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vis prayers, his daily spirit and conversation, exlibited a melowness and richness of character, fit for heaven. He was never orward to speak of his private exercises of religion ; but there were some expressions which incidentally dropped from him, in he free moments of christian intercourse, that will be remembered. l'o a brother in the ministry, on one of these occasions, he said, *I pray more than I used to.” To the same brother, at another time, he remarked, that for several years he had been in the babit of reading and meditating on the scriptures, in connection with his prayers in secret, and in such portions as to go through the whole once in a year; that formerly he made use of commentaries for this purpose, but having read several commentaries in this way, be now read the bible alone. To another christian brother, he lately said, “ I observe, more than I formerly did, a correspondence between my own state of feeling and that of my people: and to another, who asked him what posture he took in secret prayer, he replied with much earnestness, “ O, I get down,-clear down on my knees ;-that's the place for a sinner." For several weeks previous to his death, though oppressed and enfeebled with a cold seated more immediately upon his lungs, lis labors were constant. Besides the ordinary services of his own parish, he attended several protracted meetings, and preached with his usual fervency and power; and among his last and most useful labors, he preached in a village of his parish, two or three miles from home, where the Spirit of God was powerfully manifest, five successive evenings, and spent the intervening days in conversation from house to house. It was in a revival that he first “ the Lord” by faith ; and it was from the joy and refreshment of a revival, that he went to see him face to face. On Friday, April 18, he was seized with a fever ; but not till about the middle of the next week, was it considered alarming. Then it was but 100 manifest, that the disease which had so long been lingering in his system, was as a fire pent up, till it breaks out and fills the house. Medical applications had no power to arrest it. This he himself perceived, and for two days lay meekly composed, waiting

On Thursday, a neighboring brother in the ministry having been informed of bis illness, called to see him; to whose inquiries, in his own concise and emphatical manner, he gave ready answers, until, on account of his intense pain, the conversa tion was discontinued. A part of it was substantially as follows :“Do you now find that gospel which you have so long preached, supporting to you?” I do; I find it just what I have always believed it to be?” “Have you now a comfortable experience of that religion which you trust you embraced in your youth?” “I have. Christ is precious to the young christian.” “Can you now, in the prospect of leaving your wife and people, and going

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into the grave and eternity, say, 0 death, where is thy sting: 0 grave, where is thy victory ?”

I can." About the same time, at his request, he was left alone with his wife ; and having affectionately spoken of their manner of life together, and told her all that was in his heart, he expressly, and with great solemnity, surrendered himself and her to God. Hand in hand, he gave her up to God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, declaring his trust in this God as his God, and his hope of meeting her in the presence of His glory. In answer to her inquiry, Whether he was desirous of departing ? he said, Willing, rather than desirous. It has been in my heart to live and labor with you twenty years longer, among this dear flock; but I am willing to depart.” The evening before his death, he poured out his soul, faltering for breath, and gathering up all his strength, in a prayer of most peculiar fervency, first for his wife, and then for the church of his care, and for the lambs of the flock;" referring, as was supposed, to the new converts among bis people. Even in death, as almost from his birth, he desired to sing, requesting one who stood by to take the lcad, and not being fully understood, he attempted alone ; but finding his strength insufficient, he was satisfied with having a portion of scripture read. Through the night, the whispers of his soul, when the power of utterance was gone, were, it was believed, the whispers of prayer. “Some bright anticipations of heaven,” too, he had spoken of, while he could speak, but “they were of short continuance." Early Friday morning, April 25th, he sweetly breathed his last. His funeral was attended on the next Monday, amidst the bursting grief of a large concourse of ministers, and other friends, from the adjoining towns, together with the bereaved church and people of his charge. Few persons have ever witnessed a more deep and general expression of sorrow, than was manifested by that people, when, for the last time, they hung upon those lips that were to speak no more. " The memory of the just is blessed."

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ART. IX.-PHRENOLOGY.

4 System of Phrenology. By GEORGE COMBE, late President of the Phronological Society. Second American, from the third Edinburgh edition. Boston: 1834.

Lectures on Phrenology ; delivered before the Young Men's Association for Mutual

Traprovement, of the city of Albany. By Amos Dean. Albany: 1834. Observations on Mental Derangement; being an application of the principles of Parenology to the elucidation of the causes, symptoms, nature, and treatment of insanity. By ANDREW COMBE, M. D. Boston : 1834.

The new and imposing attitude which phrenology has assumed in this country, since the landing of Dr. Spurzheim upon our shores, two years ago, and the extraordinary interest which it is awakening in the minds of the American people,--an interest which is evinced, and may be measured, by the floods of pbrenological books which the press is continually pouring in upon us, must be our apology, (if any is needed,) for devoting a few pages to a consideration of the subject.

The first on the list of works placed at the head of this article, is one of high standing and authority, and probably gives the fairest and fullest exhibition of phrenology, as it now exists, of any single work extant. Its author is a man of talents, an accomplished scholar, a powerful and engaging writer, and apparently a warm friend of truth, morality, and religion; and he has doubtless done more, as a writer, to make the phrenological doctrines extensively popular, among those who speak the English tongue, than any other individual, living or dead. The volume in question, we notice, is a copy-right work ; Mr. Combe himself having " revised and enlarged” it for the American press. By the way, four dollars is an exorbitant price for an ordinary octavo like this, eren although it contain a few wood cuts, and two lithographic plates.

The " Lectures,” by Mr. Dean, a young lawyer of Albany, of genius and promise, were published as an elementary work on the subject of which they treat. Though professedly a compilation, in great part, for the use of learners, the volume contains many original thoughts, or at least novel views, interspersed here and there, strongly and sometimes felicitously expressed. Mr. Dean has evidently a vigorous mind, but it needs chastening. We might suggest to him, perhaps, some trifling improvement in point of style and manner.

There is in his book, sometimes, an apparent straining after effect. We occasionally meet with a tautology, an inaccuracy of expression, and the introduction of new-coined and barbarous words, which hasty composition ought not to excuse.

The volume on " Mental Derangement,” is by Dr. Combe, brother of the above named Mr. George Combe, and author of a

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Vol. VI.

valuable little work on “ The Principles of Physiology, applied to the preservation of health, and to the improvement of physical and mental education;" recently re-published by the Harpers, as a part of the “ Family Library.” A considerable part of the volume before us, is devoted to an able discussion of some of the fundamental principles of phrenology. This part of it, in particular, we would fain persuade the general reader, who is in pursuit of truth on a topic of no little interest, candidly and attentively to peruse. If the arguments and facts there advanced, to establish a favorite point, do not convince, they will at least tend to cure the flippancy of ignorance, and to beget the respect

of wise men.

Phrenology is a child of recent birth,--the offspring of the present inquiring and revolutionary age. It began its existence, as an infant, in the latter part of the last century, in Germany. During its early childhood, it was under the fostering care of its parent, Dr. Gall, a physician of Vienna ; but in 1804, while yet a mere stripling, unfriended and unknown, it fell under the joint charge of Dr. Gall and a fellow-German, Dr. Spurzheim. Under the protection, and by the extraordinary efforts, of these two toilsome and indefatigable mnen, it has grown to something like the stature if not the strength of manhood. It can now, after parental care has been withdrawn,--when the guardians of its minority have been removed by death, not only stand alone, as its friends declare, but can walk, and defend itself, and even beat its enemies. Indeed, it is at this moment about to perambulate the earth, and aims at no less than the subjugation and conversion of the world ; at least, so its adınirers proclaim.

Phrenology, ever since its first promulgation, has never failed to receive from many, of all classes, the most determined opposition. It has been combated by reason, by ridicule, and by assertion; by every means, foul and fair, which promised success : while on the other hand, it has been defended with all the enthusiasm, the energy and the perseverance, which recent conversion, novelty of opinion, consciousness (deceptive ?) of strength, and the hope of final triumph, never fail to impart. Despite of its foes, it has made numerous proselytes in every civilized country, and has recently gained a footing upon our own soil. It is still extending its dominion, and probably at the present moment, enrolls among its friends and advocates, greater numbers than at any former period. Nor has it numbers merely in its favor, as has sometimes been asserted, but also much decided talent. It is vain, we suspect, it is affectation to contend at this day, that phrenology is unworthy of examination,—that it deserves to be met by ridicule, and not by sober argument. Ridicule was exhausted upon it while yet in its swaddling clothes, and, it must

be confessed, most signally failed. Much more will it prove inadequate now, when this bantling of Gall has not only left the nursery, but has gone forth a giant, (as it is claimed,) or at any rate, with a powerful body of devoted followers at its command,a body, strong in some of the positions which it occupies, and not altogether unskilled in the tactics of controversy.

We strongly suspect, then, that this philosophical beresy, (if it is heresy,) must be put down by arguments and facts, if put down at all. It is not to be crushed in the ordinary method of combating delusion. Its advocates, though somewhat given to vaunting, and the other arts of quackery, are, as they claim to be, a sturdy, fearless and unwearied set of men. Taunts and jeers are to them as the idle wind. Anathema and declamation they regard not. The flippancy, dogmatism and impudence of reviewers,--that class of men who pronounced Byron, and Southey, and Wordsworth, no poets,—do not move them. They have been disciplined by hard labor and adversity. They never get discouraged. In their own language, they seem to have the organ and faculty of hope in a state of extraordinary development; for in the darkest times, they appear to retain their buoyancy of spirits, and the hope of success. When those great organs of criticism and popular sentiment, the British reviews, came thundering down upon them, threatening annihilation in their own merciless and unrivalled way, nothing disheartened, they boldly faced the storm, and passed through it uninjured. In fact, they seemed to be refreshed and inspirited by the shower. The bolts hurled at their heads passed by them unheeded; or, striking against their impenetrable helmets, (some would perhaps declare their skulls to be their helmets !) were shivered into a thousand fragments. Where the arrows of opposition are flying thickest, there, in the true spirit of knight-errantry, they appear most ambitious to be found. When, in 1815, the Edinburgh Review declared its intention to quarter and hang up the obnoxious sect in question, for the finger of scorn to point at, and actually began the dissection in no very mincing way; the great apostle of phrenology, (Dr. Spurzheim,) was seen forthwith to take up his march for the metropolis of Scotland, a human brain in one hand, and a yard-stick in the other, apparently determined to beard the lion in bis den, (a purpose which was most scientifically executed, according to the opinion of his friends.)

The leading and fundamental principles of phrenology, may be conveniently embraced under the following heads. First, The mind is dependent, in this life, upon organization, and more particularly upon the brain, as its special organ. Secondly, The faculties are innate. Thirdly, The brain is a congeries of organs, each organ being the appropriate instrument of a fundamental faculty.

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