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is not, of course, destitute of an extensive and proper and in the case of an annual, composed as it is chiefly the wretched widow ! Alas! she did not know that
Of these there appear to be at least four | fallow-deer, the roebuck, and the ibex. The red-deer, more peaceful times. Alas ! alas ! this necessary despecies
. It thus appears that, for the great majority and the chamois of the Alps, although having their lay was fatal. Notwithstanding the horrors which of our most useful domestic animals, we are indebted principal seat in Europe, pass beyond the Asiatic surrounded her, and the chequered future to which to this division of the globe. The brown bear, which boundary. A single antelope only ranges within the she looked, some gleams of joy sparkled in the face of likewise
occurs in Europe, inhabits a great part of boundaries of Europe ; that is the sarga (Antilope the young mother, as she looked with pride and love Asia ; but the latter has several species not found colus), indigenous to Poland and Russia. The brown upon her beautiful child, trying to trace its father's elsewhere ; in particular the Malayan bear, the Thibet bear (of which the European black bear is only a lineaments in its baby face, and confidently believing bear, and a singular creature called the jungle or variety), the wild boar, the wolf, the hedgehog, and that one other week would place them in a safe haven labiated bear, a favourite with Indian jugglers, owing many other animals, which occupy a prominent place of protection. She sat thus musing, when a hum of to its uncouth appearance. The monkeys, bats, gnaw- in European zoology, are almost equally plentiful in distant voices fell upon her ear--nearer it comesing animals
, &c., peculiar to Asia, are very numerous ; the corresponding regions of Asia. Even the wild cat yet nearer. Presently, a youth, whom she recognises but even a simple catalogue of the names of these and the lynxes, which are the only representatives of as a faithful servant of her husband, is seen running would lead us beyond our present purpose, which must the feline group in this continent, are not peculiar to towards the house—he rejects the more circuitous be limited to the indication of a few of the more pro- it. Various kinds of foxes, however, do not seem to paths, and springs across some palings, and even minent zoological features.
range beyond its limits, although, among these canines, tramples down the flowers which grow nearer to the The only African reptile we have mentioned is the it is no easy matter to determine, in many cases, what house. He sees his mistress at a window which opens crocodile ; here an analogous species occurs, named constitutes a species, and what a variety. The mus to the lawn, and neglecting all form or ceremony, the Gavial or Gangetic crocodile, which attains a large mon sheep of Corsica and Sardinia has been thought springs through it. From excessive agitation-from size, and is remarkable for the cartilaginous promi- by some to be the parent of some of our domestic the anguish expressed on his countenance, and the nences surrounding its nostrils, and the length of its breeds. The great majority of the known species of tears which still flowed, he was unable for a few muzzle, armed with numerous, nearly equal, teeth. mice and rats, the hamsters, two species of martens, minutes to speak; while his mistress implored him to Many of the birds of Asia are very conspicuous and numerous weasels, one species of badger, an otter
, tell what had happened. He looked round as if to interesting; and although, upon the whole, inferior in three kinds of dormouse, a species of flying squirrel, ask if they were alone, and perceiving that Madame splendour to those of South America (which is un- several marmots, and the blind and common mole, are Dubarre must have dismissed the child's attendant rivalled in this respect), yet not a few can be mentioned exclusively European. The last-mentioned animal is before he arrived, he begged her to give the unconof surpassing magnificence. There is no country so common in every part of the continent, with the sin- scious smiling infant into his arms, while she prepared rich in gallinaceous birds; the peacock, confessedly gular exceptions of Ireland and Greeco. Five different to hear most dreadful news. How he broke to her the most beautiful of all the feathered race (facilè kinds of bares and rabbits-one of them (the Irish the awful truth, that her husband was at that moment pulcherrima arium, is Linnæus's expression regarding hare) apparently confined to Ireland, and a species of a mutilated corpse, neither he knew nor could she ever it), consisting of two distinct species ; the whole tribe beaver, thought to be distinct from the American remember ; and when she recovered from the swoon of pheasants, containing many different kinds, scarcely quadruped of that name, may also be mentioned as into which she had fallen on comprehending the dreadinferior in beauty to the familiarly-known gold and European; and these may be said to form the most ful reality, the sound which met her ears was a wild silver pheasants ; one of them, the argus pheasant, characteristic mammalia of this continent. The entire hooting, in which the hum of distant voices had inamong the most remarkable of birds ; many different amount of European quadrupeds does not exceed creased. François was bending over her, and his first species of cock and hen ;* the tragopaus, beautifully ninety species. spotted with white on a ground colour of the most The total number of birds found in Europe may be and courage, and follow him, if not for her own, for
intreaty was, that she would summon all her strength gorgeous red, and remarkable for having an erectile estimated at nearly four hundred, but not much ex
her child's sake. The last appeal touched the right horn behind each eye ; and, to name no others, the ceeding the half of that amount can be considered as chord-she had yet something to live for ; and conImpeyan pheasant, about the size of a small turkey, exclusively European. A large proportion of these tented at that awful moment with hurried and imperwhose dorsal plumage reflects the most brilliant tints are referable to the Linnaan genera--Jurdus, Musci- fect explanations, she yielded to the humble advice of of gold, copper, sapphire, and emerald-are all natives capa, Parus, and Sylvia. There are four species of François. The infuriated mob were at hand ; they of Asia. Of the parrot tribe, always among the most European vultures, including the bearded griffin, or
were coming to ransack the house, perhaps to burn or notable denizens of the torrid zone, the whole race of lammergeyer, which is now considered distinct from tear it down : and giving his mistress but time to paroquets belonging to the genus Palæornis, which that of the Himmalaya. The golden eagle, the
secrete a few jewels about her person, and forbidding includes the well-known Alexandrine and Rose-ring Grecian eagle (Falco imperialis of Temminck), the her even to take a single attendant-for François susspecies ; the scarlet-coloured lories, and not a few spotted eagle, the social eagle, and the little eagle, pected that there were traitors in the house, and others, appertain exclusively to Asia. The mina-bird, are commonly accounted the European species. The knew not whom to trust-he led her by a by-path which is very common in India, is celebrated for its smaller falcons we cannot here enumerate ; the Ice- from the house, on, on, for miles, to the homely dwellpower of imitating the human voice. The paradise land or gyrfalcon, the goshawk, and the kite, are ing of his sister. Then, and not till then, did he draw grackle, allied to the European rose-ouzel, is very among the most remarkable. Among the most cha
a paper from his vest, a few hurried and incoherent useful in many Asiatic countries, by destroying the racteristic of the owl tribe, are the snowy owl, the lines, the last agonising words of his unfortunate locusts by which they are occasionally devastated. bubow or great horned owl, the barn owl, and the master. François had rightly judged, that to have An immense number of woodpeckers, kingfishers, tawny howlet. The kingfishers, a numerous and im- delivered that precious letter at first would have un&c., have their exclusive residence in Asia ; an adju- portant tribe in warmer regions are here represented nerved Madame Dubarre, and rendered her still more tant (Ciconia argala), the counterpart of the maribou by the common kingfisher, one of the most brilliantly incapable of instant exertion, than did the rude slock of Africa, stalks about the banks of the great rivers ; tinted of European birds. Of the true grouse, the of her affliction. Well might they be hurried and and the anastomes, storks of similar habits, are its fre- largest is the capercailzie ; and the most remarkable, incoherent lines, written even by stealth at the last quent companions. Vultures, eagles, bustards, horn on account of its restricted geographical distribution, awful moment, and only by a fortunate accident in. bills, and multitudes of other tribes, are represented is the red grouse, which does not exist anywhere trusted to François. Breathing to his wife and child in this continent by many peculiar species, which we but in the British Islands ; it is, moreover, the only the most passionate love, and proportionate agony at cannot here enumerate.
bird peculiar to Great Britain. Several species of his doom, he yet, in that brief epistle, tried to offer The animals of Europe are of smaller size, and less rock-grouse (Pterocles) occur in Southern Europe, and
some solace or comfort—à vain mockery, which the numerous in species, than those of any other great two or three bustards, one of them (an occasional next line perhaps proclaimed it. Then did he try to division of the globe. This is partly owing to its in- visitor to Briton) the largest of European birds. explain a very complicated matter-how he had disferior dimensions ; but chiefly to its being situated These examples, however, must suffice for our present posed of his property. And he endeavoured to relate, entirely within the temperate and frigid zones, and purpose.
in a few words, his meeting with a young Englishman, therefore cut off from those influences which produce
in whose hands he had placed it, and who was then such a redundancy of life within the tropics. It is the only division of the globe so circumstanced ; for “ FRIENDSHIP'S OFFERING FOR 1843.".
returning home. He told how he had been induced
to trust him, at a time when few could distinguish that either of the other two northern continents might We are happy to observe that this, one of the oldest friend from foe, half from his ingenuous countenance, at all resemble it in this respect, we must suppose and most respectably conducted of the annuals,” and half because he knew
that he, too, had a dear wife of latitude. But even this would leave a wide dissi- continues to make its appearance at the proper time, to receive the exiles as dear friends. But, alas ! alas! milarity between them; for land lying in continuity while nearly all its imitative competitors, after flutter the very words that were most important were totally with a tropical region experiences various effects from ing their short hour, have faded, sunk, and died away. obliterated by the tears which must have fallen as the the latter, which are completely interrupted by the In the handsome and highly embellished volume for letter was closed, and by the wafer which secured it; intervention of a sea or other wide extent of water . the approaching festive season, now lying before us, both causes had combined to render the stranger's
name perfectly undistinguishable. animals, Europeans have borrowed largely from other we think we recognise considerably more talent than
It is not worth while to relate minutely how vain continents; and a moment's reflection, aided by the public opinion ascribes to annuals in general, our es
were all Madame Dubarre's endeavours to discover the information we have already given, will show how few teemed young friend and contributor Miss Camilla young Englishman. By degrees hope faded away, and even of our most familiar animals are indigenous to Toulmin being amongst the most earnest and efficient her trusting confidence gave place to the surmise, that the countries where they now dwell. This view of of the corps of writers. New books can only be no
her husband must have been the dupe of some sharper; the matter, however, is merely comparative. Europe ticed here when a specimen of them can be given ; or would not an honest man have sought restitution to Fauna, beautifully adapted to the physical circumcumstances under which it is destined to live. Any of novelettes, or tales, this cannot be easily done. We her husband's had been only half confidence, and that
was known to the stranger but by an assumed peculiar feature in that Fauna can scarcely be expected make an effort, however, to justify the praise bestowed to occur in the most northern regions; for all the three upon the “Friendship's Offering,” by presenting one
In those dread days, neither sex nor age was recontinents that approximate to the north pole, are of these little narratives in an abridged form.
spected; and if the strong animal instinct of self-prethere exposed to such a similarity of meteorological influences, that little scope is afforded for a diversity
THE EMIGRANTS IN ENGLAND.
servation might not alone have been sufficient to rouse
the energies of the bereaved Comtesse de P-, the of living creatures. The polar bear, whale, walrus, rein The tale is of the Reign of Terror during the French strong but silent appeal of her helpless infant had deer, &c., are accordingly common to them all; such, Revolution, and refers to the family of M. Dubarre, a power to do so. With the aid of the humble, faithful likewise, was thought to be the case with the elk; but gentleman who, like many other equally guiltless vic-François, now her truest friend, she escaped to Engrecent investigations seem to have established the fact, tims, was, at three hours' notice, dragged to the land, and the fugitives reached its hospitable shores that the moose of America, and probably the elk of scaffold, leaving a wife and infant daughter in the almost penniless. In this respect the Comtesse reTartary and Central Asia, are distinct from the midst of a scene of horror and confusion, and exposed sembled hundreds of her unfortunate compatriots ; European elk; the latter, in that case, will rank to the pangs of poverty.
and it will be remembered, that though pensions were among the most conspicuous animals peculiar to this “Madame Dubarre had been for one month the granted to many, subscriptions raised for some, and division of the globe. The bison, or auroch (Bos urus), mother of an only daughter, and indeed this circum- the houses of the wealthy and munificent thrown open is the most bulky of European animals, and was for- stance had been the sole cause of their recent delay. to others, by far the greater number honourably supmerly pretty generally distributed over this continent, Little Victorine drew her first breath in the stately ported themselves by imparting that knowledge or but now has its principal resort in the great marshy mansion of her forefathers, about a dozen miles from those accomplishments which, under far different cirforests of Lithuania : it seems to be distinct from the Paris, while her anxious father was busily engaged cumstances, had been acquired for self-gratification, or Caucasian bison. Of the other ruminants, almost the in that city, making stealthy preparations for con- the adornment of cultivated society. Madame Dubarre only species which this continent can claim, are the verting a large portion of his fortune into portable was of this number, and adopting that name in preIt is not a little singular, that our common domestic races,
property, and for leaving his native country until ference to retaining a title which seemed a mockery, derived from some of the Asiatic galli, should be absolutely with
she entered a second-rate boarding-school, as teacher out a special English name!
* Smith, Elder, and Co. London : 1843 (?).
of French and music, in consideration of which ser
vices she was to receive a small stipend, a home for which they are most surely led. And yet, if each suc of the human mind? Can we do it ourselves-are we herself and the little Victorine, and, as years rolled on, ceeding year had dulled the first keen impression of not too well satisfied with fair results, without scaninstruction for the latter.
Madame Dubarre's affliction, if each year had brought ning narrowly their combining causes? Perhaps Mr What a change for the guest of princes—the visitor her new friends, and rendered her lot more endurable, Mowbray, though actuated by feelings of probity, of the Tuilleries! From refinements often carried to still, as Victorine approached womanhood, the anxious yielded with more reluctance than he had anticipated a degree of enervating luxuriousness, to homely if not mother could not but contrast most painfully the lot the tens of thousands he had begun to look on as his coarso fare, and the dull routine of daily drudgery- of her child with those brilliant prospects which, own. Perhaps he thought love and forty thousand from the gorgeous palace or mansion, to the boarded alas ! for the fallacy of human thought and expec- pounds a fairer portion for his son, than a title with school-room ; for the lively sally or brilliant repartee, tation, had seemed her birthright.
only a chance of the love, and the certainty of far less the twaddle of an antiquated spinster of mediocre It should be remarked, that, in consequence of his money. Perhaps that dear son's intreaties had had mind—for Madame Dubarre was not fortunate in her mercantile speculations, Mr Mowbray was frequently some weight. Perhaps they would have had weight selection, Miss Smith, the school-mistress, having few absent from England for several months at a time; had Victorine still remained portionless. Who can ideas beyond the four high walls which bounded her and towards the close of one of these periods a strange tell ? But it is likeliest that each and all combined dwelling-house ; and, last of all, for the heart love, change crept in—was felt rather than perceived to cause his decision-his hearty consent to the union beneath whose sun her own warm feelings had ex among the knot of united friends who assembled so of his son with Victorine." panded, she had now at best the courtesies and civili- frequently in Portman Square. Madame Dubarre George Mowbray heard the wondrous tidings ; and, ties of a not very exalted station. Still, she was was the first to read the riddle that was enacting as may be supposed, hurried away to the residence of human, and therefore her sorrows were softened by around her ; she saw that George Mowbray, the only Victorine, and was soon “the happiest man in the the wonder-working hand of time. She was a French- and darling son of his parents, was attached to her world. Yes, she did accept him, and never loved him woman, and therefore inclined to look on the brightest child, and that, perhaps half unconsciously to Victo- less, because she had learned to respect his long silence, side of things—a wholesome habit, though sometimes rine herself, her young and innocent heart was his ! | and to understand that he had avoided her presence, sneered at. Thus, as years passed on, and the radiant Only from one look, but it was a look full of anguish, until he could appear before her with his parent's beauty of the little Victorine expanded-a beauty did she suspect that Mrs Mowbray had made a similar sanction to their union. Except a life-interest of a whose bright intelligence was an earnest of the soul discovery; and she understood, almost intuitively, their very few hundreds per annum, it was Madame Duwithin-the cheek of Madame Dubarre regained in relative positions. In the first place, she knew Mr barre's wish that the whole property should be settled some measure that hue of peace and health which sor- | Mowbray had lofty views for his son; that it was even on Victorine ; and though the lawyers' settlements row had driven away. Perhaps in the philosophy of the rumoured he would marry into a certain noble family delayed the marriage as long as they could, why, even human mind, there are few things more wonderful not rich enough to scorn the merchant's princely for- they had an end." than that merciful dispensation by which the heart, tune, and not too proud to receive into its bosom a bowed and crushed by affliction, does generally rise talented and highly educated commoner. But, in her after awhile from the stunning blow. Especially is it own mind, she was convinced that, with the ardour
A FEW TRIVIAL NOTES. so in youth ; for though that may be the season of and impetuosity of youth, young Mowbray gave not (The subjoined notes are reduced from as many papers read keenest emotion, and the feelings, cooled by experi- a feather's weight to these considerations, and that he before a learned society by the Rev. Professor Gillespie of St ence and disappointment, may be harder to receive was only awaiting his father's return to England, to
Andrews, and are here published with his concurrence.] impressions, they are also harder to retain. The dif- | implore his consent to receive the orphan exile as his THE “LUCK” IMPUTED TO ODD NUMBERS. ference is almost equal to that of the waxen image, daughter. Equally sure was she that he had not in Tuere is a prepossession, which we may with some and the graven stone which impresses it. But Madame open and formal words declared his love to Victorine ; confidence pronounce to be universal, that odd numDubarre was still young, and though her sorrows were but while she appreciated conduct that she felt was bers, and particularly the number three, are lucky. engraven on a heart of a texture more endurable than directed by the purest principles, she sighed to acwax, she did, after a while, arouse her drooping ener- knowledge that the soul of sympathy has a language other, when the choice was otherwise a matter of in
For this reason, three things are often preferred to any gies, the earlier, perhaps, that she felt herself the sole of its own, and that hearts are lost and won without difference ; and this predilection is seen in an especial stay and support of a child, around which every ten- much aid from direct matter-of-fact phrases. She
manner to have operated in matters of superstition : dril of her heart seemed to cling. Thus, by degrees suspected that Mrs Mowbray refrained from interfeher position became improved, for home is a dear word, rence, from a fear that premature measures might fan
Thrice the brindled cat had mewed, and most significant; and though the French are said into a flame the spark that otherwise would burn it
Thrice and once the hedge pig whined. neither to have it nor need it, both the word and its self out. Her own plans, however, were decided almost In all the ceremonies appropriate to All Hallow meaning Madame Dubarre learned in England. In a in a moment ; for she shrunk involuntarily from the Even, we see how conspicuous is the number three. few years she either met with, or sought for, or heard monstrous ingratitude of which she felt she should be There is not a Scottish school-boy who does not supof, many of her compatriots, who were circumstanced guilty to the benefactress of her child, and the kind pose that he has a better chance of success at the like herself
. Some were even friends and acquaintances friend whom she loved almost as a sister, if she al- third trial of anything than at any other attempt. An of by-gone years, but all seemed bound together by lowed Victorine to remain another week under that odd number of chickens or ducklings in a flock is held the tie of misfortune ; and by the time Victorine was friend's protecting roof. Accordingly, with true by every old woman to be lucky-as witness the welltwelve years old, instead of being the teacher at Miss delicacy, she feigned excuses for requiring her daugh known precocious verse of a great English author :Smith's establishment, Madame Dubarre had removed ter's return, for a month or two at least, to the quiet
Here lies good Master Duck, to London, and had a home. Yes, for her quiet little humble home of N Street, and not at all to her
Whom Samuel Johnson trod on; lodgings were home, small though they were, almost surprise, Mrs Mowbray immediately acceded to her
If it had lived it had been good luck, mean, and in an obscure street of the dense metropolis. request. The fact was, without choosing to come to
For then we had had an odd one. Like so many of her fellow-sufferers, her days were an explanation, both parties understood one another. This notion extends back into the days of antiquity. employed in giving lessons, and she chose her home [Before her return, Mrs Mowbray visited the Virgil tells that the gods delight in uneven numbers. in a street and in a neighbourhood for several good humble home of Madame Dubarre.] Victorine had Three handfuls of sand cast over a dead body had, reasons selected by them.
retired to her chamber; the two mothers were alone. with the Romans, all the virtue of a funeral. Into It certainly was not the fashionable part of the For a little while both were silent, and when they unequal numbers were the flocks in Theocritus ditown, yet sufficiently near to be, as the phrase is, looked up, both were in tears. There was very little vided. Vegetius directs that the breadth of a fosse within a stone's throw; it was situated among so need of explanation, though a great deal may be said surrounding a camp should not be less than nine, and many great thoroughfares, that all points seemed ac- in half an hour. From the present and Victorine, not more than seventeen feet, but always an unequal cessible from it, and was intersected by those second however, Madame Dubarre reverted to the past, a number. The markets at Rome were held every ninth rate streets, where, if commodities be not of the very subject on which she was not very fond of expatiating, day, and the census was taken every fifth year. Dinnerhighest quality, they are certainly to be found at the and she related far more minutely than she had ever tables were there three-sided, and the guests congrelowest price. These were recommendations to the before done, the circumstances which attended her gated in threes. Pythagoras ascribed great virtue to poor emigrants, who formed, as it were, a little colony, flight from France. Now was it the turn of Mrs three. Amongst his countrymen, the graces and and who, cemented by the bonds of affection or sym- Mowbray to become agitated and confused ; but just furies were three, and the muses nine. No Grecian pathy, seized gratefully those wrecks of happiness as she had sunk upon å sofa, apparently overpowered city could be safe without an unequal number of gates which their stormy trials had yet spared to them. So with her emotions, her carriage was announced, and and temples. Even numbers were certainly not overoften have we heard them described, that we feel her servants brought the startling intelligence, that looked : the Olympic games, for instance, took place almost as if we had made one at their little re-unions. Mr Mowbray had just arrived from the Continent, every four years ; and their grammar contained a form Among the kind English friends whom the worth, whence he had not been expected for some days to of tlie verb for two persons, besides the ordinary sintalents, and misfortunes of Madame Dubarre won for come.
gular and plural. But yet it is remarkable how much, her, was Mrs Mowbray, the wife of one of London's It was the third day from that eventful evening, amongst this and other ancient nations, with regard 'princely merchants. Her only daughter, who was when a note from Mrs Mowbray, kindly, affectionately, to miscellaneous things, odd numbers predominate. rather younger than Victorino, was instructed by yet strangely worded, was put into the hands of Ma- The preference could easily be traced into Egyptian Madame Dubarre in French, music, and painting; and dame Dubarre, the purport of which was to request she and Jewish history ; but this is perhaps not necessary. at first, from the idea that the companionship of the would call on Mr Nowbray the following morning, as Whence has arisen this apparently universal prelittle French girl, who, of the two, spoke her own lan- he wished to communicate with her on an affair of possession ? An answer to this question--the first guage more fluently than English, would be of service importance. Has the reader already imagined the we are aware of having been attempted—is here to Caroline Mowbray, Victorine was invited to pass a sequel ? Is he prepared for one of those strange acci- offered. “ It is confessed on all hands, that gambfew weeks in Portman Square ; and so gentle, so dents which yet go far towards making us believe ling is natural to man ; it is one of those lines of gifted, so loveable was she, that by degrees they could there is no such thing as accident in the world ? Mr separation which are said to distinguish him from scarcely do without her-it was almost her
home. Mowbray was the Englishman to whom, eighteen the brutes, and the lower the state in which we Madame Dubarre felt grateful ; for troubles had worn years before, the Count de P— had intrusted nearly find him, the more fearfully is he addicted to away that false pride which might once have made forty thousand pounds' worth of property! When the this propensity.. What kind of games are naturally her shrink from an obligation, conferred even in the appointed time at which he expected to receive Vic- adopted by man in the early stages of his social promost delicate manner, and rather as if a favour were torine's father in England had expired, he made gress? Such, assuredly, as appeal immediately and received than granted.
every exertion to discover either him or the heirs of directly to fortune, and depend the least upon time Years rolled on ; Victorine received instruction his fortune, but every clue was lost. Not for some and skill; such, in fact, as we ourselves, when at school, from Caroline's finishing masters, and both were years, however, did he use the gold of which he had were most in the habit of using. Now, of all these, I grown lovely girls. Still, Madame Dubarre's visits, so strangely become possessed ; but at last he em- may safely aver that odds and etens, or, as the Romans under one pretence or another, continued daily, and barked it in his mercantile speculations, still resolving, expressed it, par impar, was the most common. This sometimes Victorine returned almost like a guest for even though expectation from year to year grew method of gambling has the advantage to recommend a week or two to her mother's home. How proud the fainter, that it should be restored, if possible, to those it to children and to savage man, that it determines mother was of her child, and how sweet the confidence who were entitled to it. The command of so much the thing at once, and that it may be played at in any between them! For so many years they had been actual capital had been of infinite service, had, indeed, place, at any time, and with such apparatus as is geneall the world to each other, that the awe and re- proved the foundation of his noble fortune ; and con- rally at hand. A few.acorns, nuts, marbles, or pence, serve which sometimes exists in their relative positions vinced, from Mrs Mowbray's recital of Madame Du- and you have all that is necessary for setting to work. on the younger side, found no place in Victorine's barre's sufferings, that she must indeed be the widow In this game, has a person calling odds any advantage heart ; she never dreamt of wilfully concealing a of his early acquaintance, be only awaited the proofs over him who calls evens ? If so, we shall have disthought or feeling from her mother; and Madame which she could give him of the fact, to make ample covered one reason in nature and original habit why Dubarre, despite all adverse circumstances, preserved restoration. The hand-writing and the worn frag- odd numbers should be considered as more lucky than that freshness of feeling which remembers the enthu- ment of that sad, but still dearly cherished letter, even. In throwing the dice, in pitch-half-penny, and siasm of youth sufficiently to share and understand it, were quite sufficient for the purpose. This, however, in other games of pure chance, odds has no advantage and is the magnet which attracts the young, and by I was not all. Who can trace the mysterious windings lover evens ; because, an even number being always
NATURAL CAUSE OF THE ROMAN WAY OF RECKONING
HISTORY TRACEABLE IN LANGUAGE.
used, the chances in this case are always equal. But by rertu the descendants of the Romans now imply grade.* This is true of nearly all the so-called Mechain the game of odds and evens, this is not the case. a taste in pictures and objects of curiosity; while the nics’ Institutions we have seen; and without meaning Suppose that there is an unknown number of marbles Scottish peasantry, accustomed to value a rigid eco the smallest disrespect to that of Manchester, which in my pocket, and that I take out an unknown propor-nomy and good household management, mean by “a appears to be admirably conducted after its kind, we tion of that number in my shut hand, and challenge vertuous woman" one who carries on the affairs of her may observe, that it is as little adapted for the workyou to say odds or evens, and that you always say house in an active and thrifty manner.
ing men of Manchester as the Royal Society of Lonodds. The number of marbles in my hand must
don. To support its large building, extensive library, either be one or more than one. [The learned pro
salaried officers, and expensive succession of lec
THE DAYS OF THE MONTH. fessor then goes on to explain that, in the first three
turers, the charge to each member is necessarily fixed numbers, 1, 2, 3, there are two odd numbers, against For the benefit of those who are not acquainted at the high rate of L.l per annum, a sum quite beyond one even-consequently that the chances in favour of with the Roman way of reckoning the days of the the means of a Manchester operative, even when in odds are here as two to one.] Advance to 4, and you month, we may explain that, taking January as an full work. have 2 to 2, but still the evens have no advantage. example, the 1st day was called the Kalends, the 5th As a means, therefore, of enlightening the darkness Take 5, and it is 3 to 2 in favour of odds. Every the Nones, and the 13th the Ides of the month ; the of the sixty out of every hundred of the Manchester successive odd number gives a superior chance to the days onward from the Kalends being reckoned the people who cannot write, the Mechanics’ Institution cry of odds, in a constantly diminishing ratio, but still 4th from the Nones, the 3d from the Nones, the is next to useless; and we turned our attention to a superiority; and the reason is manifest; the odds 2d from the Nones, the Day before the Nones ; those other establishments of a lower grade in point of and the evens do not start fair-odds takes the pre- onward from the Nones being reckoned in the same expensiveness, which are better calculated for that cedence, and whilst evens is still diminishing the ad manner as the Sth from the Ides, the 7th from object; namely, to the Lyceums. In going over these vantage, it never does, and never can, overtake its the Ides, &c. ; while, after the Ides, the reckoning humble institutions, we were extremely fortunate in predecessor.” It is certainly conceivable that, though was, the 19th from the Kalends of February, the 18th, having the company of a gentleman who was mainly this principle might not be detected in early times, its and so on. Whence this system of anticipation? It instrumental in originating them; and the manner results might be observed, and that a superstitious is submitted that it originated in the national habits in which he accomplished his object forms an imporveneration for odd numbers might be the conse- of the Romans, which mainly referred to war, and to tant lesson in what may be called the natural history quence.
festival-keeping and shows. The Kalends, Nones, of benevolence. Feeling that it was not by merely and Ides, were the grand days of the public shows, in printing circulars and soliciting subscriptions that
which the people were so much interested. Eager for such institutions are commenced, and that even when It is very curious to find in language-in mere this periodical enjoyment, they had it, of course, much formed, it is difficult to induce the persons they are words-traces of the moral and political history of in their minds, and it must have been a general feels intended to benefit to join them, he went, pencil and mankind, leading to the conclusion, that, supposing no ing amongst them to long for the arrival of these paper in hand, into several of the back streets—the history had ever been written, or that it was entirely periods of the month. Hence would arise a habit of haunts of ignorance—and personally solicited the lost, some glimpses of past transactions and conditions counting the days onward to these festivals, as jour poor, the illiterate, and the vicious. To one who was might be obtained through the medium of philology. days from the Nones, three days from the Nones, and unable to read and write, he said, “Would you like to When a Scotsman speaks of his shackle-bone, he not so forth. Every school-boy has a ready illustration learn? If so, I am providing means for that puronly conveys an idea of his wrist, but discovers, by of this supposition in his own practice with regard to pose.” And in the event of an affirmative answer, the very term made use of, that slavery or vassalage holidays and vacations. He reckons, fire weeks from he put down the name of the person addressed. To had continued so long in Scotland as to impress itself Christmas, four weeks from Christmas, three, &c.; and another who could read, he asked, " Would you wish indelibly on the language of his country. Kitchen is afterwards fire days from Christmas, four days from to be provided with useful and amusing books ? Bea term applied in Scotland and Ireland to that kind Christmas, three days from Christmas, and finally, the cause, if you would, I am about to collect a library on of food which serves as a relish to less palatable viands: Day before Christmas, equivalent exactly to the Pridie purpose for your use ?" Thus he went from one to for example, the barley or oaten bread may be kitchened Nonas, or Idus, or Kalendas, of Roman chronology. another, until, aided by the voluntary contributione by cheese or milk. The word is unknown in this
of the more wealthy, he obtained a sufficient number sense in England, from which we may infer that many
of subscribers to commence the undertaking with a things, which were dainties in Scotland and Ireland, THE MANCHESTER LYCEUMS.
prospect of success. This was four years ago; and since were common fare in the more favoured land of South ITaving had occasion, a few weeks since, to pass that period, three Lyceums have
been established, one the better feeding of the English, in comparison with through Manchester on our way to Edinburgh, we felt in Great Ancoats Street, one in Salford, and the third the Scotch and Irish, throughout a considerable pora great curiosity to visit the various establishments in Chorlton-upon-Medlock, another suburb of Man
chester. tion of their existence as nations. An equally good existing in that town for the improvement and re
Such are the institutions which we set out to visit. memorial of the conquest of the Anglo-Saxons by the creation of its operatives. We were stimulated to
The Ancoats Street establishment, situated about half Normans exists in our language. At the time of that the inquiry by previous acquaintance with a few a mile from the Exchange, first occupied our attention. event, the animals chiefly tended and preserved for startling, almost appalling facts—facts which show an The house is moderately sized, but commodious. It food were the ox and calf, the sow, sheep, and deer.
amount of ignorance and vice amongst our poorer bre-contains a library and news-room on the ground floor, When the ox was at his pasture, under the care of a thren by no means flattering to the benevolence or even
a reading-room above, and several class-rooms ; one of Saxon serf, he was naturally designated by a Saxon term, ox (bull and bullock are also Saxon, as are cow
common policy of the better informed and more afflu- which, comprising the entire floor, together with that and kine); but when the animal was killed, and sent ent classes of the British public. For instance, the
of an adjoining house, is sufficiently large for occa
sional use as a lecture-room. The amount expended piece-meal to table, he was meat for a different class cost of maintaining prisoners at the New Bailey (or in the fitting up of the institution, the purchase of of society, the Norman gentry, and the flesh was ac- jail of Manchester), during the last twenty-one years
, books, &c., was about L.220, which was contributed cordingly called beef, a word of their language. The amounted to upwards of L.200,000 ; and the county by wealthy friends of the institution. For the first live animal has since been Saxon, and the flesh Nor- rate payable by the township of Salford alone (a subur- year and a half, the number of members averaged man, accordingly. So also the sheep was Saxon while ban portion of Manchester), chiefly for the above pur- 500 and upwards, and the income nearly L.250. The when dead. The pig ranged the forest under a Saxon pose, amounted, during the same period, to L.2000 library contains about 1500 volumes. The reading herdsman, and was sow or hog accordingly while in a-year. Thus much is contributed for the punishment and news-rooms are comfortable and cleanly, holding life ; but no sooner had he been hung up for use, or of crime ; but where are the funds raised to prevent quent visitation of its members. A few persons were
out every inducement in those respects for the fresent to the table, than he became bacon or pork it! What provisions have been made for the moral busily employed in reading ; this was evidently not a (French, bacon and porc), by which terms his flesh has and intellectual improvement of those hard-work
mere lounging-place ; all were perusing the print beever since been denominated. The Saxon deer, by ing masses, whose limited leisure is employed in fore them with eagerness. They just raised their death and translation of his materials, became in like drunkenness and crime, instead of in those enjoy- heads on our entrance, to see who the intruders were, manner venison (French, renaison). Even the poor ments which their ignorance denies them? The only and then continued their employment as industriously calf is snatched from its Saxon dam and its Saxon
answer to these queries will be found in the succeed as if we had not appeared. It appears that thirtykeeper, to figure in the shape of good French real on ing account of the three excellent but inadequate and eight newspapers, of different sorts, are supplied perioa Norman board. It is remarkable that the horse, ill-supported Lyceums. Again, from the lately pub- dically for the use of the members. ass, fox, wolf, dog, and other animals, not in like man lished report of the registrar-general of births, deaths, The small back room used as a library was so filled ner kept, or in like manner used, have only single and marriages, we learn that in Manchester and Sal" with applicants for books, that we had some difficulty
It will thus be observed that, if we had no ford, taking the average of the two previous years, in entering ; and it was as much as the female librawritten history of the Norman Conquest, we should be sixty out of every hundred persons were unaốle to rian, assisted by her daughter, could do, to supply the able to draw some evidence of the fact from the lan- write their own names ! Now, it is fair to presume wants of the members, each of whom, however, waited guage alone.
that a large number of this proportion could not read, his or her turn with patience and decorum. The Some words carry us back by their etymology to and are thus deprived of a most productive source of average circulation is 450 volumes per week amongst the earliest age and condition of mankind. Tempest amusement, to say nothing of instruction. After ten the 390 persons who are entitled to their use. By (Latin, tempestas) is of this character. It is so called
or more hours of hard labour, there is—there must this instance, we see that, when the working-classes from tempus (time), because, in a primitive state of be-a natural craving for relaxation or recreative ex can obtain the privilege of reading, they fail not to society, eras are chiefly marked by the occurrence of citement, which is now, unhappily, satisfied in the avail themselves of it to a large extent. great storms, and other such events. Farmers and public-houses, sometimes to the amount of four hun In an up-stairs room we were introduced to a female rural people, generally, will yet be heard dating facts ared and eighty-four visits a day to a single dram- writing-class. This consisted of girls and women, from the great snow-storm, the wet summer, and so shop.* One offect of this vicious mode of spending some of them from the factories. Nothing can exceed forth, of their early days. Silva, Latin for a wood, time and money, may be seen in the rapid increase the diligence and attention with which they pursued being derived from the Greek suluo, to howl, may be of crime in Manchester. In the year 1840, no fewer their lessons. Some of them were of an age which considered as a living record of those savage times, than 13,000 individuals were taken into custody by renders it extremely probable that, but for this instiere yet man had gained the supremacy over the wild the Manchester police, out of a population something tution, they would have passed through life without animals of the forest. under a million,
being able to write their own names. This class meets The Romans spoke of so many head of men-a Full of these facts, we were anxious to learn, frem twice a-week, and the average attendance is from 32 phrase which we limit to cattle--thus plainly inti- personal inspection, what provisions Manchester pos
to 44. mating, through the indestructible testimony of lan- sesses for altering and improving this state of things,
In a large apartment at the top of the house, some guage, the light in which the great mass of human and, as may be expected, first directed our steps to forty to fifty men and boys were employed in cypher, beings was viewed by a nation where the slave popu- the “ Mechanics’ Institute” of Manchester. Former ing, with a degree of order and attention which caused lation was generally as three to one. The word virtus experience of similar establishments, however, induced
us to wonder how so many persons could be assemcontains within itself the history of civil society. It us not to place much faith in the efficiency of this one
bled without any especial restraint upon them, and commences with the period when personal strength and for bettering the intellectual condition of the lower be so silent. The conduct of every member we had courage are all in all : ristus was at first simply mili- classes. Generally speaking, the sort of persons who seen was unexceptionable ; their appearance also detary hardihood amongst the Romans. It then passes belong to them render their title a misnomer. From noted that attendance at this institution had engeninto that advanced and better regulated state of so- the comparative expensiveness with which they are dered in them habits of cleanliness, to which persons ciety, when high moral qualities were esteemed above conducted, their members, instead of mechanics, of their class are unfortunately, too often strangers. the mere soldier's praise : virtus was then employed usually consist of merchants, manufacturers, clerks, Careful washings, combings, and brushings, bad evito signify these qualities. It afterwards sinks, in the shopkeepers, tradesmen, artists, and others of that middle ages, into any distinctive and predominating
* In the Eighteenth Annual Report of the Manchester Mechaquality whatever. We now speak of one thing being
nics' Institution now before us, it is shown, that out of 1092
* See Extracts from Love's “ Hand-Book of Manchester," in done by virtue, that is, by mere force, of another; and No. 655 of this Journal.
members, only 91 come under the denomination of "mechanics, mill-wrights, and engineers."
dently taken place between the work hours and that of ber caused annoyance to the elder members. A dis- them also the younger children, who partake in and appearance in their classes, both amongst the male and tinct room, or else a table in the library, supplied with enjoy the festivities. The amusements are varied by female members. In reference to the danger which the lighter periodicals, is appropriated to their use. a few glees or recitations, and sometimes by an address might be apprehended from adults of each sex belong The news-rooms, like those frequented by the mer- from one of the directors, in support of the objects of ing to the same institution, our informant assured us, chants and other classes in Manchester and most the institution, and inviting assistance and support. that not a single case of any impropriety had come to towns, are of course open on the Sunday. It has Enjoyment cannot be greater than is exhibited on his knowledge from either of the thiree establishments been thought desirable, however, to restrict the time these occasions, nor could rules of propriety be more since their formation,
to about three hours in the evening, from half-past strictly adhered to.* The Salford Lyceum, which we next visited, we five to half-past nine.
To dilate upon the utility of such establishments as found to be similar in all respects to that in Ancoats Lectures upon interesting subjects, popularly ex- these would be wasting time; whilst to urge their exStreet, except that it was recently found expedient, on plained and illustrated, are delivered as nearly as pos- tension, where they do exist, and their establishment account of the circumstances of some subscribers, to sible once a week. But this, as the funds seldom in manufacturing places where they do not, too much make a weekly, instead of a monthly or quarterly sub- | admit of paid lecturers, depends of course upon pro- cannot be advanced. In effecting this object, mere scription. Here we saw an elocution class, and heard curing the gratuitous services of friends.
passive charity is useless. The simple contribution two recitations delivered with very good effect. This Classes meet four or five evenings per week for the of a yearly guinea, or single donation, does but little institution has had greater difficulties to contend instruction of the members, juvenile and adult, in good. It is the kind of active benevolence brought with, and has perhaps been the least successful of the reading, writing, arithmetic, and grammar, without into operation by the founder of the Manchester three. Salford possessed a Mechanics’ Institution any extra charge. In the Ancoats Lyceum, the Lyceums, which alone can render them of effect. like the Manchester one, too high in its subscription, onerous duty of conducting the classes has been The frequenters of dram-houses and beer-shops will which excluded newspapers, and made no provision performed from the commencement by gratuitous not come to a place of instruction of their own accord; for female education. The Lyceum, when first started, teachers. The directors make it a point of duty to they must be reasoned with, persuaded, enticed. To had an undivided field, but the Mechanics’ Institution visit them frequently; the more attentive pupils are this end, a kind of mission should be undertaken has since altered its plan, so as to resemble more nearly sought out and promoted, the teachers encouraged, amongst the habitations of those who dwell in darkthat of the Lyceums. Hence the resources of both are and two or three persons appointed to the care of each ness, poverty, and ignorance, and the advantages of crippled; and although struggles have been made to class, so as to prevent the possibility of any being left moral and intellectual instruction familiarly pointed concentrate the resources of all the establishments by without a teacher. In the other Lyceums, a paid out to them. No other plan can possibly answer. proposing a junction of the more affluent of the Me- teacher is employed, who receives occasional assistance Legislative enactment may restrict the daily period of chanics’ Institutions with the Lyceums, the negotia- from the directors. This involves expense, but per- work, but at the same time it augments the hours of retions have in two instances failed. The Chorlton- hapş is the best means of securing punctuality of at- laxation, and these are the periods which are in all cases upon-Medlock Lyceum we had not time to visit, but tendance, and a uniform system of tuition. There so viciously, while they might be so profitably, occuwere informed that it differed in no essential point are also, I believe, in all the Lyceums, classes for vocal pied. Provision may be made in every factory for the from the others. Its present house is a large and music, elocution, and mechanical and landscape draw- education of the children employed in it: but how is commodious one, and was at first the most flourishing ing, to which the members have access on payment of the adult, who is unable to read or write, to be taught? of the three. During one quarter, there were no fewer an additional subscription.
Certainly not by act of parliament, which cannot than 1300 members. The number, however, has since One of the greatest difficulties in the maintenance force instruction upon a man or woman, though it may fallen to between 300 or 400. Attached to the build of the classes is the want of an efficient system of upon a child. The main remedy, therefore, for all the ing is a considerable plot of land, upon which gym- visitation of the pupils' homes, in order to secure ignorance which exists amongst our operative manunastic apparatus is erected. Various games are also their regular attendance. Without some check of facturers, is active and unwearied private benevolence. permitted during the summer months. The lectures this kind, the younger children frequently absent are delivered in the large class-room of the institu- themselves, and by their consequent slow progress, tion, and occasionally in the Chorlton town-hall, their parents are disappointed, and withdraw them
A WORKING-MAN'S ACCOUNT OF AMERICA. which, however, is incapable of accommodating more from the institution.
WILLIAM THOMSON, an operative wool-spinner of than 400 persons. The rent charged by the Commis But the Lyceums do not, as we have seen, confine Stonehaven, a small town on the east coast of Scotsioners of Police is 165. per night. The institution their advantages to males only; arrangements have land, having returned from a visit to the United possesses a large and well-selected library.
been made in them from the first for the improved States, must needs give the world an account of his Thus the Lyceums, although totally distinct from education of females. These classes receive instruc- travels, seeing, as he sagaciously observes, no good each other, are connected by identity of design, and tion nightly in reading, writing, grammar, sewing, reason why he should not write a book as well as his sympathy on the part of the conductors. Each is and knitting. The directors have been much in- | betters. And so here is his book, a modest specimen governed by a board of 24 directors, a deputy trea- debted' for the services of a number of ladies who of typography from the Stonehaven press, and far surer, and honorary secretary, who are directors ex have superintended this important branch in each from discreditable as a literary effort. Tramping officio, annually chosen by ballot amongst the members institution, and without whose assistance it could through the country to seek employment, sometimes of eighteen years of age, and not less than three quar- not have been undertaken with any satisfaction, working at a factory, and at other times picking up a ters of a year's standing. Each Lyceum has its pre or perhaps propriety. In two of the Lyceums, paid job from a farmer, the hero of the piece is enabled to sident, vice-president, and treasurer, generally influ- female teachers are employed. Separate rooms, and describe matters out of the reach of ordinary tourists, ential residents in the neighbourhood, who are not as far as practicable, separate entrances, are pro- while, on some points, he altogether differs from them. directors by the constitution, although their presence vided for the male and female classes. The former as-Others, for example, complain of the rudeness of the and counsel is gladly welcomed at the meetings. This semble and are dismissed half an hour later than the Americans; he is surprised at their politeness. The regulation was thought desirable, in order to combine latter. This important feature of female education, working-men, he observes, say "Sir" when they adcomplete self-control with some advantage from in- which the Lyceums claim as peculiar to themselves, dress each other, and their whole conduct is marked fluential patronage, and to prevent undue interference will be more conveniently provided for in buildings by self-respect. Employers are equally courteous to on occasional questions by those who, from their sta- which have been projected for two of the Lyceums. those whom they employ; and throughout society, tion, were not likely to take an active part in the re- It is intended to appropriate a portion of the building wherever he goes, though known to be an operative, gular management of the institution.
exclusively to their use, for day schools and evening he is uniformly treated as a gentleman. In passing The subscription to each Lyceum is two shillings classes, with a separate entrance at the side, and only through Glasgow, on his return home, and when look per quarter, without any payment at entrance. In the communicating with the library by a door behind the ing at a public monument, he is addressed by a girl Ancoats Lyceum, females are admitted at eighteen- librarian's counter, through which the female mem- asking her way—“Man, can ye tell me where aboot," pence. There are a few honorary subscribers of a bers may enter to receive their books.
&c. Such a piece of barbarism would not have ocguinea and half a guinea, who are allowed some addi An Essay and Discussion Society meets weekly or curred in America, where even one of the poorest tional privileges.
fortnightly in each of the Lyceums. There is no limi-class would have premised the question with “ Please, The advantages to which this very moderate tation as to subjects, except the good sense of the Sir.” And we take the liberty of asking, why the amount of subscription entitles the members, are as members themselves, who decide by a majority whether same species of politeness should not be practised in follow:
any particular question shall be discussed or not. No this country? There is nothing in our institutions or 1. A circulating library of well selected books of evil effects are found to ensue from these discussions, social arrangements, as far as we are aware, to prevent history, voyages, travels, biography, the arts and as the subjects of debate always consist of some even the most humble classes from using the language sciences, with a considerable admixture of works of harmless literary or historical topic. It is a rule of courtesy, if not kindliness of manner. It would fiction and imagination. The exclusion of the latter worthy of imitation, that the question discussed is cost little trouble, and lower no dignity, to use the from a Mechanics' Library appeared to be neither never put to the vote. These societies, meeting fre- terms “Sir," " If you please," "I will thank you," expedient nor just, although the proportion admitted quently, to discuss subjects of pressing interest to “Would you be so obliging," and so on, in the ordi. is even less, in general, than in the subscription the man, the workman, and the citizen, tend power- nary intercourse of the workshop, which we can see libraries supported by the wealthier classes. Novels fully to benefit individual members by stimulating no reason should not be as polished as that of the and poetry are the source of high gratification, as well the spirit of inquiry and self-improvement; strength- drawing-room. It is at least tolerably evident, that as even improvement, to the taste and feelings; and ening the powers of thought and expression ; ban- as long as working-men generally—we say generally, those whose occupations are long and exhausting, may ishing prejudice; and promoting universal tolera- for we are happy in knowing many creditable excepfind in them agreeable mental excitement, when more tion; whilst they keep alive in the institution the tions—as long as they address each other coarsely or serious reading would be distasteful. The library, interest of the members, and draw out the abilities of intemperately, and act as if they had a contempt for when adequately supplied with new books, is found those best qualified to serve the institution as direc- refinement of manners, they can expect no great cour. to be one of the most attractive parts of the institu- tors, as lecturers, or as teachers. An entrance fee of tesy from employers, or be viewed as equals by the tion, and perhaps is the most useful, because affording sixpence, without further payment, is charged to each better-bred portion of the community. resources which the workman can enjoy at home and member. The directors seldom interfere as a body, Gratified as is our operative wool-spinner with the share with his family. Indeed females, it is stated, but individually attend and take part in the discus- exterior forms of American society, he is shocked with occasionally take out tickets for their younger brothers, sions as frequently as possible.
what appears to strike every traveller, high and low, in order that these may attend the classes, and may Occasional tea-parties, concerts, and soirées, afford with amazement—the practice, as he terms it; of bring home books for them (the sisters) to peruse. to the members of the different Lyceums and their people taking the law into their own hands, and by The great difficulty which the directors find, is to families opportunities of harmless recreation and which human life in some quarters of the Union is supply sufficient novelty. The recent publications of amusement. These are sometimes conducted by the really less protected than it is in Turkey, or India. Messrs Chambers, the Novelist Newspaper, and the Essay and Discussion Society, and although charged To punish a white man for homicide, seems scarcely cheap pamphlet reprints of Smith, Moxon, and others, so low as sixpence a-head, considerable profit is rea- within the compass of the law; such are the many enable them, however, to some extent to do this, and lised, frequently as many as six or seven hundred quirks by which those convicted of crime may escape, at a very small outlay. Shillings will now go almost persons being present. The amusements, which are provided the offence is not repugnant to public opinion. as far in this direction as pounds some years ago. generally furnished gratuitously by members of the On a late occasion, a judge, in passing sentence of
2. A news-room, supplied with daily and weekly institution and their friends, consist of instrumental death on a convicted murderer, drily observed, it was journals of various shades of politics. In the furni- music, singing, recitations, and philosophical experi- the third or fourth time he had performed this unture and fitting up, attention has been paid to warmth ments. In the Chorlton and Salford Lyceums, tea- pleasant duty on the same individual. These things and comfort. This is essential to compete effectually parties and dancing have been introduced, to the great with the inn tap-room, to which the workman is obliged satisfaction of the members. Great care is, of course, * For the information collected during our gratifying visit to in most towns to resort to see a newspaper.
required, and great care is taken, to prevent the intru- the Lyceums, we are indebted to their indefatigable promoter, Youths under sixteen or seventeen are excluded sion of improper persons. They are almost exclu- Edward Herford, Esq., of whose obliging company we had the from the news-room by express by-law, it having sively confined to members of the institutions. The
7 A Tradesman's Travels in the United States and Canada. By been found that it injuriously tempted them away mothers and elder female relatives of the female William Thomson, Stonchayen. Edinburgh : Oliver and Boyd from the class-rooms, and their presence in any num. | members frequently accompany them, bringing with 1842
REVIEW OF THE TWO WORLDS.
astonish our plain Scotch artisan not a little ; and to redeem their notes. The run upon them was tremen Arrived in the Thames, the traveller, by a stretch of some cases of stabbing and shooting that he hears of, dous, but they stood out the storm ; and, at night, posted imagination somewhat extravagant, compares a part impress him with a most unfavourable idea of the bills, stating that they would open next morning an hour of its banks to Thebes and Babylon. “On the banks constitutional liberty of America. The following ac- before the usual time.
of the river I began to distinguish trees, houses crouchcount he' gives of a bank-mob may appropriately hended throughout the day, some of them with consider extended to seize in their transit bales and packages of
There were several of those engaged in the riot appre- ing low on the shore, one foot in the water and a hand enough conclude the present notice.
able sums of money on them. Everybody had plenty of merchandise ; timber-yards with their enormous sheds
money " While I was in Cincinnatti a very serious bank-mob running about with handfuls of dollar Bills, several of and skeletons of unfinished ships ; also, a forest of took place. In order that this case inay be understood, which fell to my share ; and I have them yet as trophies, colossal chimneys, in the form of towers, pylones, and I may mention that there were a number of small banks and an evidence of the mode of regulating the currency obelisks, giving to the horizon an Egyptian appearance, ing establishments which, although not strictly legal, ma- in the Queen City of the West. There were several suggesting a vague outline of Thebes or Babylon, or naged, by hook or by crook,' to get a large quantity of other banks in the city, respectable establishments, in an antediluvian city, of enormous objects altogether their notes into circulation, and as the times grew worse, which there was plenty of good money and specie, but extraordinary.” they fell in value. Such a thing as getting cash for them the mob never made the slightest move towards them. Similar ideas of vastness seem to have arisen from at par was never heard of in the best of times; and now, These are examples enough, to give some idea how the a sight of the West India Docks; although some as there was some prospect of the State passing an act, Americans execute judgment when they take the law abatement must be made for that exaggerated mode compelling all to resune specie payments, these esta into their own hands." blishments got embarrassed, and some of them began to
of expression which it is usual to pardon in modern
French writers. “ The East India Docks,” exclaims fail in being able to redeem their issues with notes of
PERIODICAL LITERATURE OF FRANCE. other banks. Several throughout the state, and in the
this journalist, “are something so enormous, so gigancity, became bankrupt in the most fradulent manner.
tic, that they surpass human proportions! It is the The people were roused, and made a run upon them. The gay, susceptible characteristics of the French na- work of Cyclops and Titans. Above the buildings, One morning, the run upon the Miami Exporting Com- tion demand, from its popular literature, amusement the warehouses, the wharfs, the water-steps and other pany's Bank was so great, that their
funds also run short. rather than utility: hence, there is scarcely a publi- heterogeneous structures, you behold a prodigious alley Now, although their notes bore to be payable in specie, cation which issues from the French press that does of masts prolonged to infinity; an inextricable labythe people only demanded the notes of other banks in not contain a proportion of imaginative pieces. Even rinth of rigging, spars, ropes, which surpasses, by the which they had a little more confidence. However, they the daily newspapers are obliged to waft their dry density of their interlacement, the most entangled ran through the crowd to mob them. Immediately the cussion-upon the wings of fiction ; for almost every stopped about ten o'clock in the morning, and a shout details of fact-of public occurrences and political dis- portions of an American virgin forest !"
The wonder thus excited having in some degree window-frames were smashed, the doors broken, and the establishment completely gutted-counters, desks, books, journal has about a quarter of each page ruled off for subsided, another source of astonishment presents papers, money, &c., being promiscuously hurled to the the reception of tales, or sketches of character; though itself to the tourist. It is Sunday when he lands, and street, amidst the shouts and execrations of the mob. sometimes biography, dramatic and musical criticisin, he is greatly surprised at the solitude and profound
When I got to the scene of action, which was at the &c., are admitted into this department, which is silence” which reigned in the parts of the town corners of Main and Third Street, a party of sixteen or usually called the Feuilleton. In fact, many of the through which he had occasion to pass. To the denieighteen soldiers had taken possession of the ransacked most popular novels have been originally published zen of Sabbath-breaking Paris, London on this day building. The mayor and the marshal of the city at- thus, from day to day, to be afterwards reprinted in appeared like a Necropolis, “one of those cities peopled tempted to address the mob, but
in vain, for they could volumes. In like manner, the magazines and reviews, by the petrified inhabitants read of in Oriental tales. not be heard. The marshal, a bold, active man, was on whose main and avowed objects are of a more grave
All the shops were closed, not a single human visage horseback, riding through the streets, calling upon all and sober cast, seem to exist under a pressing neces- appeared at the windows. The few passengers glided good citizens to disperse, but few such were to be found. sity for filling some of their pages with the fancies by like shadows. This mournful and deserted scene They then tried a fusé--they rung the city bells to the and devices of the novelist ; presenting to an English contrasted so forcibly with the notion of animation
and bustle which I had formed of London, that I did failed. The firemen and many of the citizens, with the by Bulwer would have in the Quarterly or Edinburgh not recover from my surprise till I remembered that the word of command, and began to run to their stations. Review, or a romance of Ainsworth - continued” in it was Sunday, and London Sundays had already been At this time I was standing on the steps in front of the the Times newspaper.
described to me as the incarnation of inactivity. This Old United States' Bank, which was crowded with spec The Rerue des Deux Mondes (or Review of the Two day, which is with us—at least amongst the lower tators looking down upon the scene, when I observed one Worlds), a publication resembling, in outward ap classes-a day of rejoicing, of promenading, of festivity, of those little incidents that have turned the fate of pearance, our own monthly periodicals, but published and dancing, is on the other side of the channel passed greater field-days than this. As the firemen and others fortnightly, is no exception to the above-stated rule; in the most inconceivable gloom. The taverns are were running past, just opposite to where we stood, a an original imaginative article appearing in nearly shut on the eve of midnight;
the theatres have no perfellow got up on a cask or box, at one of the shop doors, every number. The rest of its sheets are filled with formances; the shops hermetically closed ; and unless where he stood conspicuous, with his thumb at his nose, original contributions to geographical and statistical provision is made on the preceding evening, it is diffiand his fingers stretched out, thereby intimating, in his science, biography, literary criticism, and political cult to get anything to eat. Life seems to be suspended. way, that a deceit was about to be practised on them. discussion. But what should make this periodical in- All the wheels in London cease to revolve, like those to the work of demolition in greatly-increased numbers, teresting to the inhabitants of this side the channel, of the chimney-clock when one places a finger on the and apparently more exasperated, both at the cheat is the attention it bestows upon Great Britain ; for, pendulum. For fear of disturbing its Sabbath solempractised on them, and at the sight of the soldiers. They in almost every number, our manners, literature, the nity, London does not indulge in a single movement, stood at bay for some minutes, moving a little backwards aspect of our country, our political institutions, or and scarcely permits itself to respire. On this day, and forwards, evidently preparing for a struggle. The foreign possessions, are honoured with some kind of after having heard a sermon from the pastor of the troops had their bayonets fixed and their muskets le notice ; and, taking the present year down to Septem- sect to which he belongs, the good Englishman shuts velled. There was not more than ten yards between ber, we find that, out of seventeen litraisons, or parts, himself up in his house to meditate, and to rejoice them. The crowd began to throw brick-bats. Two or twelve of them contain articles on those subjects before a good coal-fire on the happiness of being at three of the company fired. The crowd then came for- The first we light upon is entitled “Littérature Ang- home, and that he is neither a Frenchman nor a ward like a wave of the sea, the company fired a volley, laise,” which, true to French tastes, is a critique, not Papist. At midnight (?), the charm is broken; the and several of the rioters fell wounded. Such a shout upon English literature, but upon English romances vital principle, impeded for a time, becomes re-aniwas then raised, all along the crowded streets, and from and novels, many of which do not deserve, in our own mated; the houses re-open; life returns to the imthe spectators on the tops of the houses, as I never heard estimation, to be classed as literature. Indeed, the mense body so lately fallen into lethargy; it awakens before ; for I had never seen the sovereign people' in a only really literary works reviewed or named in the at the call of money-making Monday, and then conrage till now.
By the time the smoke and dust cleared away, and the course of the essay, are “ Alison's History of Europe,” tinues its march."
as the French and the English, that, by reversing this diately in the rear. This was a wise movement; for, 1 practised occasionally in England, but daily in France. picture, by stating its converse in every particular, think, if they had remained other five minutes, it would " These unconnected fragments," proceeds the re we shall be presented with the impressions of nine have been doubtful if any of them would have chewed viewer, “supersede the old laws of composition - Englishmen out of ten who visit Paris. Their astotheir cud' over their pork that night. I believe the mayor cohesion of parts, unity, and finish. The author nishment would be drawn from the antitheses of the had strong doubts whether he had any legal right to only thinks of the number he has got to produce, statements made by this French visitor to London. The shoot the citizens on such an occasion, and no more sol and of the twenty guineas he is to have for it ; the English stranger in Paris would exclaim with wonder,
“ All the shops are open, all the inhabitants are from were ordered out, but they paid no attention to this pages which have preceded, and those which have to order; in fact, the greater part of them had not time, for follow, seldom trouble him. Each successive number home, promenading the streets and public gardens. they were busy, in the mob, helping to wind up the affairs must contain a stage effect, a bait for the perusal of The greatest animation and gaiety prevails ; the taof the banks; and this they did effectually before night. its successors. There must be excitement-unnatural verns are filled with guests ; and although it is the
After this, the mob had complete possession of the incident; the attention of the reader is violently sus Sabbath, they actually perform plays in the theatres ! city, and the run upon the banks continued ; but they pended, truthfulness is sacrificed to astonishment, This day, which is with us—at least with the majority gave them fair play. As long as they were able to re- simplicity to improbability; the curtain is lowered at of us--a day of rest and thanksgiving, is passed in deem their notes they allowed them to go on, but the the moment that emotion is excited, when the hero Paris in feasting, dancing, and revelry; and it is not moment the funds ran short, smash went the windows is about to perish, when the heroine is in tears, when till Monday arrives that the ordinary business of life and doors, and the work of destruction commenced. The the heart of the reader beats with expectation. Mi- is resumed.” Thus those things which habitual famibankers fled for their lives. In this way they demolished serable literary juggling! How, without connexion, liarity renders common place and unnoticeable to a the inside of five of these shin-plaster manufactories,' without revision, without conscience, is it possible tó resident, strike the stranger with astonishment from as they called them, before night. There were a great number of special constables sworn ing ones ?”
write, not great works, but even rational or interest their (to him) extreme singularity. The reriest in, and they came out about two o'clock, each with a
Cockney will not, however, fail to acknowledge the handkerchief tied round his hat to distinguish them.
In a succeeding number, a long notice occurs of Sir truth of the remarks contained in our travellers vivid They threw themselves in lines across the streets leading Walter Scott, in connexion with English romance, description of the sooty appearance of the metropolis, to the mobbed parts of the city, allowing everybody to and is ably written. “Scotland in 1840” is a statis- caused by that smoký fog which Charles Lamb has pass away from, but none towards, the disturbed dis- tical account of that country, compiled from our own designated, from its unequalled density, “the genuine tricts; but it would not do. The people broke through; gazetteers, with many of the proper names mispelt; London Particular.” The tourist continues :"One and I do not think the constables cared much. The for example, Mrs Millar, who introduced the spinning thing which gives to London a most peculiar aspect, sympathies of the most respectable citizens were with of Holland thread into Paisley, is transformed into besides the breadth of its streets and pavements, and the people, and I observed many of them, in the streets, “Mrs Wittar.” To a sketchy article, entitled, “ A the lowness of its houses, is the uniforin black hue rubbing their hands with glee, and laughing, as one after Journey to London,” a considerable degree of interest which shadows every external object. Nothing can another of these swindling establishments were turned attaches, as giving, in a lively though Hippant strain, be more doleful and lugubrious ; it is a kind of black inside out. The mayor was even suspected of not doing a foreigner's impressions of the great city. “I had,” that has none of those brown and vigorous tints which all he could, and was tried for it afterwards, but acquitted.
commences the author, " passed the night at a masked time has given to the ancient edifices of less northern The mob went to work very deliberately, and, after ball. There is nothing so wretched as the day after countries ; it is an impalpable and subtle dust, which they had everything their own way, with good humour.
a ball, and I took a violent determination. I resolved | sticks to everything, penetrates everywhere, and from I was pleased with the spirit of fair-play shown to the to treat my dullness upon the homeopathic plan; which there is no defence. A stranger would say, Planters' and Mechanics’ Banks, which were thought to for, some hours after, having had scarcely time to that all the monuments had been sprinkled with be weak. The cry to pull them down was frequently take off my caftans, poignards, and the rest of my black-lead : the immense quantity of coal which is raised, but a number of the active rioters defended the Turkish attire, I was on my way to London. the consumed in London for fuel, is one of the principal premises stoutly, and they continued, through the day, / native city of spleen.”
causes of the general mourning worn by the chief