, through a goodly the fraud. Beyond a certain point, indeed, of differ- tone, with its real complexity dexterously disguised, moiety of the thirteen parishes of Aristotle. Aence, the most obtuse intellect will refuse to be im & timid and inexperienced debater will be easily simpler division of the territory and population is, we posed on. It is absurd, therefore, in an enumeration silenced by this expedient. The question, for example, think, not quite impracticable; the task has been fa- of fallacies, to assign a place to a glaring play upon “ Is war detestable, or is it not ?" cannot be answered

words. Though the pun may puzzle, it can never directly and unconditionally. If we choose the affircilitated, if not completely achieved, by the admirable mislead. “He who is most hungry eats most: he mative, we concede the criminality of eren defensive work of Dr Whately. In the distribution we have who eats least is most hungry; therefore he who eats war; if we prefer the negative, we are dealt with as fixed on, at least in its minor details, practical utility least eats most.”. We immediately discover that eats the advocates of aggressive. We must explain and has sometimes been consulted rather than scientific in the first member of the syllogism is equivalent to qualify, if we would avoid either horn of the dilemina,

will eat, while in the second it stands for has eaten ; at the risk, indeed, of being accused by our opponent precision.

and the apparent contradiction is solved and laughed of a wish to shufile and prevaricate, and perplex the Errors in reasoning may all be resolved into two

discussion. To this head most cases of defective grand orders. The fault, in the first instance, may A second class of errors in reasoning, belonging to parallel may conveniently be referred. reside in the expressed argument, or syllogism, in which the same general order, may arise from the oversight of Again : iVe may assume as exhaustire of all the alter. the conclusion does not follow from the premises it is certain differences betwrist related terms. It is often, for natires of a giren case that embraces only a portion of apparently involved in ; or, secondly, it may lurk in example, taken for granted that words springing from them. Thus, in one of Lucian's Dialogues of the Dead, the concealed process of thought, dexterously suggested of speech, whereas in fact the radical meaning may of Tantalus only arises from fear that he may die of

a common root only vary among themselves as parts Menippus chooses to take for granted that the misery by the sophist, by means of which false premises are have become considerably modified. Schemer denotes thirst ; and proceeds, accordingly, in sarcastic vein, regarded as proved, and a false though logically legi- an artful, truckling, un principled individual-qualities to prove the apprehension groundless. timate conclusion is of course necessitated; or in which which it would be most unfair to ascribe to every man you are punished with thirst; but why is that dreada conclusion, likewise logically fair, and probably true that chanced to be the author of a scheme. The two ful to you? For I see no region besides this Hades, as matter of fact, but irrelevant or only partially re

terms are related to each other, but a derout man is nor any second death in another quarter.”. Thus, levant to the point at issue, is admitted as applicable not therefore a derotee. In some instances, however, too, the celebrated sophistical puzzle respecting moand decisive. In the one class the link is wanting either to become available for the purposes of sophis- in the place where it is, or in some place where it is

the derivative and primitive differ too plainly for tion. " Whatever body is in motion must move either tions ; in the other, that is absent which should con- try. A mind that would fail to detect the transition not ; neither of these alternatives is possible : therenect either with the real subject of dispute. A sophism, from art to artful, from pity to pitiful, and the like, fore there is no such thing as motion.” Here it is then, which is inseparable from the form of the ex

must be under the influence of principles of associa- assumed, that there is no such third alternative as is pression, may perhaps with propriety be styled syllo- tion no less peculiar than those which led the Laird conveyed by the prepositions from and to, the others gistic ; while one attaching to the subject-matter may of Ellangowan, in Guy Mannering, to give justice em- involving manifestly a contradiction in terms. fall to be treated as extra-syllogistic. It is obviously bodiment in a justice of the peace.

Next may be mentioned the error of assuming as respects the latter sort that the human mind is To this head we would also refer the disingenuous that what is true of a whole, is true of a part. most open to deception ; and it must at the same time use of pseudo-synonymes--that is, terms corresponding Critics, on this principle, have conceived themselves be allowed that logic is here, where her aid is most generally, but not alike expressive of the required bound to vindicate, or puff into beauties, even the most essential, able to lend it but in scanty measure. The shade of distinction. To murder, and to put to death, Aagrant faults of standard writers ; and have seldom candid will, however, remember that even the meanest both indicate agency with a similar result ; but the struck the medium between unqualified censure and modicum of such service is of value, and will not former phrase determines that agency to be criminal, extravagant praise. How often are meritorious indiquarrel with an art for failure where absolute success while the latter affixes no such character to it. Many, viduals subjected to the odium, attaching, perhaps is plainly unattainable.

under the impression that the terms are perfectly justly, to the majority of a class to which they chance First, then, of syllogistic fallacies; which, indeed, by equivalent and interchangeable, might be induced to to belong! How often are salutary institutions and excessive generalisation, might be comprised under the ascribe to sour substances the recognised properties of customs neglected or decried, just because they have other class, since they are resolvable into the impres- bitter. It is unnecessary to multiply examples. a common origin with others that are noxious and şion that the same or similar terms are always repre

Let us now review briefly the more frequent and blameworthy! To reverse the illustration : How sentative of the same or similar ideas. It is much more dangerous species of fallacies which we have often are particular periods characterised as enlightmore convenient, however, to consider them sepa- here was described as attaching, not to the expressed the aspect of affairs ! Take the era of Elizabeth.

ventured to denominate extra-syllogistic. The fault ened and prosperous, simply from a partial survey of rately.

process of argument, but to the concomitant process “There was, perhaps, a learned and vigorous monarch, * “Elements of Logic," by Archbishop Whately-introduc of thought.

and there were Cecils and Walsinghams, and Shakstion

Sophisms, ranging under this general category, are peares and Spensers, and Sidneys and Raleighs, with


6 You say



many other powerful thinkers and actors, to render prove of essential service. To the speciosities of error

was nearly twelve hundred. They executed the nait the proudest age of our national glory. And we every man is occasionally exposed ; and he will usually tional anthem with great precision and effect; and, inthoughtlessly admit on our imagination this splendid find it his wisdom to provide himself with the means deed, upon few occasions has such a powerful and wellexhibition as in some measure involving or implying of detecting and disarming them.

organised chorus been brought together. Although the collectire state of the people in that age.”* And

some of the pupils had not received more than two how much pernicious error has, in like manner, re

months' instruction, yet difficult pieces of music were sulted from admitting the impression that every wise


admirably executed by them. man has been always wise, every great man always

A system by which uncultivated men may sing great, and every good man always good.

beautifully in chorus, although three months before Next falls to be noticed the assuming of premises as

The paying of wages to working men is a very simple the basis of a conclusion really identical with it, or the matter, yet it is seldom properly performed. The tomy dadłeot know a single note, must naturally excite employing of two propositions alternately, the one to prove custom is for the employer to keep the money in his of the mode adopted by M. Mainzer

must prove of the other. This is called reasoning in a circle

. Thus, hands till late on Saturday evening, and then pay it interest to our readers. As soon as the elementary some mechanicians attempt to prove (what they over to his men. A monstrous injustice is perpetrated course is finished, a second or superior class is immeought to lay down as a probable but doubtful hypo- by detaining wages in this manner till the very close diately formed, so as to conduct the pupils to the thesis) that every particle

of matter gravitates equally; of the last day of the week. On Saturday night all higher branches of the science. The first course con6 why? because those bodies which contain more par- the regular markets are terminated, and workmen and sists of fifteen lessons, at the end of which the pupils ticles ever gravitate more strongly, that is, are heavier. their wives are therefore

either compelled to put up can sing choruses in a very

creditable manner. They • But (it may be urged), those which are heaviest are

with the leavings of all the rest of the community, or manifest great energy and enthusiasm. Many of them not always more bulky. 'No; but still they contain

to buy from a class of shops in which articles are will teach their companions so far as they themselves more particles, though more closely condensed? How dearer than in those of a first-rate order. For our have proceeded, and then bring them to the classes. do you know that? • Because they are heavier. part, we cannot see why an operative should not have one person, a woman, comes thirty miles every weet * How does that prove it? Because all particles of it in his power to lay out his income of twenty shil. to receive a lesson. Many of the pupils attend two matter gravitating equally, that mass which is speci- lings weekly, with as much mercantile advantage as or three classes in the course of the week. One workfically the heavier must needs have the more of them any gentleman who lays out ten times the sum. Just

man, in particular, attends a class every night. Six in the same space ;)” + which first is just the point let any person, in easy circumstances, fancy the idea nights in the week does this industrious individual for which proof is demanded. of postponing his weekly supplies of food, and other

come to the various class-rooms, distant four, five, and Once more : It may be assumed that a position must articles in common use, till seven or eight o'clock on six miles from each other. By way of proof of the be false because of certain consequences supposed to follow the Saturday night, and then sallying forth among all estimation in which M. Mainzer is held by his pupils, from it. These consequences may not follow. The sorts of mean establishments, picking up goods, at not

we may mention that he frequently receives addresses truth of Galileo's astronomical theory did not infer only an advance on regular prices, but generally of an

of thanks, letters, and complimentary poetry from the falsehood of the Scriptures, but merely the false inferior quality. And yet the practice of paying, wages them, which, if not exhibiting much literary ability, hood of the received interpretation of them. Or they on Saturday evenings dooms thousands of families

to yet manifest much honest gratification and gratitude. may follow, and the position still be tenable. To have this comfortless and

thriftless mode of procedure. We The manual employed by X1. Mainzer for the instrucalleged that Galileo's theory was inconsistent with the repeat, it is fraught with injustice, and should at once

tion of his pupils, is a book of his own, called Singing Ptolemaic system of the universe, would have been be every where abolished.

for the Million, the lessons of which are on an easy and true, but nugatory.

But the practice is attended with worse results. It 'progressive scale, by means of which the study is much To the same head we may refer the argumentum ad has a decided tendency to demoralise, and is now, in simplified. Within a recent period, a small publicahominem, or reasoning addressed to individual opinions, point of fact, demoralising no small portion of the tion has been established, under the auspices of M. circumstances, &c., when unfairly employed ; and all working-classes. Saturday night brings with it a Mainzer, called the National Circular, the object of similar appeals to the prejudices and passions.

certain holiday humour. No work is to be done on the which is to record the progress of his system, and its The above is not offered as a complete list of all the morrow, and we may give ourselves up to a little re effects upon his pupils. cases which we think resolvable into the fallacy of creation. This recreation, it is almost unnecessary to From the very commencement of M. Mainzer's assumption, but merely as an index to its more com

say, takes too frequently the form of drinking exhi- labours, there seems to have been a due appreciation mon varieties. An adroit sophist will sometimes, larating beverages--in short, from less to more, the of the value of his system. For instance, at the without recourse to any other disguise than that of man, forgetful of home and its demands, gets tipsy. Mechanics’ Institution, the following was the ratio well-feigned perplexity, palm upon us, wholly unsus

The result is well known. The condition of some of our of the increase of his pupils. On the first evening, picious of deception, a statement which, but for this large towns on Saturday night and Sunday morning is the number was 120 ; on the second, 250 ; on the artifice, had been the first to be tested. Perhaps the fearful.. Mr Alison, sheriff of Lanarkshire, says, in third, 350 ; on the fourth, 400; and we are happy to most memorable example on record of this species of one of his works, that in Glasgow" from ten to twenty say that the number continues progressively to inlegerdemain is that of the inquiry addressed by some

thousand workmen are more or less intoxicated every wag to the Royal Society. That body was required Saturday, and for most part of Sunday.” Think of a The intention of M. Mainzer is to give periodical to assign the reason why a vessel of water became no town with ten thousand men drunk in it at one time. festivals, where the classes will assemble in the same heavier by the mergement of a live fish ; and, in- Against the demoralisation produced by this state of manner as upon the occasion alluded to in Stone stead of proceeding to ascertain the reality of the things, the most ingeniously contrived schemes, for Street. The progress of the working-classes in mualleged fact, the members betook themselves to the the benefit of the lower orders, can scarcely make sical education will there be fairly and fully developed. hopeless task of inventing hypotheses to account head. Yet it is worth while making an effort. We It is almost impossible to conceive how much good for it.

are far from saying that the payment of wages on will be effected by giving to the artisan such ennobling The fallacy of irrelerant conclusion appears in two Friday would produce sobriety, but we feel assured it pleasures, instead of the degrading ones to which, in shapes. would contribute largely to that result ; for the obli.

too many instances, he now has recourse. The abFirst, A position may be proved altogether different gation to return to work on Saturday would lessen

sence of musical taste, and an ignorance of the solid from that which ought to be established, although the the desire to go astray, and a habit of refraining from pleasure and improvement to be derived from the sophist designs it to be mistaken for the other. Thus indulgence, on receiving wages, would have its due cultivation of the science, have long been a reproach to Horne Tooke, in the Diversions of Purley, would have weight in improving the general habits of the indi England, enlightened as she is. M. Mainzer, however, us infer the falsity of our common notions respecting vidual.

seems destined to remove this blot from our intellecthe first principles of morals, by showing that the

Little more need be said on this not unimportant tual reputation. terms right, just, true, only point, if their etymology be subject. The conductors of the present sheet have

M. Díainzer has already established a class at Brighconsulted, to what is ordered, commanded, troved. But long followed the practice of paying all who are in ton, and it is his intention to do the same in other to prove this is by no means tantamount to proving their employment on Friday afternoon, and, as they provincial towns. At Brighton, he has been quite as that there are no such things as immutable morality believe, with benefit to the persons concerned. We successful as in the metropolis. His classes at Brighand eternal truth. Byron is reported to have said, should be glad to find the same plan generally fol ton increase in numbers, and the journals of that town that “ he had met with so many whose conduct dif- lowed ; and, in particular, recommend the subject to attest the fact of the rapid progress of his pupils in fered from the principles they professed, and who the consideration of all societies designed to promote the art of singing. Six hundred persons of all ranks, seemed to profess those principles either because they temperance and social order.

from humble mechanics to exalted fashionables, atwere paid to do so, or from some other motive which

tended his very first lecture. It is not our intention an intimate acquaintance with their character would

at present to enter at length upon the doctrine which enable one to detect, that altogether he had seen few, The beneficial effects of music in allaying bad pas. M. Mainzer professes; but we may remark, that his if any, whom he could rely upon as truly and con- sions and eliciting the better attributes of the human theory is shortly this. He contends that Nature has scientiously believing the Scriptures. I was not this mind, have been long acknowledged. If it be an not only given to every human being a voice, but that conclusion intended to be taken as equivalent to an exaggeration to say that it "hath charms to soothe each individual, if he cultivate that voice properly (and other-namely, that there were few persons in the the savage breast, to soften rocks, and bend the knotted it may be done with ease), may become a good singer. world sincerely entertaining these convictions ? oak," at least it is admitted to have a genial influence It is true that some people have a finer voice than

Secondly, The proof of part of a position may be upon our nature. It remained for the present age others, but he maintains that all may improve their substituted for proof of the whole. Thus, if an insuffi- to bring into practice the theory of instructing the voice, and acquire what is called an ear for music, cient argument, accompanied by several valid ones, be masses in this delightful science. Formerly, the study by practice. The faculty of voice is, as he contends, detached from the rest, and refuted singly, the sophist of it was confined to the rich, the educated, and those susceptible of a higher or lower degree of developmay plausibly insinuate that he has done enough to who cultivated it for their daily bread ; but within a ment, by means of more or less practice. The truth destroy the entire body of evidence. Or, again, to recent period an attempt was made by Joseph Main- of this theory has been demonstrated to a great extent prove that certain inconveniences attach to a par- zer, an enlightened German, to inspire the working by the progress which M. Mainzer's pupils have made. ticular system, or that certain defects adhere to a classes on the Continent, and the people generally, with But to return to M. Mainzer's labours at Brighton. particular institution, may with many minds pass as a taste for singing. He was so successful at Paris, He explained, at one of his lectures in that town, equivalent to the position that the system should be that he had numerous classes of labouring men, who, that all persons could make one tone, and this was sol abandoned and the institution abolished. Instances after a short period, were able to sing in harmony (G in the treble clef), and this he called the speakof such artifices must occur readily to every one. with great power and precision.

ing note. He made his pupils sing this note five times On the advantages of systematic acquaintance with Within the past year, M. Mainzer came to England, in a bar. They then rose one tone, to la (A, treble the various modes of false reasoning, it is not our pur- and, by dint of perseverance, aided by genius and in- clef); after exercising them, they proceeded to si (B, pose to dilate. While rules on this head may to some dustry, he has succeeded in establishing classes for the the major third), and so to do (C, the fourth). They be useless, and to others perhaps superfluous ; while instruction of labouring men in singing. There are were then exercised in the scale downwards, and they dullness may often fail to grasp, and genius sometimes now daily classes in London; and it augurs favourably effected all his lessons with great ease. M. Mainzer dart ahead of them

of the good sense and intelligence of the people, to be then illustrated the use of time, which he did in a

able to say that they have joined these classes in great peculiar mode. He does not use the old terms of breve, “ Seizing each point by native force of mind,

numbers, and in a short time have made very rapid semibreve, crotchets, &c., but caHs them whole notes, While puzzled Logic blunders far behind"

progress in the first principles of harmony. About a half notes, quarter notes, &c. to the medium order of spirits, at least, if thoroughly the Music-Hall, Stone Street, Bedford Square, and system, the chief point of which is the attempt ito

there was a gathering of all the classes at We have thus given an outline of M. Mainzer's studied and habitually applied, they will infallibly the efficiency exhibited by the pupils gave great satis- teach persons to sing scientifically from notes, with

faction to a number of musical and literary celebrités, as much ease as they are taught to read. His system * Foster's Essay on Popular Ignorance.

who were specially invited to be witnesses of M. Main- is addressed principally to the humbler classes, from | Whateley's Logic.

zer's success in developing and forwarding the musical the excessive cheapness of the terms, which do not Moore's

capabilities of the multitude. The number of singers | exceed the sum of three-halfpence per lesson.


vol. ri.


Into the difficult question of the capability of the was gained from a printed placard affixed to the back | sistence of the inhabitants is derived from a union human voice, we do not propose to enter ; contenting of our bed-room doors ; and as this affiche was some of agricultural with manufacturing pursuits. If the ourselves with repeating the principle for which M. thing curious in its way, we took the liberty of copy- husband is at the loom, his wife is out of doors at the Mainzer contends, that the register or compass of ing it. Here it is : “Zurich-capital of the canton, potato ridges, a girl is winding bobbins, and a boy is every one's voice may, by care, attention, and perse the oldest and most important manufacturing town attending the goat; baby leads the only sinecure life, verance, be so regulated or improved as to enable all of Switzerland, distinguished above all others for and is seen sprawling at his ease on a cushion laid on to sing with a certain degree of proficiency. Singing prosperous industry and natural situation, may by the ground at a short distance from the mother. The is certainly a beautiful accomplishment ; and if, as reason be called the most agreeable stay. Nowhere keeping of pigs is also an almost universal practice. It M. Mainzer says, there is no nation on the Continent we find a inore healthsome state of atmosphere than may be asked, what is the amount of wages realised where the people possess such fine musical voices as here, and scarcely travellers will find in no place of weekly? From all I have been able to learn, the wages he meets with among the workmen in England, it is Switzerland more diversion. Without trouble, in- of a sisk or ribbon weaver are seldom above 6s. per week, not too much to anticipate that he will not be deceived conveniency, or danger, they enjoy on every points the and frequently not more than 4s. 6d. Cheap as most in his desire to found a popular school of music, which most deliglitful view upon the lake and the chain of articles are, it would be impossible to make such a may lead to the extensive dissemination of a taste for the Alps. But also the internal part of the town sum serve for a family, unless great frugality wero music among the labouring population of this country. offers many interesting things, and, finally, a quantity employed, and a part of the subsistence drawn from

of industrial, medical, and instructive establishments. the garden, the field, the pig, and the goat. Estimat

The new builded hospital, the building for blinds, and ing this branch of the workman's revenue at 3s., tho A FEW WEEKS ON THE CONTINENT. deafs, and dumbs, are very beautiful, and deserve to entire earnings cannot be made more than 98. weekly;

be seen. Travellers having no time to see the already and for this, all the members of the family, baby ex

named points of view, will indemnify themselves for cepted, give their labour. I had heard so much of the This was a short journey. A forenoon's ride from the loss by visiting the Belvedere of the hotel, which comforts of the Swiss operative manufacturers, partithe baths of Baden, by a road pursuing the left bank likes a walk (containing 300 feet in the length, and cularly, the weavers, that I was most solicitous to of the Limmat, brought us to Zurich. A part of the 16 in the broad); nothing can be more delightful than ascertain in what respect their opportunities of wellcountry through which we passed still belonged to this view. On this Belvedere of the hotel travellers doing differed from those of our workmen in England. the canton of Argau, which, occupying a situation find every comfort for refreshment, dejeuners, tea After making all proper allowances, it appeared to between Basle and Zurich, is distinguished chiefly for in the evening ; every thing is wound up by means me that the contrast between the mass of British its agriculture and the abundance of its fruits and of a mechanism." Not a bad specimen of English, it operatives and that of the Swiss, is very much the vegetables. The slips of level in the valley of the will be allowed, for a Swiss. If the reader ever goes same as we might institute between the British workLimmat were under active processes of husbandry ; to Zurich, we recommend him to fix his residence in ing man of the present day and the British working farm-establishments and cottages were here and there this new establishment, which excels in cleanliness, man of a century ago. The time has been with us passed ; and the eye, glancing upwards, travelled airiness, and comfort.

when the bulk of the people lived in a more simple over sloping hill-sides covered to the top with the By the kindness of a friend in England, I was fashion than they now do – enjoyed no luxuries, richest verdure, and dotted over with green bushy favoured with an introduction to Mr Escher, junior, wrought hard, lived frugally, made every thing tell trees. Pleased as we were with the various evidences partner with his father in one of the largest, if not and lost nothing, eking out the ostensible gains of of rural prosperity, our feelings were ever and anon the very largest, engineering establishments in Swit- industry with the profits of a garden or a cow, and so jarred on seeing the utter slovenliness of affairs about zerland. This concern is situated at about half a forth. "The small farmer in Scotland, seventy years the farm-houses and villages, indicating at least an mile from the centre of the town, on the right bank ago, mended his plough-harness or his own shoes in ignorance of the value of some of the best kinds of of the Linimat, the large body of water of that beau- the evenings, sitting by the winter fire, his wife spinmanures. As in Alsace, the cows were the chief tiful river-equal in volume, I should think, to the ning by his side. There was in this system a certain beasts of draught, and women were everywhere en- Tweed at Kelso-being the agent of moving force to homely comfort ; there was simplicity and content : gaged in the most degrading labour in the fields. the machinery. The establishment is not contained the moral state of a community in such circumstances, The ladies of our party were full of lamentations on in one but a number of houses, of different sizes, suit- if it included few brilliant virtues, was free from this subject, and their feelings were altogether over- able to the nature of the work, and is more like a gross vices, and habits generative of poverty. How come on seeing two aged female labourers come from little town than a single factory. At the period of far it has been well exchanged for higher wages with an adjoining field, and soak at a pump a lump of my visit, it gave employment to 800 men, the greater higher desires and a life spent in less pure and simple brown bread, which they sat down and ate by the part of whom were Germans and Swiss, with some circumstances, I will not take it upon me to say; but wayside.

English--the whole superintended by Mr Lloyd, an such a state, I conceive, is that of the Swiss workman The mean condition remarked in the exclusively Englishman, with whom I had some conversation. of the present day. He realises small wages ; but he agricultural or pastoral districts, disappears as we Conducted over the whole of the works, I found every employs his spare hours in making his own and his approach the large towns, where some kind of manu- thing on a scale resembling that of the most effective family's clothes, and his wife and children are all facturing industry introduces a degree of wealth and engine factories of Manchester or Leeds. First, we productive in some humble way, so that, being frugal substantial comfort among all classes of the people. were shown the enormous water-wheels by which all and easily contented, the family never are ill off. The This is particularly observable in approaching Zurich. the interior mechanism is moved; and then, one after difference, then, depends very much on merely moral The beautiful slopes become sprinkled with detached the other, were shown the foundry for iron and brass-conditions. In Scotland alone, it is calculated that cottages and houses, whitewashed and tastefully orna- the large hall in which planing machines are smooth above L.4,000,000 per annum are spent on whiskymented; and, with the numerous busly enclosures and ing the surfaces of huge masses of iron or turning source, not of comfort, but of moral degradation. The fruit-trees, the whole district seems a garden or or- cylinders—the various floors on which are being made bulk of the community of the country are poorer by chard. At noon, we arrived at the environs of the every kind of apparatus for spinning, flax, silk, or this sum year by year. Now, I question if L.100,000 town, and in a few minutes afterwards were esta cotton-a place in which the scattered parts are as are spent on exhilarating liquors annually amongst blished at a house of enormous size, the Hotel Bauer, sembled and put together-and, lastly, the warehouse, the equal population of Switzerland. opposite à suite of splendid new buildings, in which in which a number of men are busy packing the ma The whole political condition of Switzerland is cast are contained the post and diligence offices. Zurich chinery for distant parts of Switzerland and neigh in the same simple mould as the condition of a single has a very different appearance from Basle. It is situ- bouring countries. The Messrs Escher, I was informed, family. Its twenty-two cantons unite in a republican ated on nearly level ground, at the northern extremity furnish machines for factories in Austria, the north government, which is cheaply, and upon the whole of the lake of the same name, the chief issue of water of Italy, and northern Germany; and, as far as I am smoothly, conducted, studying in all things the express from which being the Limmat, already spoken of, and able to judge, the mechanism in preparation was as

and immediate benefit of the whole people. The taxes which, a broad heavy stream, flows through the centre strong and tastefully finished as any thing of the kind are light, and there is no exalted class to produce a of the town. The Sihl, a lesser stream, from an adja- turned out from our English factories. It required constant straining after imaginary happiness amongst cent hilly group, passes along the side of the town, at but a glance at such a concern to feel that the days of those below. The government follows the principles the entrance from Basle, and soon after joins the Lim- English supremacy in manufacturing industry were

of free trade. It has no customhouse establishment, mat. Until a few years ago, the place was surrounded fast melting away. Machines, of every description, either in reference to the general frontiers or the fronby walls, and being therefore prevented from expand can here be made, of, in some cases, a superior struc- tiers of the respective states; the only impediment to ing, the streets were densely clustered together, and ture to what can be executed in England; for, here, the transport of goods of any description, in any direcbuilt without any regard to regularity. At the period the maker is fettered by no patent privileges, and he tion, is the exaction of tolls, at the rate of about one of our visit, an entire change had taken place in this can therefore combine improvements which no indi- penny per hundredweight, for the benefit of the canrespect. The walls had been demolished and swept vidual English manufacturer dare attempt to unite. tonal revenues, from which, however, the roads are kept away; some open pleasure-grounds and promenades This is only one of many manufacturing establish- in repair. At all the great outlets from Switzerland, had been established on their site ; new streets of ments in and about Zurich. The canton takes the strong bodies of douaniers, or armed customhouse offielegant buildings were opening up ; and the environs, lead in Swiss manufactures ; its principal article is cers, are stationed by the authorities of other nations, in all directions, particularly along the face of the silk goods, the raw material being imported with little for the purpose of rigorously examining and taxing neighbouring green hills, were in the course of being trouble from Italy, and here spun, dyed, and woven all articles that come out of the Swiss territory ; but gradually studded over with the mansions of the into various kinds of tissues. A few years ago, there within the Swiss side of these outlets there are no offihigher class of citizens. Zurich is thus quite in a were 853 manufactories in the canton, of which 128 cials to pay the least attention to any thing that come state of transition ; old clumsy edifices are making were spinning-mills, 7 calenders, 3 card manufactories, into the country; and, in point of fact, the French, way for handsome new erections, and the confined 2 thread mills, and 8 engineering works. The weaving Germans, and other neighbours, export to Switzerland thoroughfares along the margin of the lake are widen- of silk is entirely in the hands of hand-loom weavers, whatever goods they please, including all kinds of ing and giving room for ranges of substantial broad of whom there are supposed to be 12,000 or 13,000 in foreign produce, without being charged any duty whatquays, like those of a seaport town.

constant employment, mostly within a few miles of ever. This very remarkable state of things is partly No small degree of good taste has been manifested Zurich. It is proper here to mention a distinct pecu- ascribable to the contending interests of the different in executing a number of these necessary reforms. liarity of this class of operatives in Switzerland. They cantons. Some cantons are agricultural, and others The new streets are broad and well paved, open spaces do not huddle up into mean dwellings in towns, but contain large seats of manufacture. But the agricul: have been reserved for public convenience, and an old disperse themselves over a certain district of country, tural cantons would feel it very hard to be obliged to rampart, at the entrance to the town, near our hotel, in separate cottages, each cottage being provided with buy manufactured goods from a neighbouring canton We found to be laid out as a flower-garden, from a garden and small piece of ground, on which the in- at a dearer rate than they could buy them from somethe summit of which is obtained a commanding view dustry of the man and his family is exerted. The where abroad; the peasantry of Vaud have no idea of of the broad sheet of lake stretching ten or twelve diligence with which the families of Swiss workmen emptying their pockets to benefit the manufacturers of miles southward, between beautifully wooded and pursue their labours in and out of doors at these rural Basle or Zurich. Another cause, perhaps, is the vast cottage-clad hills, and bounded by the alpine heights retreats, is spoken of by all travellers as a kind of expense which would be necessarily incurred by atof Glarus. Favoured by weather of superlative beauty, wonder, and in the neighbourhood of Zurich it ap- tempting to watch a widely extended boundary beset and surrounded by objects of the deepest interest, the pears in its most captivating form. Passing along by active contrabandists. It is at the same time but time we spent here was employed to the best possible the western bank of the lake, and wandering up the fair to state, that in all the deliberations of the Swiss advantage. . Some of my inquiries were of a nature slopes of the Albie, we perceive numerous clusters of authorities for a number of years, there appears to have which required me to pursue them alone ; but the cottages, inhabited principally by weavers, from which been a great unanimity of feeling on the propriety of Jadies, though left behind, had ample means of amuse the sounds of the shuttle are heard to proceed. Here, abstaining from restrictions on commerce. A comment in examining the various articles of Swiss pro- as elsewhere, the cottages are chiefly of wood, but mittee appointed by the diet in 1833, to consider the duce in the shops ; and if disinclined to go out, they substantial, and are generally ornamented with vines subject of foreign relations, made the following report, could ascend to the flat roof of the hotel, and there, climbing to the pendant eaves of the roof. All around one of the most extraordinary ever uttered by the as on a terrace, obtain the most splendid views of the are patches of garden, or small enclosed fields, suffi- members of a legislative body :-lake and surrounding country. A knowledge that cient, probably, to pasture a goat, with some ground

“ First-The Swiss confederation shall irrevocably such a place as this was at the command of visiters, I under crops of potatoes. It is evident that the sub- | adhere to its established system of free trade and ma

nufacture. Second-Under no circumstances and no the raw material has reached the borders of the moun- singular and ludicrous Character: the hands of some conditions shall it form a part of the French custom- tain country, is greatly increased. The roads are ge were uplifted as if praying ; others held them forward house system, of the Prussian commercial league, or nerally excellent, but some of the seats of manufacture as if blind, and seeking some one ; and the remarkthe customhouse line of any foreign nation. Third — are placed at the height of from two to three thou- able ease with which every limb was raised and fixed It shall use every effort for the establishment and ex sand feet above the level of the sea ; and in certain in its position, was very striking... tension of the principles of free trade. Fourth–It districts the snow closes all communication for traffic Desirous to test how far the will of one of the sabshall

, as far as possible, discuss and establish conven- from November till March. Great as are these com-jects (a girl) could be exercised in obedience to his tions with the neighbouring states for the disposal of plicated drawbacks, the Swiss manufacturers defy requests, Mr Braid desired her to rise. She did so, agricultural and vineyard produce and cattle, for ob- them, by dint, it appears to me, chiefly of two circum- although apparently asleep and her eyes closed. He taining the free ingress of corn, and for maintaining stances—first, cheapness of labour, which enables then, by gentle entreaties, induced her to walk along the daily, reciprocal, economical, neighbourly, and bor- them to undersell the English every where in good the platform, which she did, with those peculiar chader traffic and market transactions. Fifth, Wherever articles, and to withstand competition from every racteristics of caution and care which are described a free trade is not obtainable, it shall endeavour to other quarter; second, abundance of capital, stable as displayed by somnambulists. This was altogether remove all prohibitions, to lower duties, and to secure social institutions, the absence of a class of mere a very striking experiment-one which Mr Braid said the power of transit on the most favourable terms. speculators, and the presence of a sufficient number he had never tried before that moment; he had, inSixth-When exceptional favours can be obtained, of skilful labourers. How far the freedom of trade deed, never seen this patient till two days ago. He they shall be used for the advancement of those mea directly operates, I cannot say; it must at least be a then asked her to curtsy, which she did, and in a sures which lead to the accomplishment of the ends negative advantage. Yet the manufacturing pro- low voice answered several questions which he put proposed ; so, however, that exchanges be not thereby sperity of Switzerland, I am assured, depends imme to her. On being afterwards restored to her usual limited, nor personal liberty interfered with. Seventh diately on the above circumstances, most of which, it state, this girl said that she recollected walking and - In the interior of Switzerland, it shall make every will be observed, are connected with peculiarities in being asked questions, and felt as in a dream. She exertion to assist industry, and to remove impedi- the national character-their frugality, prudence, was afterwards mesmerised in the manner of M. Laments to intercourse, taking care, however, that it do skill, and general habits of life. The case may be said fontaine, and in this state, though her eyes were closed, not interfere with the personal concerns of merchants to be exactly that of one of those poor but frugal and on being asked if she saw what Mr Braid had in his or manufacturers.”

industrious families amongst ourselves, who make a hand (it was a glass rod), answered “ Yes ;” and to All restrictions on the importation of articles from livelihood by keeping cows and selling the milk; and the query“ What is it?" "answered “Glass.” Another other countries being thus removed, it might be sup- who, in consequence of all the family working at some female, Mr Braid's cook, who was put into the cataposed by some that the country would be deluged part of the business, and being content with small | leptiform state by gazing, on being pricked by a pin, with foreign manufactures, greatly to the injury of gains and simple living, can (as has been proved by manifested no sense of pain. Mr Braid ventured on native capitalists and workmen. But this does not experience) successfully compete with milk companies, this occasion to assert, with increased confidence, his appear to be the case. In several branches of manu- highly organised and conducted by enlightened but opinion, that the effects of his experiments were idenfacture the Swiss excel, and the opportunity of buy- also highly paid functionaries.

tical with those of ordinary mesmerism; and the sceping certain kinds of foreign produce, a particularly I bave learned, with some regret, that the seeds of ticism on this point, of those who tested his expericheap rate, enables the people to encourage the growth change are considered to be already sown in the traf-ments, appeared to be considerably diminished. The of other manufactures in their own country. The ficking system of Switzerland. There is a party who girl who had been in both conditions, declared that peasant who buys an English-made knife at half conceive that the time must come when it will be im- she knew no difference in the sensations she expewhat he could buy a Swiss one for, has a half of his possible to maintain the Swiss manufactures in their rienced under them respectively. It seemed the genemoney remaining wherewith to purchase a native present advantageous condition--foreseeing, probably, ral opinion, that the two classes of experiments, if not rade ribbon ; hence, Swiss manufactures of one kind that workmen will become less easily contented, and in all respects identical, were at least closely analogous. or other are sure to be encouraged. From all that I that the simplicity and good faith of the whole sys- Mr Braid took occasion to warn his audience against could either see or hear, my impression is, that the tem must give way; and this party are favourable to carrying these experiments too far; as, amongst inexliberty to import foreign articles is of no sort of con a union with the German league.

perienced persons, considerable danger might ensue. sequence to the native producers; the truth is, com

At the same time, it was worthy of remark, that a paratively few foreign-made goods are seen, either in

remedial effect had resulted from them in the case shops or on the persons of the people. The bulk


of an invalid young lady under his care—an effect of the Swiss, it would appear, clothe themselves in There have been some curious exhibitions at the which he had not expected, but which had determined materials made by the hand in their own humble Manchester Athenæum, to show that the phenomena him to prosecute the inquiry with a view to the benedwellings; and what they buy must be substan- of what is commonly called Animal Magnetism, or fit of mankind. tial and worth the money. English-printed calicoes Mesmerism, can be produced by means quite inde At a third exhibition, a few days after the second, a are rarely seen, although they are much lower priced pendent of any external influence. Mr Braid, a still greater number of persons were thrown into the than those of Switzerland, because the people have no surgeon, is the person who has brought forward this cataleptiform state by following Mr Braid's directions. confidence in the durability of the colours. The Swiss proposition, and endeavoured to prove it. His firat One of these, a Mr Cope, who had been mesmerised goods of this class are not only beautiful, but strong exhibition, which took place on the 27th of November, by M. Lafontaine, and had hitherto been incredulous and durable in colour-qualities now rarely found was numerously attended. It appears that M. Lafon as to Mr Braid's system, declared afterwards that in in the produce of English factories. There are ar- taine, the Beigian mesmerist, had been exhibiting at the two conditions he was conscious of no difference. ticles called Swiss prints sold in England; but we Manchester a week before, and had set Mr Braid's No attempt was made to ascertain if Mr Braid's subwere informed by a manufacturer at Zurich that he brain a-working on the subject. His knowledge of jects possessed any portion of that power of seeing did not believe a single piece ever was sent to this the organisation of the eye suggested to him a physio- without the ordinary use of the sense which some of country, the whole that were passed off as Swiss being logical cause for the phenomena ; and he lost no time the mesmeric subjects have ofessed to have. But, mere counterfeits. I am unable to say with what in proceeding to experiment, with a view to proving certainly, in many of the phenomena, as they were degree of truth this allegation was made ; but it is if such was the case. He considered his success so felt by the subjects and witnessed by the spectators, very certain that the growing trashiness of quality of great, that he resolved to come before the public with a strong resen blance existed to those of mesmerism. inost English tissues is excluding them from the only his views.

It may still, of course, remain doubtful how far subopen market in Europe.

At the meeting, five persons voluntarily submitted jects affected in the Braid fashion are not in reality The manufacturing industry of Switzerland in some to this new kind of mesmerism. A small but distinct under the influence of that same magnetism which the measure takes its tone from the distinctions of race in and conspicuous object being placed above the level mesmerists suppose to be the agent in their class of the population. The Germans engage in the manu- of the eye, Mr Braid directed his subjects to regard phenomena—as also how far the groups of people facture of iron, linens, silk, cotton, pottery, and some it with a steady gaze : the stopper of a bottle was the operated on in the Manchester Athenæum are not kinds of toys ; while the French, from their superior first object which he employed; afterwards he bound under some of those sympathetic passions which have artistic tastes, employ themselves in making watches, a long cork upon their foreheads, in the manner of a produced such strange effects in other cases. It is jewellery, musical boxes, and other elegant objects. horn, desiring them to fix their gaze upon its outer proper, however, to state Mr Braid's own notion as to Iron of a superior quality is found in one of the can. extremity. Generally, their eyes closed in about a the physiological causes of both his own and Mesmer's tons, and coal is also dug, but it is of stony quality, minute, some in less, Mr Braid standing all the time phenomena. It is, briefly, that by an individual and wood forms the chief fuel. Salt is now made at a considerable distance

. In this condition, though keeping up a steady gaze or fixed stare at an object within the canton of Basle, and in the Valais. From retaining, apparently, their ordinary consciousness, placed in such a position as to put the greatest numthe prevalence of rapid running streams, there is an they had no power to open their eyes; but Mr Braid ber of muscles connected with that organ and its apabundance of water power in almost all quarters, and enabled them to do so by merely a slight rubbing of pendages into action, the mind being at the same therefore little expense is incurred for forces to turn the eyelids. In one instance, the patient remained time necessarily abstracted, congestion takes place in machinery.

unaffected, in consequence, Mr Braid alleged, of his the eye, and a rapid exhaustion of the natural sensiWhen we consider that Switzerland has not a single being disturbed by noise, and not keeping his gaze bility of the retina and motive nerves of the eye and sea-port, no foreign political connexion, no flag to steadily fixed. The phenomena do not appear on this eyelids. This is reflected on the brain, and from that protect its external interests, and can neither import evening to have been carried any farther. A discus- to the heart and lungs, producing enervation and connor export goods except by paying duties and tolls sion took place amongst the medical men present, some sequent sinking in the force and frequency of the through one or other of the surrounding states, it of whom were mesmerists ; and it was the general opi- heart's action. These conditions lead to congestion of seems surprising how such a country can carry on nion that some of the mesmeric conditions had been the brain, the proximate cause of the cataleptiform any foreign trade at all with advantage. The power produced by Mr Braid's plan, but that some of the condition. possessed by their neighbours of laying tolls on the inore wonderful were wanting. Mr Braid persisted In connexion with the Manchester experiments, we transit of goods to or from the Swiss frontiers, is in declaring that he considered the two classes of may here introduce some extracts from a letter adcertainly a serious drawback on the prosperity of the phenomena as identical.

dressed to us, in consequence of a late paper on mesrepublic; and there cannot be a doubt that if France, A week after, he repeated his demonstrations in merism, by a gentleman of our acquaintance, in whose Rhenish Germany, Austria, and Sardinia, were com the same place, and on this occasion the wonders pre- credit-worthiness as a witness of facts we have all bining to ruin the trade of Switzerland, they could sented were of a somewhat more striking kind. "He possible reason to place reliance :—“When in Lonvery easily do so. Hitherto, these surrounding coun- had, in the mean time, allowed some of the subjects don last May, I was invited by a gentleman long fries have acted on the reasonable principle of com of his experiments to remain a little longer in the known to me, Mr Townsend, to witness some mespeting against each other, in order to secure a unusual condition into which they had been brought. meric experiments at his own house. The subject share of the transit, and until the German league | The consequence was a congestion of the brain, at was a young man, a Belgian, about nineteen years is drawn round this independent little country, there tended by an astonishing increase of sensibility, inso- of age, named Egide Earts. Mr T. succeeded, in need be no fear of its being shut out from the field much that they obeyed every slightly indicated wish about ten minutes, in inducing the middle or somof general commerce. As the case is, it says much of the operator, and could distinctly hear the faintest nambulous state, by merely holding the youth's for the energy of the Swiss that they can bear up whisper. He had produced this cataleptiform state hands and looking steadily in his face. A deep and against a long land-carriage to and from sea-ports. in forty cases, without a single failure. He now be thick bandage was then placed over the youth's eyes, No man can see unmoved the large waggons, drawn lieved that persons might in such a condition see with and the persons present were invited to offer him by six or eight horses, and loaded with bales of cotton, their eyes shut, the excessive sensibility enabling the words, either printed or written, to read. I gave him slowly toiling up the country from Mayence, to which organ to act by means of the small quantity of light my own address card and that of a friend who was the cotton has been brought by barges on the Rhine passing through the lids. On this occasion, he placed present ; and placing them close to his forehead, with from Rotterdam, with the design of being carried to five persons on the platform, who, by looking at corks the printed side towards him, he pronounced the some remote manufactory in Zurich.

There is a planted horn-wise on their foreheads, became affected words of both with his foreign accent. I turned up persevering enterprise in this that exceeds all ordinary in spaces of time varying from a quarter of a minute in a French book a chapter bearing the odd titles of conceptions of industry. But other difficulties have to three minutes. «All the five subjects,” says the HUMILITE-MANSUETUDE-PARDON. He did not suc; to be encountered. The expense of transport, when report, " were then placed in postures of the most ceed in naming the two first words, although he said

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