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hind limbs into feet or fins. The organs of the external senses are "always two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, the teguments or covering of the tongue, and those of the whole body.
Notwithstanding this general agreement, which might be shown to extend to many more particulars, (especially in internal organization,) in vertebrated animals, they resolve themselves into four elasses, elegantly distinguished by the kind and strength of their inotions, which also depend on the quantity of their respiration, or the structure of the respiratory organs,
In the first of these classes, mammalia, the respiration is effected by the lungs only; in the second, -birds, in addition to the simple respiration of mammiferous animals, they respire through other cabities besides the lungs, the air penetrating the whole body ; in the third class, that of fishes, this function requires the intervenbon of water,—the blood only receiving the portion of oxygen belonging to the air beld in solution by the water ; whereas in reptiles, the last class of vertebrated animals, only a portion of the blood is transmitted to the lungs; the remainder returning to the different parts of the body, without passing through the pulmonary organs.
Hence result the different movements of the four classes of vertebrated animals. Mammiferous animals, in which the quantity of respiration is moderate, are adapted to walk, jump, or run; birds, which have a larger quantity of respiration, to fly; reptiles, in which respiration is feeble, are condemned to crawl, and many of them, to pass a part of their lives in a state of torpor; while fishes, possessing the lowest powers of respiration, are capacitated for moving only in a medium of nearly their own specific gravity.
We shall conclude our illustration of Cuvier's Animal Kingdom, with an account of some of the orders of mammalia. These orders åre based upon the organs of touch, on which depends the degree of ability or address in animals; and on the organs of manducation, which determines the nature of their food, as likewise thé rature of the digestive apparatus. We quote
from Cuvier's own language:
* The degree of perfection of the organs of touch, is estimated by the sumber and the pliability of the fingers, and from the greater or less extent to which their extremities are enveloped by the nail or the hoof. A boof which completely envelops the end of the toe, blunts its sensibility, and renders the foot incapable of seizing. The opposite extreme is tben a pail, formed of one single lamina, covers only one of the faces of the extremity of the finger, leaving the other possessed of all its delicacy.
The nature of the food is known by the grinders, to the form of which the articulation of the jaws universally corresponds, To cut flesh, grinders are required as trenchant as a saw, and jaws fitted like scissors, Vol. VI.
having no other motion than a vertical one. For bruising roots op grains, flat-crowned grinders are necessary, and jaws that have a lateral motion : in order that inequalities may always exist on the crown o these teeth, it is also required that their substance be composed of part of unequal hardness, so that some may wear away faster than others.
Hoofed animals are all necessarily herbivorous, and have flat-crowne grinders, inasmuch as their feet preclude the possibility of their seizio a living prey. Animals with unguiculated fingers, are susceptible o more variety ; their food is of all kinds, and independently of the fora of their grinders, they differ greatly from each other, in the pliabilit and delicacy of their fingers. There is one character with respect this, which has immense influence on their dexterity, and greatly mui tiplies its powers : it is the faculty of opposing the thumb to the finger for the purpose of seizing minute objects, constituting what is proper called å hand; a faculty which is carried to its highest perfection : man, in whom the whole anterior extremity is free and capable prehension.*)
The combinations of these properties give rise to the orders, a follows: bimana, including but a single genus and a single spe cies,-man, characterized by possessing hands at the anterior ex tremities only; the posterior being designed to support him in a erect position: quadrumana, having hands at the four extremities (monkey, ape :) carnaria, not having the thumb free, or capabl of opposition to the anterior extremities : (bat, mole, bear, ca wolf.) Each of the foregoing orders has the three sorts of teeth grinders, canine, and incisors. In the order rodentia, (squirrel beaver, hare,) there are no canine teeth, and the incisors are pla ced in front of the mouth. To these succeed the edentato animals whose toes are much cramped, and deeply sunk in larg nails. They have no incisors, (sloth, armadillo.) The ruminan tia embraces such as have a parted foot, four stomachs, and a the same time are without incisors in the upper jaw, (camel
, deer ox,) etc.
The classes and orders of the other grand divisions, are forme in a similar manner, from the affinities of external and interna conformation. In several of the more comprehensive orders also we have families, or sub-orders, created on the same plan.
Such is a brief sketch of the Animal Kingdom of this distin guished naturalist; carried indeed no farther than the formation the orders in his first class of vertebrated animals. In offering thi grand chart of animal life as the work of Cuvier, it becomes ne cessary, in order to appreciate the service which he rendered to zoology, to glance at the state of this branch of natural history when he commenced his career. He found the system of Aristode variously amended by succeeding naturalists, the reigning mode of classification of animals. This system originally grouped them into two great assemblages, viviparous and oviparous, and created its classes, orders, genera and species, from the consideration of their external form, food, habitations and modes of life. Linheus had apparently given it the highest perfection of which it was capable, by the following arrangement of its classes -1. Mammalia, warm, red blooded animals, with a double heart, (i. e. with an organ containing two great cavities, or ventricles, and two smaller ones, or auricles.) 2. Aves, warm and red blooded animals, with a double heart, oviparous. 3. Amphibia, cold red blooded animals, with a single heart. 4. Pisces, cold red blooded animals, with a single heart. 5. Insecta, cold white blooded animals, with an imperfect heart, and having antennæ. 6. Vermes, differing from insects, by having tentacula instead of antenna. In this arrangement, Cuvier found the naturalists of his time every where acquiescing, as the ideal of system in zoology. His youthful researches, however, while yet a private tutor in Normandy, were sufficient to subvert completely the whole fabric, consecrated as it was in its origin, and the touches it had "Teceived from a long succession of the first masters in science. Who that might have beheld this young man, strolling upon the sea-shore of that remote province, picking up limpets and muscles, could have anticipated from such a source the permanent foundation of zoological classification! And yet his early investigations, which fixed the limit of the mollusca, crustacea, insects, worms, echinodermata, and zoophytes, constituted the arch upon which the whole superstructure rose.
* Animal Kingdom, translated by H. M'Murtrie, p. 47, et seq.
From these humble, though nice observations, the laws of animal organization appear to have suggested themselves to his thoughts, in a manner that reminds us of the discovery respecting the doctrine of gravitation. But though, in both cases, light dawned from an unexpected source, still the clue only was obtained : and, as in the one instance, ils author was compelled to seek the verification of his theory in a patient course of mathematical calculations ; so, too, in the other, was Cuvier obliged, in order to secure the consistency of his system, to carry the scalpel through the entire series of life.
Nor was it the great groups of animal beings, merely, that required a new principle of association, in order to comprehend their nature; the genera and species were every where in confusion. The species had not been collected into genera, conformably to the intitate nature of animals ; so that, in numerous instances, no general proposition, relative to the structure of a genus, could be advanced. Hence, Cuvier was called to examine all the species, in order to be assured whether they really belonged to the genera into which they had been thrown.' In the prosecution of this labor,
many new species, and even genera, were discovered. His situation, indeed, favored the undertaking in the highest degree possible. The Garden of Plants contained the most extensive menagem rie in existence, and the museum of that princely establishment embraced a vast collection of preserved animals, (requiring a suite of fifteen rooms for their disposition,) almost wholly formed under the direction of Cuvier. To these resources, we may also add the me advantages which he enjoyed in the labors of numerous learned associates.
The result of these advantages and labors, is an exhibition of the animal kingdom, with its groups, from the highest to the lowest : assemblages, established throughout in a parallel manner, upon iu. ternal and external structure; which, besides furnishing the natun ralist a plan, in accordance with which he would wish to contem plate the subjects of the animal kingdom, is capable of being used by anatomists and surgeons, who require to know beforehand, (whet any problem of human anatomy or physiology is to be solved,) to me what orders of animals they must direct their inquiries, in order to fulfill these conditions.
In leaving this principal labor of Cuvier, it is sufficient to add, that the learned, throughout the world, have expressed an undivided voice upon the success of the undertaking. La Règne animal distribué d'apres son organization, has every where be. come the basis of zoological study, and all the great collections in every country are arranged conformably to its pages.
But, as we have reached the limits assigned us in the present number, we reserve our notice of his other works, together with an account of his private character, to present to our readers on future occasion.
X.-MEMOIR OF Rev. ELIAS CORNELIUS.
Boston : Perkins
Memoir Rev. Elias Cornelius. By B. B. EDWARDS,
The value of a man's life, and of the influence which he exerts in the world, is measured by the amount of his useful labors. Whether these are performed in a longer or shorter space of time, is not in itself a matter of important inquiry. Some persons, in the early development and vigorous action of their powers, accomplish as much in a few brief years, as others of slower intellectual growth, and feebler or more prudent application, effect during the longest life. Many, who appeared to be extraordinary specimens of human nature, and were as full of promise in respect to the future, as they had been of performance in time past, have died in early or in middle life. Perhaps the world has to lament the loss of an
auusually large proportion of such characters. This, if it be a fier
, as we think it is, may be accounted for by the lavish expendifure of strength, in which such spirits are apt to indulge; by the marelessness or indifference with which they confront dangers; by the tendency of strenuous and unremitted toil to engender disease; or by the sovereign arrangements of divine wisdom, which may determine that the burden of life is to be thrown off, the sooner its great work is finished. Still, we think there are reasons why a long life is to be sincerely desired, on the part of those who are engaged in important labors, and who are qualified to do good. We think there are reasons why it should be carefully sought in such cases, in submission to the will of God. They who do much good In a short time, would do more in a longer. It is on this account, that we always lament the death, especially the early death, of a great and good man. We lament it, not for his own sake, but for that of others. We are disposed to reflect, how much more benefit be might have conferred on his fellow-men, had he lived longer, and what need the world has of his services. Besides, not a small pumber of years is, in most instances, necessary for a full expansion of the human faculties, and for giving a certain strength and consisteney to the character. The completion of great designs, also, requires such a prolongation of life. The imperishable monument is reared only by long labor, and often repeated strokes. Had Sir Isaac Newton died as young as Alexander M. Fisher, although many of his works were projected in early life, yet, wanting time to perfect them, would he have filled the space in the admiration of mankind that he now does? Or who knows but that the difference between these persons, in renown, is constituted only by the adtantage of years? Had the ministerial life of Whitefield been as short as that of Spencer, he might not have stood in reputation to this day, as the most successful and eloquent of English preachers. The latter might have been the more celebrated character. Suppose Howard to have been cut off, like Ashmun, a few years after the commencement of his philanthropic labors; the imprescon made by those labors would have been slight, compared with what it now is. Or only suppose the American philanthropist's devotion to Africa to have been protracted through a long life ; its effects on that unhappy portion of the globe, might have furnished the history of its redemption. Payson died at the age of forty-seven ; not old, indeed, but a little past his meridian : and Worcester Handerson died while yet a very young man, preparing for the ministry. But who shall say, that a youth, who, upon his conversion, formed the extraordinary purpose, tbat," if possible, he would not allow of one sin, nor one degree of imperfection, would not in the same number of years, have shone a light in the American churches, as pure and brilliant as that which encircles