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pratiling child in rearing cob-houses. But why is its direction so entirely different in the different orders and races of intelligences? Why should the same cause produce such different effects? Why does it prompt foxes to dig holes, spiders to weave webs, swallows to form nests, and men to do every thing, from “the making of pens and sharpening of razors,” to the raising of temples and the building of ships of war? If brute animals which construct, all have one particular or common endowment, that impels them so to do, why should each species construct after one uniform pattern, and after no other, when numerous patterns which might be selected, would answer all the purposes for which they build, equally well? If the honey-bee and the humble-bee have the same faculties, and of course the same capacities, and are both exquisitely skillful workmen, how happens it, that the first never gives, and is utterly unable to give, his habitation the form of that of the second, and the second his babitation the form of that of the first ? Surely, the skill which is demanded in the one case, is equal to that demanded in the other. Can the phrenologist answer these questions, even with the help of so convenient a faculty as “constructiveness?" And if such a faculty explains nothing, why suppose it to exist ?
We might make many other objections, of the same general nature, to the phrenological classification of the faculties. But we have perhaps said enough already, to prove and illustrate our remark, that it is imperfect and inconsistent with itself; which is all that we intended to do. Phrenologists, as a general rule, seem to be far better physiologists than metaphysicians,-more acute in observation, than logical or profound in reasoning. Hence, they are often egregious blunderers in the more abstract parts of their science. We have already allowed them to have a legitimate claim to the title of philosophers; but they have nevertheless spoken and written much wretched philosophy. In order to evince the truth of this assertion, it would be only necessary to quote what Mr. George Combe (the ablest of his tribe,) has said in his system, about “the functions of the five external senses."
But, were the phrenological classification of the mental powers the best, all tbings considered, which the world has ever known ; it does not follow, as a consequence, that every other classification must be worthless, or fanciful, or absurd, as phrenologists seem to think. The truth is, mental phenomena have different resemblances and relations, which may lay the foundation of different arrangements, all of which may be correct, and, for particular purposes, highly convenient. In the physical world, we classify substances according to their chimical constitution, or their sensible properties, or their uses, or their relations in place or time ; and in so doing, we may proceed in each case philosophically. What,
in this respect, is proper in reference to matter, is likewise proper in reference to mind. Suppose phrenologists, by pursuing a particular method of study and analysis, have ascertained, that the mind is made up of thirty-five elementary faculties, as the material world is (say) of sixty elementary substances: are there not other modes of viewing things, and prosecuting an inquiry, which will lead to other modes of arrangement? It should be recollected, that elements, as well in the universe within, as in the universe without, operate upon each other, and combine in many different ways, and are related to one another, as cause and effect, etc. By observing the manner in which these combine with, and succeed, and inAuence each other, we arrive at a knowledge of fundamental laws or principles, which themselves require to be classified. These principles it has always been a chief object of philosophy to ascertain, but which Gall and bis followers have almost entirely neglected. They throw new light upon the whole domain of mental and physical science, linking together, as it were, ideas and objects which seemed before widely separated and unrelated. There are two such principles, one in the mental and another in the physical world, which, in their respective systems, are co-extensive and allpervading in their influence. These are association and gravitation.
The above considerations lead us to notice, more particularly,one of the signal defects of phrenology. What should we think of that natural philosopher, who, when he had acquainted us with the existence of the elements of matter, and given them names, perhaps, should claim, that he had given us a perfect system of philosophy ? Could we be said to know much of the material universe, when we were ignorant of attraction, electricity, magnetism, and such like important principles,—when we knew nothing of cause and effect, or of matter as it exists in time? And can we be said to understand any more of the universe of mind, when we are only acquainted with the existence and names of its elementary faculties, when we are totally in the dark about the order and manner in which these faculties influence and succeed one another and unite,—when we are entirely uninformed of all that relates to mental causation, to mind as a series of phenomena, or to mind as it exists in time? And yet, phrenology leaves us in nearly this predicament,-a truly benighted state. It says nothing of cause and effect. It says nothing of the grand and all-pervading principle of association. It gives us a mere skeleton, as it were, without life and without motion. We want, that phrenologists should instruct us about the dynamics of mind. Let them show us the forces which act upon it, and the laws of its movements. Until they attempt this, they leave unexplored the most curious and important department of mental science.
ART. III.-THE POWER OF HOLINESS IN THE CHRISTIAN
No man, who contemplates the history of this nation, or who understands the power of one mind over another, can doubt, that the ministry of the gospel is to have a vast influence in this country. We deem it our duty, therefore, to urge upon our readers, elevated views respecting the design of the appointment of christian ministers, the proper qualifications for the office, and the necessity of increased efforts to extend the blessings of an educated and devoted ministry, to all the cities, towns and villages of our vast republic. In this article we propose, therefore, to illustrate as we may be able, the power of holiness in the christian ministry.
Knowledge is power; and the history of nations has been little more than an exhibition of this power, at the expense of the weak and the ignorant. Early in the history of man, the Chaldean advanced beyond his cotemporaries in the science of astronomy, science easily perverted to astrology, and the occult art of magic; and a vast system of jugglery and necromancy was established over all the east.
The power of civilized nations over barbarous ones, is now every where felt and acknowledged. Hordes of barbarians are easily vanquished by a well-disciplined military band, and a knowledge of arts and arms gives to comparatively feeble physical strength, mighty power over the savage portion of mankind. The conquest of Mexico and Peru, was the effect of the superior knowledge of the Spaniard, combined with ambition and the love of gold; and this continent has been subdued, and its mighty native tribes have disappeared, because the European had advanced beyond them in science and the arts.
But holiness is also power. God rules the universe of mind, not by physical power, but by boliness. In all unfallen worlds, the power of his holiness is felt; and the moral influence of his justice and goodness, bis purity and love, serves to bind that universe in order. Physical power is necessary to restrain and bind the wicked; but the universe of pure mind may be confederated and controlled by the conviction of the infinite purity of God. The pervading impression of the presence of an all-perfect Being, every where inspiring confidence,-of a God of holiness, who cannot err, and in whose government all interests are safe,- shall bind that universe in perfect harmony and peace.
Its power is not less than that of knowledge: its conquests in our world shall yet be not less extensive, and its omnipotence not less deeply felt on mind, and on the destinies of nations, than knowledge has been. United with intelligence, it is destined, with the divine blessing, to revolutionize the world. Its power jas been felt in changing nations ; in conquests, not like those of Pizarro, but of peace; in an influence, not like that which man puts forth, when he makes a descent on unoffending Africa, to bind its innocent inhabitants, and consign them to slavery, because he has superior knowledge joined to superior wickedness; but in an influence, that shall restrain the impetuous passions of men,-an influence, that shall call forth their active energies, that shall break up combinations of wickedness, that shall demolish the strong ramparts of superstition, and that shall revolutionize nations.
In order to illustrate this, we may inquire, why it has been undervalued, even by ministers of the gospel ? One reason is, that it has been extensively regarded as adapted only to weak minds. Whether it has been supposed, that comparatively few men of dazzling and splendid genius have been christians; or, whether the mildness and meekness of the gospel have been mistaken for imbecility of intellect and meanness of spirit; yet certain it is, that the world has regarded eminent piety as adapted only to feebleness of mental powers. Another reason is, that science is encompassed by all that is brilliant, splendid, and attractive to the young mind. Arts and arms have been held up to universal admiration. The eloquence and poetry of the world have been employed, to give fascination to the conquests of the warrior, and to the achievements of science.
The world has had an interest in keeping its great objects of ambition before the mind, and in disparaging the power of holiness. What piety could do, has been uncelebrated or unsung, or often celebrated in homely strains, that have not enlarged men's conceptions of its power. Another reason is, that there is a prevalent impression among young men, that humble piety bas a tendency to quench the fires of genius; to wither the intellectual powers; to destroy independent thinking; to annihilate true manliness of soul; and to produce imbecility of effort, and meanness of spirit. Young men with difficulty are so brought to understand christianity, as not to suppose, that it was intended to cramp and enseeble the native vigor of intellect. When they look for scenes of enterprise, and activity, and mighty effort, they contemplate the doings of ambition, or the achievements of science. When they think of weakness, imbecility, and want of energy, they think of them in connection with the christian religion. Infidelity appears to them bold and manly, in comparison with the fear of God. And religion, to their view, is not adapted to call forth, but rather to check and restrain talent; or at all events, merely to form to mildness and amiableness of manners. Splendid deeds, such as become splendid talents, they think are reserved for the pursuits of the world; and talent, if ever called forth, is to be in connection with some enterprise of gain or ambition. The most dazzling and imposing talent of the world, has been exhibited in the way of sin, and the most splendid rewards of enterprise, in view of such minds, have arisen fron such exhibitions.
That such views should have some influence on persons who are preparing for the ministry, will not be a matter of surprise to those who are acquainted with the mind of man. It is usually a work of years, to lay aside the hopes of distinction which we have long cherished, and to fix our anticipations in our work, mainly on the conquests which holiness can make. Like others, ministers are trained in schools extensively under the influence of motives drawn from the hope of eminence. Like others, they may hope to rise high in the estimation of the world. The creations of genius may be as attractive to them as to others; the walks of literature may be as fascinating, and the desire of eminence in the literary world may have as many charms for them, by nature, as for the most enthusiastic and devoted aspirant for public applause. It is probable, that no small part of the education of young men who are preparing for the ministry, bas been conducted under the influence of principles, appealing not to their piety, but to their ambition ; or at best, has been an education, where the hope of distinction and the hope of doing good, have been mingled in not very equal or desirable proportions. The transition from such a place to the preparation for the ministry, where the only and the sufficient appeal for calling forth the intellectual and active powers, should be, the desire to honor God, and to make the most of mind in his service, is often very great. It might be an investigation very melancholy in its result, to go through even a theological seminary, and take an impartial admeasurement of the energy which is put forth under the influence of some sort of ambition, the love of literary excellence, or of distinction in sacred learning, or of eloquence, compared with the powers called forth with the definite desire to glorify God in the salvation of souls. Youth does not soon lay aside the hope of distinction among men ; and genius and talent, even in consecrated walls, do not easily acquire the subdued lessons of heavenly wisdom, or early learn, that the gospel has higher power in summoning forth the dormant energies of the human mind, than the most dazzling crowns, or the most splendid distinctions, which the world can bestow.
Piety often derives a peculiar cast and complexion from external circumstances. Essentially the same, indeed, at all times, yet it partakes in its leading features of the prevalence of philosophical systems, and of the habits of thinking among men. Christian piety is retiring : it has often been the subject of unsparing and unrelenting severity, and it has often suffered itself to be molded