Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach
Appropriate for undergraduate majors and graduate students in marine biology and marine ecology, Marine Biology: An Ecological Approach emphasizes the ecological principles that govern marine life throughout all environments within the world's oceans. Its unique ecological approach adds real-world relevance by exploring how organisms interact within their individual ecosystems. The text is organized by habitat and each habitat receives detailed, in-depth coverage, giving instructors flexibility to focus on their particular areas of interest. The Fifth Edition is fully updated with the latest research data and topics, including expanded coverage of the human impact on oceans, oceanic dead zones, and coral reefs. In addition to Nybakken's engaging writing style, the text now offers enhanced pedagogy with new end-of-chapter summaries, a new four-color design to complement the art program, an art CD-ROM for instructors, and a text specific Companion Web site.
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This is in contrast to the benthic realm, which is a general term referring to
organisms and zones of the sea bottom. Horizontally, the pelagic realm can be
divided into two zones. The neritic zone encompasses the water mass that
overlies the ...
1,200 Aphotic K– Dysphotic — Photic 10-11 10-9 10-7 10-5 10-3 10-1 101 103
105 TA B L E 4.1 Deep-Sea Faunal Zones Light Pelagic Zones Depth Range
Benthic Zones Depts Range FIGURE 4.2 Two types of deep-sea sampling gear.
Upper-limit laminarians Equinoctial A = Supralittoral (spray) zone low-water A' =
Supralittoral fringe spring tides B = Littoral zone B' = Midlittoral C = Infralittoral
zone C' = Infralittoral fringe F I G U R E 6.1 1 Stephensons' universal scheme of ...
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H A P T E R
SOME ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
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