Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach
Appropriate for undergraduate majors and graduate students in marine biology and marine ecology, Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach emphasizes the ecological principles that govern marine life throughout all environments within the world's oceans. Its unique ecological approach adds real-world relevance by exploring how organisms interact within their individual ecosystems. The text is organized by habitat and each habitat receives detailed, in-depth coverage, giving instructors flexibility to focus on their particular areas of interest. The Fifth Edition is fully updated with the latest research data and topics, including expanded coverage of the human impact on oceans, oceanic dead zones, and coral reefs. In addition to Nybakken's engaging writing style, the text now offers enhanced pedagogy with new end-of-chapter summaries, a new four-color design to complement the art program, an art CD-ROM for instructors, and a text specific Companion Web site.
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The total amount of dissolved material is termed the salinity. Marine biologists
and oceanographers in the past usually expressed salinity in terms of parts per
thousand, abbreviated as %o, but the new term is practical salinity units or psu.
Estuaries may be classified in yet another way, depending on the way the salinity
gradients are formed. In most estuaries there is a gradient in salinity from full
seawater (33–37 psu) at the mouth to fresh water at the upper reaches. Fresh
Hones or Decreased river flow 25 psu 20 psu 15 psu B - river Sea I A Low tide Or
Increased –P • B - 25 psu 20 psu 15 psu river flow | A Area of maximum salinity
change l —l- | l l | | —FIGURE 8.3 Change of salinity in an estuary with change in
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H A P T E R
SOME ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
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