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Birds build no nests, nor in the sun The morality of the whole transaction will be viewed | ture. His conversation was ricb, various, and full
Glad streams come singing as they run : differently : those disposed to take a severe view of it of anecdote. There is a dark, as well as a bright side,
A maypole is thy blossom'd tree, should consider at least the youth, circumstances, and however, to the distinction conferred by such unre
A beetle is thy murmuring bee; temptations of the poet. Cunningham had long ad- mitting exertion. The daily business of the sculptor's
Thy bird is caged, thy dove is where mired the tact of Burns in pouring his genius into the establishment was full occupation for any man ordi
Thy poulterer dwells, beside thy hare; outlines of our rude lyrics. “He could glide,” he said, narily constituted, or even for one more robust than
Thy fruit is pluck'd, and by the pound “ like dew into the fading bloom of departing song, the average, and the literary labours pursued at night
Hawk'd clamorous all the city round; and refresh it into beauty and fragrance.” Admira were so much over and above what a due regard to
No roses, twinborn on the stalk, tion soon led, as in most young minds, to imitation, health would have sanctioned. The industry and self
Perfume thee in thy evening walk; and Cromek supplied the enticement and the opportu- denial were admirable, and the glory was precious to No voice of birds-but to thee comes nity. In later years, Allan wrote several songs, but a poet's soul; but nature's institutions are not to be The mingled din of cars and drums, they were not pitched in a key to be popular; and outraged in vain, even by those who seem her favour And startling cries, such as are rife only one, “A Wet Sheet and a Flowing Sea," seems ite children. Here it may be remarked, that, while When wine and wassail waken strife. to be generally known or sung. Allan Cunningham had made wonderful acquirements
Child of the country! on the lawn About the year 1810, Allan left his native county, in the criticism of both literature and art, he had ad. I see thee like the bounding fawn;
Blithe as the bird which tries its wing led probably by some vague hopes of improving his vanced less in more solid pursuits : he knew nature fortune. He worked for a time in Edinburgh, where, only in her external beauty and expression, not in
The first time on the winds of spring;
Bright as the sun, when from the cloud we have been told, he hewed many of the stones which those mysteries by which she leads us to contemplate
He comes as cocks are crowing loud; constitute one of the most beautiful places in a city the perfections of her own Author. The remark has
Now running, shouting, 'mid sunbeams, of palaces-Charlotte Square. In time he reached often painfully occurred to us, that a slight knowledge Now groping trouts in lucid streams, London, abandoned his art, and commenced literary of what modern science has elicited on the subject of Now spinning like a mill-wheel, round, life in earnest, by obtaining an engagement in con- mind-what, unfortunately, he and many like him
Now hunting echo's empty sound, nexion with a newspaper called “ The Day." The only deem fit matter for ridicule-would have, in all Now climbing up some old tall tree late hours and slavish labour of reporting were foreign probability, saved him for a hale old age, since it For climbing's sake. 'Tis sweet to thee to his taste and habits, and he left the press to become would have made him aware that the brain is no more To sit where birds can sit alone, foreman to a sculptor named Budd. Shortly after- to be misused with impunity than any other organ of
Or share with thee thy venturous throne. wards (about the year 1814), he was without employ- the system. The consequence of his extreme labours Child of the town and bustling street, ment, and threatened with some of the evils of poverty, —his being a man of business by day and an author
What woes and snares await thy feet! which were the more alarming, as he had now attached by night-was, that, about three years ago, paralysis
Thy paths are paved for five long miles, to himself for life a sweetheart from the banks of paid him a premature visit. The week after Sir
Thy groves and hills are peaks and tiles; the Nith, and was the father of several children. At Francis Chantrey had been struck on one side of his
Thy fragrant air is yon thick smoke,
Which shrouds thee like a mourning cloak; a moment when his pecuniary resources were sunk to body, Allan was struck on the other; and thus, as the And thou art cabin'd and contined almost the lowest ebb, an advertisement of Mr Chan- latter used to remark, with a melancholy smile, they
At once from sun, and dew, and wind; trey, the sculptor, for a superintendent of his work- made but one man between them, and that a damaged
Or set thy tottering feet but on shop or place of business, met the eye of the poet ; he one. Both partially recovered: the intellectual power Thy lengthen'd walks of slippery stone, applied, and was immediately accepted. This was a remaining uninjured, they were able once more to The coachman there careering reels situation highly agreeable to Cunningham in all re- attend to business, and even to enter into society; With goaded steeds and maddening wheels ; spects, and in none more so than as concerned the but they never appeared quite the same men they And commerce pours each poring son character of his employer, which included all that was had been. Even in gay society, Allan bore a sad and In pelf's pursuit and hollos' run. amiable and respectable. Chantrey modelled the still expression affecting to look upon, and the flow
While, flushed with wine, and stung at play, bust or figure in clay, and Cunningham overlooked of cheerful anecdote and remark for which he used to
Men rush from darkness into day. the artisan who transferred it to marble-wrote let- be remarkable, was gone
The stream's too strong for thy small bark ; ters, paid accounts, and attended to business of In November 1841, Sir Francis sunk under an
There nought can sail save what is stark.
Fly from the town, sweet child! for health all kinds. The friends-for such they became- other attack, leaving Cunningham intrusted with
Is happiness, and strength, and wealth. were useful to each other. In Chantrey's studio, the duty of winding up the affairs of his studio, and
There is lesson in each flower, the poet had opportunities of meeting with men bequeathing a handsome annuity to him and his wife A story in each stream and bower: of talent of all grades and distinctions; while the conjointly, a tribute by no means more than deserved, On every herb on which you tread artist, in the early part of his career, was not a little seeing how much of the best of his life he had given Are written words which, rightly read, indebted to the friendly critiques and encomiums to the testator. Allan was then engaged in writing Will lead you from earth's fragrant sod, which his assistant scattered through the magazines a memoir of his friend, Sir David Wilkie, and this To hope, and holiness, and God. and newspapers. Cunningham soon became known. task he had brought to a conclusion, when death Walter Scott was, from the first, certain that he was stepped in to claim his part.
A VOICE FROM THE PAST. the author of the pseudo-antique songs in Cromek's Allan Cunningham left, besides his excellent widow, work, and Professor Wilson expressed the same opi- three sons and a daughter, all grown up. Two of the It is certain that the mode of settling disputes by nion, in a paper in Blackwood's Magazine. Allan former were provided for many years ago by appoint- sound arguments is superseding that of deciding them now wrote a series of tales for Blackwood--was a con ments in India. The other, Peter, who has a govern- by hard blows. Right used to have its knight-errants tributor also to the London Magazine—and published ment situation, has already shown an aptitude for the and mailed champions, who vicariously, or in their own two volumes of " Traditional Tales,” and a dramatic pursuits of his father,. His acquirements in our lite- vindication, entered the lists in defence of truth and poem called “ Sir Marmaduke Maxwell.” There was rary history pointed him out lately
, to Mr Murray, justice. Men discuss more and fight less, and the club genius in all he did, but it was wild and undisciplined as a fit editor of “ Campbell's Specimens of English and the spear have yielded to the pen and the tongue. -diffuse in style, and improbable in fable. He also Poetry.” The life of Allan Cunningham affords exthrew off some novels--edited a collection of Scottish cellent lessons, but of an opposite kind; it shows a
As supply follows demand, so this second reign of songs--and wrote a copious and manly memoir of man of talent and pure worth rising to distinction Saturn has called into action a class of combatants Burns. Sir Walter Scott honoured him with a flat- through many difficulties, and thus may nerve the different from those who signalised the age of physical tering notice in the introduction to the “ Fortunes minds of many who sigh, as he once did, for distinc- force. It is not Theseus or Hercules, Guy of War. of Nigel,” and thus, as Cunningham remarked, “ gave tion; and it warns against that excessive application wick, Amadis de Gaul, or the noble Cid, whose aid the his name to fame." The atmosphere of art in which to mental labour, which, though an error that leans injured seek, but certain braves, denominated gentlehe now breathed, imparted a new tone to his tastes, to virtue's side, is scarcely less fatal to genius in these and he set to describing picture galleries, and writing days, than were dissipation and vice in the days of body, but discharge volleys of paragraphs
, aimed often
men of the press, who do not use missiles that kill the memoirs of eminent painters, sculptors, and architects. our fathers.* A further specimen-a very beautiful These lives were published in five volumes, in “ Mur- one-of the poetry of Cunningham is here appended.
with deadly effect at the ethereal part of the oppresray's Family Library,” (1829), and are by far the best
sive foe. Columns of words, not of warriors, fill the
THE TOWN CHILD AND THE COUNTRY CHILD. of his prose compositions. The style is free and vigo
Child of the country! free as air
arena ; reasons, not battalions, are placed in hostile rous, the narrative lively, and the reflections inter
Art thou, and as the sunshine fair;
array ; interests are weighed, not armour or weapons spersed throughout the work marked by originality
Born, like the lily, where the dew
of mortal strife ; and the public voice, not the thunand penetration. His attainments in the fine arts are Lies oderous when the day is new;
der of the battering-ram or arquebuss, proclaims, perhaps a more remarkable feature in his history than Fed 'mid the May-flowers like the bee,
in harmonious concord, and without appeal, on which his early ballad strains.
Nursed to sweet music on the knee, He made but one more effort in verse, by the pub Lullid in the breast to that glad tune
side is the right, that of the victor or the vanquished lication, in 1832, of “The Maid of Elvar,” a poem in Which winds make 'mong the woods of June; Reflecting on this great change, this superseding of twelve parts, founded on a Dumfriesshire story of the
I sing of thee: 'tis sweet to sing
force by intellect, the thought naturally arises, whesixteenth century. This poem is in the Spenserian
Of such a fair and gladsome thing.
ther many of the corporal struggles of these latter days stanza, and more carefully elaborated than almost any
Child of the town! for thee 1 sigh: other of his works. It is thus closed :
A gilded roof's thy golden sky,
have not been wasted efforts; whether they have A carpet is thy daisied sod,
secured a single object which might not and would My song is ended : may my country see
A narrow street thy boundless road,
have been attained by the quiet diffusion of intelOrder and beauty in my rude design :
Thy rushing deer 's the clattering tramp My song is ended; I have poured it free:
ligence. France offers on this question a very per
of watchmen, thy best light 's a lamp; May they who read it deem its roughest line
tinent illustration. Here she is, after swinging over Tastes of fresh nature like well-flavoured wine.
Through smoke, and not through trellis'd vines My song is ended : it was long to me
And blooming trees, thy sunbeam shines :
the fiery gulf for half a century, reposing under a As light to morn--as morn to Solway brine
I sing of thee in sadness : where
Bourbon, under a constitutional prince, under a repreAs showers to corn-as blossom to the bee;
Else is wreck wrought in aught so fair ?
sentative legislature, under responsible ministers, and And dearer since, dear wise, 'twas pleasant unto thee.
Child of the country! thy small feet
under a responsible judicial administration. These But in literary matters, it often happens that that
Tread on strawberries red and sweet;
are nearly the limits which the Constituent Assembly which is most studiously toiled for is most disappoint
With thee I wander forth to see ing, and the “Maid of Elvar” fell almost still-born
The flowers which most delight the bee ;
of 1789 assigned to her, and which the science of the from the press.
The bush o'er which the throstle sung
period indicated as her legitimate boundary. All
In April, while she nursed her young ; All this time, Mr Cunningham was attending to his
efforts to force her beyond this, apparently her natural
The den beneath the sloe-thorn, where daily duties in Chantrey's establishment. He was
position, have proved nugatory. The military glories
She bred her twins, the timorous hare ; engaged there from six in the morning till six in the
The knoll, wrought o'er with wild bluebells,
of the empire were illusive ; the alarm and slaughter afternoon--often later; and in the evenings he poured Where brown bees build their balmy cells;
of her Reign of Terror were fruitless of abiding reout his mind on paper with the regularity and never The greenwood stream, the shady pool,
sults. Both fill pages of deep interest in her annals, failing copiousness of a machine. His little study in Where trouts leap when the day is cool ;
but the interest arises more from the wildness and Belgrave Place might truly be denominated his forge, The shilfa's nest, that seems to be the name by which Sir Walter Scott used at one time A portion of the sheltering tree;
stirring character of the incidents, than any lasting playfully to designate the apartment in which he And other marvels, which my verse
influence they have exerted on the progress of the wrote. The result of this industry was seen in the
Can find no language to rehearse.
community. They were, in truth, surplusage-a increased comfort and importance of the poet's house
Child of the town! for thee, alas !
noisy but needless accompaniment in the development hold-in his well-filled library-and bis daily extend.
Glad nature spreads nor flowers nor grass ;
of her chief drama; and it may be doubted whether ing reputation and acquaintance. Ile was familiar
* In the above memoir, we have introduced a few passages
they either averted or essentially altered any of the with almost every person eminent in art and literas from a sketch published in the Inverness Courier.
fixed conditions to which our neighbours seem des
of weight and influence in defence of what was termed which we encounter in shooting over some lonely hill- been uninhabited for several years, it is fast going to
tined. They lacked steady support in the general George III. Riots ensued, lives were lost, but oppo-called in Scotland. Around this the Whitadder taste and sentiment; and, like a pendulum, without sition was fruitless. Resolutions were drawn up by makes one of those windings which occur so fresustaining power, the impulses, though riolent, of the chief magistrates and manufacturers, stating that, quently in its course, and from which it is supnecessity ultimately ceased. France, through all the if the new inventions were not adopted in Lancashire, posed to derive its name. Farther up are the woods vicissitudes of her civil convulsions, has been seeking they would in some other county, or in some other of Whitehall -- another uninhabited house - which a resting-place, and that place seems marked for her, country; so that other people would reap the benefit in autumn are variegated with the richest hues. as for every other community, by the weal and know if they did not.* Had the populace been successful in In front of the house is a large and beautiful park, ledge of her people.
preventing, by tumults, the introduction of the new containing some of the finest trees in the district, and Anterior to the burst of the French Revolution, machinery, it is not likely they could have prevented which has that quiet and venerable look of age more great meliorations were in progress in the chief Euro- the introduction of the cheaper commodities it had common in English and in Scottish pleasure-grounds. pean states, under the quiet influence of a long peace produced elsewhere. Competition would thus have Behind the house, in the bank overhanging the haugh, and inquiring spirit. Whether that event tended to wrought far more depressive effects on the condition of is an extensive rookery, whose sounds alone now break arrest or accelerate their march, is a problem unsuited the spinner and weaver than mechanical ingenuity, and the silence of a place where, in olden times, a castle to our pages to investigate. But it is certain that vio- would have involved in its superseding tendency not stood in feudal pride, and which, in modern days, was lence never made such illustrious and influential the operatives only, but their employers, merchants, enlivened with the sounds of gaiety, and brightened converts as were made by reason and philosophy. manufacturers, and tradesmen. This, indeed, is the with the smiles of beauty. The visitor, after passing Under the auspices of the chief continental sove general law (though we do not recollect to have through the well cultivated fields of the Merse, in reigns, and those of the vast body of men of let seen it adverted to before) of all new contrivances for which industry is at work on every hand, and of which ters whom they patronised, the character of Euro- the abridgment of labour. Workmen must meet them the rich pluins and valleys show like so many gardens, is pean society had been changed, partly in its outward | either as competitors in the market of labour or as surprised to find himself suddenly in a spot where there forms, in its institutions, laws, and usages, but more competitors in the market of commodities ; in the is nothing to tell of the present generation, but where in its inward spirit and substance. The influ- former case, they may suffer temporary inconvenience, everything carries him back to those which have been. ence of a powerful priesthood had been circum- but in the latter both they and their employers are It was a little to the west of the present house that scribed ; the Jesuits driven out; the monastic or sure to be ruined, with the further disadvantage, that the ancient castle of Hutton Hall stood ; and, judging ders greatly reduced in number; and the flames of a benefit which science might have conferred on their from its situation, it must have been a place of conreligious persecution quenched in their ashes. The own town or their own country, is lost without equi. siderable strength. The house has still much of the odious practice of judicial torture had been abolished valent, and passes to the stranger or foreigner. old border aspect, and part of it was obviously erected in Germany in 1776 by Joseph II., and his example A permanent excess in the supply of labour has at a period when security from hostile attacks was was soon after followed by his brother Leopold in the same operation on the condition of the workmen more looked to than comfort or elegance. The part Italy. The Spanish Inquisition had been rendered as contrivances for its abbreviation. It tends to lower to which we allude is a square tower with frowning almost innoxious—its last victim being an unfortunate its price, and for this we fear there is no allowable or battlements, built in that massive style which was woman at Seville, who, in 1781, was burnt alive for feasible preventive, except either lessening the redun- necessary for defence against the "Northumbrian a crime which was absolutely supernatural. In Hun- dancy of the commodity in excess, or finding new out- prickers fierce and rude.” Whether this was an gary, Bohemia, and Russia, personal slavery was being lets for its employment. In the work just referred to, appendage to the ancient castle, or was erected imgradually alleviated. Agriculture was promoted, and the subject is examined in its chief bearings, and many mediately after its destruction (for of its having seen the pursuits of commerce no longer esteemed degrad- instances given of futile attempts to keep
up wages, in at least three centuries there can be no doubt), we shall ing. Artificial distinctions and titles of honour had the face of an overstocked market of industry, by turn not take upon us to determine. The rest of the house still a ceremonious precedence allowed them in pri- outs and combinations. Of these, the disastrous re- is more modern, and marks the transition period of vate life ; but the nobility indulged as little in su- sults seem mostly to have been either to force trade architecture, as well as of society. percilious pride and exclusiveness as in the barbaric from places where it was thriving, to stimulate con The ancient castle of Hutton Hall was destroyed in pomp of their feudal predecessors. In competition trivances for superseding skilled occupations, or to the year 1497. It was taken and sacked by the Earl with the more intrinsic realities of industry, historical entail great pecuniary sacrifices on trade-unionists. of Surrey, who led the English forces against Perkin recollections had abated of their pride of place; and The last is a serious and certain consequence, of which Warbeck, when that impudent pretender had inwhatever prescriptive rights might remain to the there has recently been some bitter experience. In veigled James IV. into a war with England. It is cuprivileged orders, they formed no iinpassable barrier the strikes of late years, there has been expended by rious to find Ford, in his drama of“ Perkin Warbeck," to a more equal and kindly intercourse among the the Glasgow cotton-spinners, L.47,000 ; the Manches- mentioning Hutton Hall, along with several other different ranks of society.
ter cotton - spinners, L.375,000 ; the wool - combers, places in the neighbourhood, in the tirade which he In our own island, contemporary advances had been L.100,000; the Leeds mechanics, L.137,000. The puts into the mouth of Surrey. The orthography of made in justice and wholesome policy. There was
recent turn-outs in Lancashire must have been far the ingenious Templar is perlaps as correct as could less of selfishness and monopoly ; and the conviction more costly than all these, and yet have ended, we have been expected. had become apparent, that social benefits, to be endur- regret to say, without satisfactory results either to
“ Can they ing, must be common, not partial or exclusive. This men or employers-leaving only to both an augmen
Look on the strength of Cunderstine defaced ?
The glory of Heydon Hall devastated ?--that spirit was evinced in the new treatment adopted to- tation of difficulties to contend against. wards Ireland-in unfettering her commerce, in givThe commercial and industrial position of the
Of Edington cast down ?-the pile of Fulden
O'erthrown; and this the strongest of their forts, ing greater scope and encouragement to her domestic country seems such as not tu need any addition to its
Old Ayton castle, yielded and demolished, industry, and in treating her, not as a colonial depen- perplexities by profitless dissensions. "Violence, as we And yet not peep abroad?” dency subservient only to the greatness of the parent have endeavoured to show, has rarely or ever abated
According to a date which was recently to be seen state, but as a partner having co-equal rights, and public wrongs ; nor is it likely to do so in the existing above the principal door, the present house of Hutton alike identified in the general prosperity of the em- juncture. It has seldom achieved, but often frustrated Hall was built in 1573. It is somewhat in the Elizapire. While these and many other encouraging cir
or delayed, relief. Discussion and inquiry are the bethan style, though with less architectural embellishcumstances were occurring, all at once a check was
natural resources of a civilised age; and if to these be ment than is to be seen in the old family residences of given by the riots of Lord George Gordon. By these superadded mutual concession and forbearance, there the south of a similar age. The interior is fitted up fanatical outrages, the metropolis was brought to the
seems little doubt that both the body politic and the in a comparatively modern style, some of the rooms brink of destruction. People became alarmed at the body physical would soon be convalescent.
being after the manner of the last century. But the evidences of ignorance and violence which these dis
concealments, the narrow and winding stairs, and the orders afforded ; and before the panic had faded from AN OLD HOUSE IN THE MERSE. involved passages, tell of an earlier period. The remembrance, out burst the French Revolution in all Without derogating from the interest attached to kitchen and servants’ hall are arched, and present all menaced with destruction. Even private property and cathedrals--we often feel
that there is as much; footsteps of many generations, it has been covered, at
the more magnificent class of ruins--castles, abbeys, stair is of stone ; but having been worn away by the and persons hardly seemed safe. These fears might be groundless, they might be unreasonable, but they or more, associated with the remains of some simple
an apparently recent period, with plain wood. There existed, and were the means of uniting all possessed dwelling, at least if it be one which stands in some situation not vulgarising. Even the ruined cottage
is no furniture remaining in the house ; and having peaco, law, and order. So great was the panic, that
decay. reason was silenced. No talk of meliorations could be side, is an object which cannot be passed without an
Our readers will remember the Seven Spears of Tistened to, and the slightest approach to imitation of effusion of human sympathy for within its walls hope: Wedderburn, who are mentioned in the Lay of the ment, was resolutely opposed, as pregnant with unde- forget, what a celebrated living writer has remarked, Last Minstrel, as having come to the aid of Brankthat the death of every peasant is the fifth act of a
some against Belted Will Howard and Lord Dacre. finable ruin.
To one of these Hutton Hall belonged in former The lesson has often been repeated in subsequent tragedy. But I know no object that comes home to
times. Of this we believe there is sufficient evidence the heart with more power, and to which I would more domestic history. Inquiry and discussion have been gradually working their way in the public mind, when willingly devote a summer's day, than some deserted furnished by the charter chest of Wedderburn ; and their fruits have been lost, or indefinitely deferred by family residence, which has seen generation after above the principal door the arms of the Homes are some sudden explosion of popular excess or extrava- generation flourish and decay, where love has shed its still to be seen engraved in stone. But of those times gance. Violence always recoils on itself ; unreasonable purple light over hearts long buried, where the still there is no tradition preserved with regard to Hutton
Hall. Indeed, when we consider that the country all claims seldom attain their purpose ; they only cement
sad music of humanity has been heard, but is now and strengthen the power of resistance. These are na
silent for ever, where beauty has pined into an early around must have been the scene of many a hardtural results. If men seek only what is useful, or per fity, where noble minds have been o’erthrown by sad strange theat
thie keridh Colorneool culchbear ra permanent grave, where fiery youth has ripened into sober matu- fought encounter between the rival borderers, it is kind plead for them, and procure co-operative support; heart, where the return of the long-absent has shed which systematic agriculture was nur edhara cheie but if they seek that which is hurtful
, or compromises light and gladness, where age has indulged its recol- district, and the complete change in the character antagonist rights, then they either lose adherents, or rouse into activity and combination an insurmount
lections of the past, and childhood its bright anticipa- and habits of the people that in consequence ensued, tions of the future, where
marriages have been cele is the only circumstance that seems adequately to able opposition. From these obvious and commonplace principles, may generally be predicated the suc
brated with song and with dance, where birth-days account for the fact. The plough, no less than the cess or failure of every public enterprise. We have have been kept with befitting carousals, and where loom and the steam-engine, dispels the old stories of the dead have been carried forth with solemn cere
prowess and romance. only to balance conflicting interests—those likely to
From the Homes, Hutton Hall was purchased about be benefited, and those likely to be endangered—to mony, and amidst all the pageantry of woe.
I say this much by way of preface to an account of Johnstons of Hilton, whose family seat it was until a
the beginning of the seventeenth century by the arrive at the ultimate issue of the impending struggle.
an old house in the Merse, or lower district of Ber- few years ago. The first of the family of Hilton was According to this test may be tried the remarkable popular agitations which followed in quick suo
wickshire, which, from particular circumstances in cession the general peace of 1815; and, descending my own history, I regard with an unusually lively Johnstons had property in several of the surrounding from national examples to minor illustrations, de- Whitadder with the Tweed, on the south side of the parishes, and, along with the Homes and Swintons, rived from the conflicts of capital and industry, we shall find further confirmations of our general con
former, stands the now uninhabited house of Ilutton clusions in favour of peace, moderation, and respectfully wooded, between which and the river stretches Douglas was minister of Hilton, a man whose memory
the side of the government. At that time Daniel for mutual rights. The great contest between
a large green haugh, as a strip of alluvial ground is is still preserved among the people of the neighbourmachinery and manual industry is now almost a cenIt began with the discoveries of Watt, * Wade's Iristory and Political Philosophy of the Middle and
hood. Ble was a staunch Presbyterian ; and tradition Wyatt, and Hargraves, soon after the accession of Working Classes, p. 41, Chambers's People's Edition.
tells that his faith was so strong, that he would sow
chaff, doubting not that wheat would grow. In the Many other tales connected with this old house our that they will not support the fatigue of a journey to any small rural church of Hilton, of which the ruins still space forbids us to narrate ; nor can we now describe distance, although they are well packed in wet canvass remain, the congregation had assembled, among whom the popularity which the last proprietors enjoyed in bags filled with moistened moss. Such is the scarcity of was Johnston. Douglas was addressing the people; the neighbourhood, their connexions with other dis- the speckled leech, that it is with difficulty they are now and, perhaps, in preaching to the times, expressed tinguished families, and that gradual diminution of procured ; and although there has been for years a pre some sentiment which gave offence to Hilton. Sud- their lands, which marks their history like that of so judice against the green, they are the only species that denly the latter rose from his seat, drew his sword, many others of our old gentry. “ As is the race of being sold in the London market at L.8 per thousand, and marched to the pulpit. Ile seized hold of the leaves, so is that of men,” says the great poet of when they formerly
could be purchased for 10s. and 128. clergyman, and dragged him down. Douglas was Greece. The philosopher will acquiesce in the wis- This high price, added to the scarcity, has caused a slightly wounded, and some blood was shed. The dom of that arrangement of the social system by most astonishing falling off in the demand ; and on an preacher was filled with indignation, and, giving vent which generation succeeds to generation, and family average, the annual importation from Hamburgh and to his feelings on the spot, he prophesied against him to family ; and he will perceive how necessary the Paris is not more than 3,000,000 to 4,000,000--as the the prophecy of Elijah against Ahab --" In the place change of property is for maintaining the healtń and hospitals and other institutions are only enabled to use where thou hast done this, shall dogs lick thy blood, energy of a great and free nation. But however para-them but in cases of the greatest necessity, where bleedeven thine."
mount the views of reason and utility ought to be in ing by the lancet would not be so efficacious. Nothing Time rolled on ; Douglas, getting into trouble with such considerations, there are feelings of melancholy can be of more general use than the leech in a surgical the government, had retired to Holland, and John- interest connected with particular instances, which it point of view, as it can be applied with the greatest ston had forgotten the prophecy. It happened one is good to cherish. Thus, amidst the “glory of Hey- safety to the parts affected, and it is deeply to be la
mented that it is so near becoming extinct. The mode winter, that the Earl of Home had gone to London, don Hall devastated," and the desolate beauty of its
of taking the leech used to give employment to thousands where he tarried long; and his lady, to relieve her grey walls and neglected park, whence have passed of men, women, and children, who entered with their solitude, had invited some of her friends to spend the for ever the warlike prowess of the Homes, and the bare legs into the gentle running streams, and disturbing Christmas holidays with her at Hirsel. Among these gaiety and elegance of the Johnstons, it is well to re the water with a stick, these blood-suckers soon attached were the Laird of Hilton, and his neighbour the Laird | flect that families, no less than individuals, have here themselves to their bleeding legs, when they were inof Ninewells--the latter, it may be remarked, was no continuing city or place of abode. And salutary stantly placed into jars. Many attempts have been ancestor to the celebrated David Hume. These two thoughts will be suggested by the contrast between made to propagate them in reservoirs, but without effect, were playing one evening at cards with Mr William | the changes of many-coloured life which such a spot as they will not breed except in marshy grounds and unHome, the earl's brother, and sheriff of the Merse. has seen, and the goodly spectacle still presented by disturbed running waters. The mortality among the The sheriff had bad luck; he lost a great deal of its noble trees, its green fields, and its beautiful river. peasantry who are engaged in the leech fishery is very money, and he felt as men generally do on such occa But it is needless, in the vein of sentimentalism, to great; not so much from the constant loss of blood, but
the effects of exposure in the unhealthy swamps, thereby sions. Some high words passed, reflections were thrown regret the barbaric splendour of the feudal times, or out, and in this humour they separated for the night. the one-sided civilisation of the ages that followed. causing agues and premature death. Hilton had retired to bed, when suddenly the sheriff | The one and the other have passed away, never to entered his room, with a candle in one hand and a return. Ancient families may fall, splendid houses
BURYING ALIVE. drawn sword in the other. He called on the sleeper may sink into ruins, and the cherished memorials of to rise and give him satisfaction. As Hilton was get- the past may yield to the plastic influence of the
Not many years since, in St Petersburg, a young ting up from his bed, Home ran him through the spirit of the times ; but the spread of knowledge nobleman who had squandered his fortune found his body with his sword, and gave him several other severe among the people, the social progress of the great sister, to whom he had applied
to relieve his wants, wounds. In the mean time, Ninewells, who slept in mass of the community, commercial enterprise, ma
not in the least inclined to sacrifice her patrimony to an adjoining chamber, hearing the noise, came to see nufacturing skill, wise and salutary laws, science, art, his taste for dissipation. As he considered himself what had happened, but was stabbed by the sheriff as and peace—these form the glory of our age, and the her heir, he determined to destroy her, and, with this he entered the room, and instantly expired. The earnest of still brighter days.
view, found means to give her a draught, which was murderer, who had horses at command, immediately
probably intended to kill, but only produced a deep fled. Johnston lingered for a few days, and died.
sleep. The news, through his means, being publicly His remains were put into a temporary coffin, to
IMPORTATION OF FOREIGN LEECHES INTO
circulated that she was dead, he prepared, with all be conveyed to Hutton Hall for interment. On
the external show of the deepest sorrow, for her intheir way to that place, the persons who were
[From the Medical Times, November 19.]
The arrangements being completed, the intrusted with them being overtaken by a storm of It is not generally known, that the leech trade is one of corpse, as is the custom, was placed upon the altar, snow, stopped for a while at Hilton. The coffin, for very great extent in this country, and few people are
and the priest was already in the act of pronouncing greater decency, was put into the church, where the aware from whence this most useful amphibious animal is the last blessing, when one of her friends, who was men waited until the storm should abate. In a short procured, to supply the great demand that is made for it passing through the place, and had been informed of time, they were surprised to observe blood flowing by private patients, as well as the public medical institu- her death, went into the church with the intention from the coffin on the ground. The dogs that accom
tions that abound in this metropolis, and throughout Great of pressing one farewell kiss on her cheek previous to panied them ran forward to the spot, and in spite of Britain. In former ycars, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, and the interment. Hastening to the coffin, she seized all efforts to prevent them, fulfilled the prophecy of but since the letting of blood by means of the lancet has She then touched her cheek, and imagined that she
other fenny counties, were able to supply the demand ; her hand, and found it rather flaccid, but not rigid. Daniel Douglas. The part of this story which relates to Daniel cation of the leech to the injured parts, they have been
been partially exchanged for the more efficacious appli- felt some natural warmth on it. She therefore deDouglas and his prophecy rests only on popular tradi- entirely exhausted. At the conclusion of the peace with
sired that the ceremony should be postponed, to try tion ; but the murder of Johnston is fully related in France, in 1815, several dealers and speculators visited if her friend might not be recalled to life ; but her a letter written at that period by the steward of Lord Paris, where they found leeches were easily to be obtained, request was refused, and neither the brother nor the Derwentwater to his lordship in London, and has and at a moderate price. The herbalists and apothecaries priest would listen to her solicitations, but, on the also been particularised in “ Law's Memorials.” The who supplied the hospitals, used then to purchase them contrary, ridiculed her suggestions, and treated her as writer of that work adds the following note :-“Before in small quantities from the conductors of the Diligences an insane person. In the hurry of her feelings, and his death, he [Mr Home, the murderer) is said to coming from Niort, Tours, Orleans, St Quentin, and other in the anxiety of the moment, she hastily threw herhave returned to Scotland, smitten with remorse, and parts of the interior, not as an article of commerce, but self into her carriage, and drove to the neighbouring anxious to obtain pardon from a near relation of John- only sufficiently to meet their demands. The arrival of seat of government. Here she found a hearing, proston's, then residing in Edinburgh. This gentleman, Englishmen in the French capital soon excited their sus
per persons were appointed to accompany her to inin the dusk of the evening, was called forth to the picions that money was
to be made; and the conductors sestigate the affair, and she returned back with all outside stairs of the house, to speak with a stranger market with John Bull
. At that time they charged only from the day before, and the inhuman brother had
were soon on the qui rive, that they might make a good convenient speed. But the lady had been buried muffled up in a cloak. As he proceeded, along the 10 or 12 francs per thousand, leaving themselves as good already taken possession of her property, while there passage, the door being open, he recognised the mur-profit, as they were able to procure them from the derer, and immediately drawing his sword, rushed santry at 5 or 6 francs. There are various species of leech
were hosts of priests and crowds of suborned witnesses towards him, on which the other nimbly leapt down -the grey or sangsues grises, commonly called the ready to attest th: the unfortunate woman was really from the stairs into the street, and was never again speckled, the green, and the black. The first was the dead ; and as among the Russians it is accounted seen in Scotland.” Lord Fountainhall states, that only one much in use, being the same species as that for- heinous impiety to disinter a corpse, the desire of the the unhappy man was killed in the wars abroad. His merly caught in England, although the green are equally generous friend to satisfy herself, by ocular demonstraname has been omitted from the account of the family as good ; but the bite being more acute than the speckled, tion, of the truth or falsehood of her suspicions, for a in the peerage.
there was a prejudice against them. The black, or horse long time experienced the most violent opposition. The sisters of the last proprietor of Hutton Hall leech, was strongly depreciated by medical men, as it is At length, from some circumstances which transwere distinguished beauties in their day, some fifty considered, rather venomous, and sure to cause inflam- pired, the commissioners of inquiry conceived some years ago. There were four of them. One was Mrs France. The demand from 1815 to 1823 for the London grave, when it was discovered that the lady had been
suspicion of the case, and determined on opening the “Wat ye wha’s in yon town ?' and of whom a por- 10,000,000. This increased call soon made the French buried alive, as her face was much lacerated, and imtrait has been introduced into the work entitled “The conductors and dealers turn the leech into an important pressions of her nails were found on the coffin-lid. Land of Burns.” Like many ladies of that period, article of commerce. From 15 francs they gradually The brother and a priest were then taken into custhey were distinguished for their equestrian skill, and rose to 25, 30, 40, 50, 100, and, at last, by their becom- tody, confessed their crime, and underwent the for their zeal in fox-hunting. Of the true Diana ing exhausted throughout the whole country, to 200 punishment they so richly deserved.--Binns on Sleep. Vernon school, these qualities did not impair their francs. The departments that, in 1815, were so abun
OTHER IRONS IN THE FIRE. grace, their delicacy, and their wit. They all made dant in leeches, are now dried up, and the French themgood marriages. On the wedding-day of one of them, selves are obliged to import them from other countries, Mrs B-desired Dr Johnson to give his opinion of a Lady Baird of Saughton, a tragical incident occurred,
so as to meet the demand for their own consumption. new work she had just written ; adding, that, if it would which must have thrown a mournful shade over the The great cause of this annihilation of the species, not do, she begged him to tell her, for she had other irons marriage festivities. The bridegroom had not arrived whereby millions were destroyed before they came to a
is the over-eagerness of the fishermen to take them, in the fire, and in case of its not being likely to succeed, before the appointed day, and when on the morning state of puberty, being only cocons, or spawn. Such has doctor, after having turned over a few of the leaves,
she could bring out something else." Then,” said the he came to the other side of the Whitadder, which it was necessary for him to cross, the river was in flood. Paris conductors and petty apothecaries, who had but a
been the profit in the leech business, that many of the advise you, madam, to put it where your other irons are." To ford it would have been attended with the utmost few hundred francs, are now independent men, and exdanger ; but the wedding was not to be delayed. A tensive proprietaires, worth L.20,000 to L.30,000 in rope was attached to a boat, which was held by per- funded and landed property.
It is a fact, which must be gratifying to every indi
The deficiency in the vidual who rejoices at the downfall of slavery, that out of sons stationed on the bank. Four domestics of the supply of the leech made the London dealers turn their twenty-six Wesleyan chapels in Sierra Leone, the roofestablishment entered the boat, with directions to attention to Hamburgh, where it was found a great timbers, the flooring, and other wood-work of twenty is shout if there was any danger, when they would be traffic in this useful creature was carried on to a very composed nearly exclusively of slave ships, which have immediately drawn to land. They had rowed to great extent by the Jews : it is, therefore, from that been taken by her majesty's men-of-war on the coast, and about the middle of the stream, when those on shore commercial city that the English market is now supplied condemned by the Mixed Commission Court.- Sierra imagined that they heard the signal which they had through the
expeditious communication by steam. The Leone Watchman. directed to be made. They pulled the rope ; but Hamburgh merchants procure them at a great expense whether from the force of the stream, or from some (as the mortality is very considerable) from Hungary,
CORN-STALK MOLASSES. other cause, the boat upset, and the four men were
Poland, Wallachia, and the borders of Turkey ; but it is By taking off the ear of corn early, the farmers in Indrowned. The story is still current in the neighbour- entirely exhausted throughout Europe. They are caught corn-stalk in considerable quantities--two gallons from
expected that the species will, in a few years hence, be diana ( America) are enabled to make molasses from the hood, as one of the many instances that show how, in Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, and Italy, but of the eight of juice. They are about to try the experiment for in the midst of life, we are in death.
green species only, and so very sickly a constitution, I sugar.-Literary Gazette,
A NEW USE FOR SLAVE-SHIPS.
A YOUNG HERO.
Column for the Boys.
result of an encounter in which their young shipmate which it is made to pass through a series of rollers, by exposed himself to almost inevitable death to direct it which it is compressed, the felting being effected by an from his father!
alternating motion of the upper rollers, while the cloth ABOUT eighty years ago, there lived a little boy in The combat was too unequal, and no refuge re
receives the requisite heat and moisture from steam Ireland, of the name of Volney Beckner, whose heroic mained but in a speedy retreat. Anumber of ropes rollers. The cloth, after passing a second time through
issuing from perforations in pipes placed between the conduct deserves to be commemorated, as a model for were quickly thrown out to the father and the son,
this machine, is transferred to a third, where it is farther young persons. Volney was born at Londonderry, in and they each succeeded in seizing one. They were 1748 ; his father having been a fisherman of that hastily drawn up. Already they were several feet compressed by rollers, which work in a bath of soap and place, and so poor, that he did not possess the means above the surface of the water. Already cries of joy time required for beating it in the fulling-mill is very of giving his son a regular school education. What were heard : " Here they are, here they are-they short compared with that required for woollen cloth. young Volney lost in this respect was in some mea are saved !" Alas! no_they were not saved ! at least After these operations, the cloth is susceptible of any sure compensated by his father's instructions at home. one victim was to be sacrificed to the rest. Enraged degree of finish that may be required, and this by the These instructions chiefly referred to a sea-faring life, at seeing his prey about to escape him, the shark ordinary methods. The manufacture is peculiarly fitted in which generosity of disposition, courage in encoun- plunged to make a vigorous spring; then issuing from for carpets, horse-cloths, and such fabrics as pilot coats, tering difficulties, and a readiness of resource on all the sea with impetuosity, and darting forward like and it can be made at a much less cost than woven cloth. occasions, are the well-known characteristics. While lightning, with the sharp teeth of his capacious - Newspaper paragraph. yet a mere baby, his father taught him to move and mouth he tore asunder the body of the intrepid and guide himself in the middle of the waves, even when unfortunate boy while suspended in the air. A part From my daily habit of riding or walking through the they were most agitated. He used to throw him from of poor little Volney's palpitating and lifeless body retired parts of this country, I am, to a certain extent, the stern of his boat into the sea, and encourage him was drawn up to the ship, while his father and the able to speak of the situation of the labouring poor. It to sustain himself by swimming, and only when he fainting child in his arms were saved.
is, in one respect, superior to that of my own countryappeared to be sinking, did he plunge in to his aid. Thus perished, at the age of twelve years and some
men; inasmuch as, should the cow be wanting, the cradle, was taught to brave the dangers of the sea, in served a better fate. When we reflect on the gene- the English labourers ; but then their wants are fewer, In this way young Volney Beckner, from his very months, this hopeful young sailor, who so well de- large garden-plot and the pig are pretty general among
them. Their wages, it is true, are lower than those of which, in time, he moved with the greatest ease and rous action which he performed, in saving the life of and thus the account is balanced. They make their confidence. At four years of age, he was able to swim his father, and of a girl who was a stranger to him, articles of food go much farther than an English labourer a distance of three or four miles after his father's at the expense of his own, we are surely entitled to does; and what they do gain by their daily labour is vessel, which he would not enter till completely place his name in the very first rank of heroes. But never wasted in intemperance, but spent on their families, fatigued ; he would then catch a rope which was the deed was not alone glorious from its immediate for the real necessaries of life. I am told that some of thrown to him, and, clinging to it, mount safely to the consequences. As an example, it survives to the most their employers give them cider to drink in harvest; but deck.
distant ages. The present relation of it cannot but I confess I have never seen them supplied with it. A When Volney was about nine years of age, he was animate youth to the commission of generous and French labourer, however, having made his repast of placed apprentice in a merchant ship, in which his praiseworthy actions. When pressed by emergencies, either soup or coffee
, is not tormented with thirst, as situation he rendered himself exceedingly useful. In on the heroism of the Irish sailor boy - Volney to be found in a French labourer's cottage, is too true, father appears to have sometimes sailed, and in this let them cast aside all selfish considerations, and think those of our country are, after eating solid and exciting tempestuous weather, when the wind blew with vio- Beckner. lence, tore the sails, and made the timbers creak, and
and there is much suffering from severe weather; so
much so, I am informed, that it is not unusual to see sevewhile the rain fell in torrents, he was not the last in
ral entire families huddled together in one house, to maneuvring. The squirrel does not clamber with more agility over the loftiest trees than did Volney The Drummond light, the Gurney, or Bude light, and avail themselves of the animal heat emanating from their
own bodies. The children of the labouring poor appear along the stays and sail-yards. When he was at the the Boccius light, exclusive of the “Light of All Nations,”
to me to be better dressed than those of our own country. top of the highest mast, even in the fiercest
storm, he hydrogen, the union
of oxygen and hydrogen gas on lime, are the Great Lights of the Age. The first is the oxy
-Nimrod Abroad. appeared as little agitated as a passenger stretched on
THE CROPPING SYSTEM IN FRANCE. a hammock. The little fellow, also, was regardless of oil, a jet of oxygen being introduced by means of a very and at a very high temperature. The second is the oxy
According to the Parisian journals, it appears that the ordinary toils and privations. To be fed with biscuit peculiarly shaped conical jet into the centre of an ordi- wholesale dealers in human hair have had a most sucbroken with a hatchet, sparingly moistened with nary oil-wick Hame; this was perfected, we believe, under cessful harvest this year, not less than 200,000 lb. weight muddy water full of worms, to be half covered with a
the auspices of the Trinity Board, having been intended having been procured. Brittany is the province of France garment of coarse cloth, to take some hours of repose to be used in light-houses, and we have heard it desig- in which the traffic is mostly carried on, and all the fairs stretched on a plank, and to be suddenly wakened at nated to that view by a high authority, as an arrange are regularly attended by purchasers, both male and the moment when his sleep was the soundest ; such ment affording the greatest possible amount of light in female. The Breton peasants have particularly fine hair, was the life of Volney, and yet he enjoyed a robust the smallest possible space. The third is a coal-gas light; and generally in great abundance ; their beautiful tresses constitution. He never caught cold, he never knew and of this we make the chief mention. This light, of they are perfectly willing to sell ; and it is no uncommon fears, or any of the diseases springing from pampered course, is no recent discovery ; it was known so long ago sight to see several girls sheared one after the other like appetites or idleness.
as 1683 ; but since then, what an increase of knowledge sheep, and many others standing ready for the shears, Such was the cleverness, the good temper, and the of the properties of coal-gas has been gained, and what with their caps in their hands, and their long hair combed trust-worthiness of Volney Beckner, that, at his great mechanical improvements have been arranged for out and hanging down to their waists. Every successive
its combustion ! of the latter character is the Boccius crop of hair is tied up into a whisp by itself, and thrown twelfth year, he was judged worthy of promotion in the vessel, and of receiving double his former pay. The light, or, perhaps, more correctly speaking, the Boccius into a large basket,
placed by the side of the operator. gas-lamp. The one set up opposite Northumberland | The highest value given by these abominable hair-mercaptain of the ship on board which he served, cited House, crowned with ugliness, consists of three ring- chants for a fine crop of hair is twenty sous, but the more him as a model to the other boys. He did not even burners, large, lesser, and less, perforated so thickly with frequent consideration is a gaudy but trumpery cotton fear to say once, in the presence of his whole crew, holes, that the flames form, as it were, three leaves of handkerchief, worth about sixteen sous. The profit thus “ If this little man continues to conduct himself with light; these are protected from the lateral currents of netted by these hairmongers must be enormous.-Newsso much valour and prudence, I have no doubt of his air by a glass screen, and are thrown down and around paper paragraph. obtaining a place much above that which I occupy." by a metallic reflector. The illuminating power is very
NAPOLEON'S COMPASS. Little Volney was very sensible to the praises that he considerable. Contemplating the vast establishments, in so well deserved. Although deprived of the advan- the present day, for the manufacture of coal-gas-the French government by a Chevalier Auriol, to which a
A small compass bas lately been offered for sale to the he had received, and his own experience, had opened mechanical and chemical, of the latter especially-Lowe's curious history is attached. This little instrument, which his mind, and he aspired, by his conduct, to win the naphthalised gas, the perfection of artificial light-we is in a plain gilt case, and of English manufacture, was esteem and affection of those about him. He was cannot help reverting to the extent of the knowledge of XVI., by a descendant of Sir Isaac Newton. It appears
first sent, with other astronomical instruments, to Louis always ready and willing to assist his fellow-sailors, to the Royal Society, May 12, 1688, by Mr John Clayton, to the Dauphin, who had it with him in prison, and while
gas and its properties, as mentioned in a letter addressed that it was afterwards given by the unfortunate monarch and by his extraordinary activity saved them in many rector of Crofton, at Wakefield, in Yorkshire, and condangerous emergencies. An occasion at length arrived, trasting the bladders of 1688 'with the gasometers of there gave it to a faithful dependant
who had tried to assist in which the young sailor had an opportunity of per- 1842. Speaking of the thunder in Virginia, and its dread, with Napoleon, and accompanied him to Egypt. There forming one of the most gallant actions on record.
The vessel to which Volney belonged was bound to serious planters, that thirty or forty years ago, when the he happened to show the little compass to Napoleon, who Port-au-Prince, in France, and this voyage bis father country was not so open as now, the thunder was more
admired it, and it was accordingly presented to him. was on board. Among the passengers was a little fierce; and that sometimes, after violent thunder and Napoleon, on returning to France, and having become girl, daughter of a rich American merchant; she
had rains, the roads would seem to have perfect casts of brim- emperor, being, as is well-known, superstitious, set great slipped away from her nurse, who was ill and taking stone ; and it is frequent, after much thunder and light- value on the instrument ; had the letter “N” and his imsome repose in the cabin, and ran upon deck. There, ning, for the air to have a perfect sulphureous smell. perial crown engraved on it, and made use of it in his while she gazed on the wide world of waters around, masters thereof (
meaning the Council of the Society), 1 in St Helena ; and then, either considering it as a useless a sudden heaving of the ship, caused her to become should here consider the nature of thunder, and compare it talisman, or as the best means of acknowledging the disdizzy, and she fell over the side of the vessel into the with some sulphureous spirits which I have drawn from interested kindness of the party, he presented it to sea. The father of Volney, perceiving the accident, coals, that I could no way condense, yet were inflammable; | Madame Auriol; Marshal Soult is now in treaty
with darted after her, and in five or six strokes he caught nay, would burn after they passed through water, and her by the frock. Whilst he swam with one hand to that seemingly fiercer, if they were not overpowered view of placing this
royal and imperial relic among the regain the vessel, and with the other held the child therewith. I have kept some of this spirit a considerable other objects preserved in the Hotel des Invalides, as close to his breast, Beckner perceived, at a distance, time in bladders; and though it appeared as if it were
having been about the person of Napoleon.— Newspuper a shark advancing directly towards him. He called only blown with air, yet if I let it forth, and fired it with paragraph.
HUGE WIRE ROPE. out for assistance. The danger was pressing. Every a match or candle, it would continue burning until all
A friend of ours, who has just returned from Antwerp, one ran on deck, but no one dared to go farther; they were spent."- Derham's Miscel. Curiosa, vol. iii., p. 290. contented themselves with firing off several muskets Mention is farther made of gas in another paper, about informs us that he saw landing on the quays there, from with little effect; and the animal, lashing the sea
the year 1691, sent by the same writer to the Royal So- a vessel arrived from Newcastle, a huge coil of wire rope, with his tail, and opening his frightful jaws, was just facts mentioned by any writer on the subject.-Literary 5300 yards in length, and to weigh twelve tons, and he
ciety; and we do not remember seeing these remarkable which excited much astonishment. It was stated to be about to seize his prey. In this terrible extremity, Gazette.
understood that it had been purchased by the Belgian what strong men would not venture to attempt, filial
government for the celebrated inclined plane on the piety excited a child to execute. Little Volney armed
railway from Antwerp to Liege. It is with pleasure that himself with a broad and pointed sabre ; he threw
At the last meeting of the Society of Arts, a very in we record this instance of the superiority of British himself into the sea ; then diving with the velocity teresting communication was made on a new process of manufacture, as we understand that wire ropes are also of a fish, he slipped under the animal, and stabbed his the manufacture of cloth by felting, in which all the pro- manufactured in Belgium, and have only lately
beeu in. sword in his body up to the hilt. Thus suddenly cesses formerly effected by manual labour are performed, troduced into this country. This rope was made by assailed, and deeply wounded, the shark quitted the and cloth of much greater dimensions can be produced Messrs Newall and Co. of Gateshead, and is the longest track of his prey, and turned against his assailant, 37 yards in length, which receives the thin slivers of wool Dundee. A rope made for the Glasgow railway, of hemp,
The bat of wool is formed by means of a travelling apron, and strongest rope ever made. Mr Newall is a native of who attacked him with repeated lounges of his weapon. from the carding machines ; which process is continued It was a heart-rending spectacle. On one side, the until the slivers are accumulated, one upon another, mile.—Dundee Courier.
is not so long as the one referred to by nearly half a American trembling for his little girl, who seemed throughout the whole length of the apron, in sufficient evoted to destruction ; on the other, a generous numbers to give the degree of substance necessary for the LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by mariner exposing his life for a child not his own; and purpose for which the cloth is intended. The bat is then here the whole crew full of breathless anxiety as to the cut and transferred to a machine called a "hardener," in Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriarth
NEW MANUFACTURE OF CLOTH.
W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF “ CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
" CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c.
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 31, 1842.
Many believe or half believe in this form of divina our mind when awake, according to the ordinary laws THE FUTURE.
tion, who deny all others. Many striking instances of dreaming. We know, awake, that the friend is An inclination to pry into the future seems to be as could be adduced. For example, a widow lady resi- dangerously ill, and have probably imaged the event natural to man, as it is for him to look back to, and dent in Edinburgh, where she was the delight of a of his death. This recurs in sleep, with only this dwell with a mournful interest upon, the past. And brilliant literary circle, spent an evening in the com change, that the event is supposed to have hapmany have been the efforts made, and means adopted pany of her friends previous to the day when she was pened. Or it may even be, that the idea of a probably and put faith in, for bringing before us and realising to pay a visit to a nobleman in the country. Though fatal termination to the illness has only occurred in the events as yet buried in the womb of time, parti- apparently quite well, she left her friends with des- sleep, for such processes of reasoning are within the cularly those which bear upon our own individual in- ponding language upon her lips, saying that she would powers of the mind in that state. The only differterests. The superstitions and quackeries which have never see them again. In about a fortnight, they ence between the conclusion drawn awake and that thus been set on foot amongst mankind, present no heard the sad intelligence of her sudden death at the in the dream is, that, in the latter, the event comes exalted view of our common nature ; but we must not house which she was visiting. This seems a very good before us generally in a more decided manner, with be too ready, on this account, to overlook them. In example of the anecdotes told about what are called images which we shrink from in our ordinary mohistory, they take an important place amongst moving presentiments. The explanation is, that where a real ments, and thus makes a greater impression upon us. and influencing causes, from the days of Roman au feeling exists, it is a physical sensation premonitory On the other hand, the knowledge of an event not gury down to modern fortune-telling. The disregard of the actual event—something perhaps not easily looked for, and which does not come within the ordipaid by a Roman naval commander to the omen of describable, but which is, nevertheless, essentially con- nary range of probability, may at a rare time be acthe sacred chickens refusing to eat, and his throwing nected with the result prognosticated. Though this quired through the medium of a dream; but this can them contemptuously into the sea, proved the cause, lady seemed in perfect health, yet it is not unlikely, only be considered as a mere casual coincidence. Thus, by dispiriting his forces, of his losing a battle ; and since she did die suddenly a few days after, that she had we may dream of a person being drowned whom we Montaigne tells us that the predictions circulated in a dim experience of some sensations betokening what did not know of even being at sea. This may turn favour of Charles V. in Italy, actually terrified a did befall, or perhaps only depressing her spirits and out to be true, and we then conceive that something French commander, who had seemed an honest man, raising melancholy ideas. But in a vast number of supernatural has happened, not taking into account out of his allegiance to his own king; and, by inducing cases there is probably no real feeling, but only a that there are innumerable dreams portending similar him to revolt, nearly caused the loss of an immense casually excited idea, which the mind is too weak at events which prove not to be true, excite but a monumber of fortresses to the enemy. Nor must we the moment to shake off. In the multitude of cases, mentary sensation in the dreamer himself, and are overlook that, though the well educated are generally one now and then proves true, and is criod up as soon forgotten. In the dreams of even a healthy perexempt in our days from these follies, there are still a something wonderful, while the failures are forgotten, son, everything seems confused and distorted, and vast number of persons who either fully believe in the or pass unnoticed. The only way in which presenti hardly a night passes but we connect things together possibility of ascertaining future events by super- ments could be proved as things of possible occurrence, in our dreams in such a manner as we never do in our natural means, or at least have not their minds quite would be to note all the instances of vague apprehen- waking moments. We find ourselves in familiar conmade up to the opposite conclusion.
sions of evil arising in the mind from no observable versation with people we never saw, and who are The most prevalent form of this delusion is that of causes, and ascertain a vast disproportion of the in- totally out of our sphere. We find ourselves in a common fortune-telling, the mention of which almost stances of failure to the instances of realisation ; but church, and see persons in the pulpit the most unlikely induces us to recall what has just been said with re this plan has never yet, as far we are aware, been to take their station there. It is not surprising that, spect to the educated classes ; for we believe the fact adopted.
amongst the infinito variety of improbable circumis, that there never is wanting in London or Paris a A reference from dreams to future events is per- stances continually presenting themselves, it may seer, male or female, who is in the receipt of a large haps amongst the earliest and most natural supersti- happen, at a rare time, that a real event quite unlooked income entirely drawn from the pockets of the tions of mankind. A dream presents a state of things, for may be announced to us. wealthy. The present practitioner in the latter at least as to arrangement, quite different from ordi The kind of vaticination called Second Sight-the capital is a Madame Normand, who not only tells those nary realities ; and as this proceeds from no act of only wonderful thing about which, is its being local to who come before her in person of many wonderful will on our part, but is apparently forced upon our the Scottish Highlands—may be disposed of much in things, but, after the manner of another class of pre- observation, it has been of course presumed that the the same manner. Men of imaginative character and tenders, transmits fortunes by post, a due fee having strange phenomena connected with dreaming must melancholy temperament, living in a solitary manner, previously been transmitted to her. We have been have some meaning. The notion has probably de- and brooding over their own thoughts till the mind assured, upon excellent authority, that a very large rived support in many instances from the ideas of the gets into a morbid state, announce that they see proportion of the trade of this mystic personage is with dreamer being occasionally realised in the manner visions of tragical occurrences happening, or about to the English of the upper classes who visit Paris. It which we shall presently advert to. Happily, the happen ; as, for instance, the perishing of a friend in a seems almost absurd to enter into a reasoning against days are now past when the ladies of a family in the distant boating excursion, or the funeral of one now such delusions ; but we shall merely adduce the middle walks of life would regale themselves every in perfect health. A very common form of such visions pointed argument which has been urged against the morning by a relation of the dreams which they is the person referred to, with a shroud more or less reality of all such pretensions to supernatural know- had experienced during the past night; but a faith drawn up towards his head. Probably such visions ledge ; namely, that, if it were real, the possessor of it in this kind of divination still prevails extensively are in many instances as real as they are alleged to be, might be expected to turn it to account in fund amongst the less educated classes. There is a class of but only so in the natural manner now familiar to speculations, an obviously more rapid and efficient cheap publications, called Dream-books, giving expla- medical men. It is now perfectly understood that, means of acquiring wealth than taking guineas from nations of every kind of dream—as how fire denotes in particular diseased conditions of the mind, its noweak people of fashion. After such examples of cre- sudden news, losing teeth the death of a friend, seeing tions take the form of actual objects of sense, or apdulity, the faith which serving maids place in gipsies a dead horse good luck, and entering into water some pear as a picture before the eyesight. Such is prois not to be wondered at, however much it may be de- impending evil ; these, we can state with confidence, bably the explanation of most cases of alleged second plored. It may be sufficient at present to point out are amongst the most widely circulated of all existing sight. The realisation of the vision is probably an to them the absurdity of expecting fortune from per- books. Probably not two female servants in ten, at occurrence of the same rarity as the realisation of a sons who are themselves so little blessed with it as to an average, wants one in her chest. The folly of all dream, and to be accounted for in the same manner. be in rags and beggary; how easy it is to promise such means of discovering the future is so great, that We hear only of the lucky hits, but never of the much where there is no personal obligation to fulfil the pro we can scarcely condescend to use an argument on the more numerous failures. mises : how much reason there is to suspect only an subject. One, however, being ingenious and appro Having now discussed all the false modes of looking interested motive in such promises ; in one word, the priate, is worthy of being noticed ; namely, that we into the future, let us inquire what are the true, and Vicar of Wakefield's answer to his daughter on being dream less frequently of the living as dead, which is how far we may really, by sound inferences, calculate told that she had given her half-crown to a vagrant an event likely enough to happen, than of the dead upon what is to come. who foretold her marrying a squire, “ You fool, I would being alive, which is impossible. No doubt, a dream It may be pretty safely set down as a general prohave given you an earl for half the money !"
may occasionally be verified, and that in two different position, that man, in possession of his ordinary powers, There is still a considerable inclination to believe ways. For instance, we may dream of the death of a only divines or supposes the future by the light which that a presentiment, or vague consciousness of coming friend who we know is seriously ill ; but this is a mere he derives from experience. From the regularity and evil, occasionally arises in the minds of individuals. I transcript of a series of ideas which has gone through / perseverance of certain occurrences up to this time,